Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Jocund [ Latin jocundus , jucundus , orig., helpful, from juvare to help. See Aid .] Merry; cheerful; gay; airy; lively; sportive.

Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops.
Shak.

Rural sports and jocund strains.
Prior.

-- Joc"und*ly adverb -- Joc"und*ness , noun

Jocund adverb Merrily; cheerfully. Gray.

Jocundity noun [ Latin jocunditas jucunditas . See Jocund , and confer Jucundity .] The state or quality of being jocund; gayety; sportiveness.

Joe noun See Johannes .

Joe Miller [ From Joseph Miller , a comic actor, whose name was attached, after his death, to a popular jest book published in 1739.] A jest book; a stale jest; a worn-out joke. [ Colloq.]

It is an old Joe Miller in whist circles, that there are only two reasons that can justify you in not returning trumps to your partner's lead; i. e., first, sudden illness; secondly, having none.
Pole.

Joe-Pye weed (Botany) A tall composite plant of the genus Eupatorium ( E. purpureum ), with purplish flowers, and whorled leaves.

Jog (jŏg) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jogged (jŏgd); present participle & verbal noun Jogging (-gĭng).] [ Middle English joggen ; confer W. gogi to shake, and also English shog , shock , v.]


1. To push or shake with the elbow or hand; to jostle; esp., to push or touch, in order to give notice, to excite one's attention, or to warn.

Now leaps he upright, jogs me, and cries: Do you see
Yonder well-favored youth?
Donne.

Sudden I jogged Ulysses, who was laid
Fast by my side.
Pope.

2. To suggest to; to notify; to remind; to call the attention of; as, to jog the memory.

3. To cause to jog; to drive at a jog, as a horse. See Jog , intransitive verb

Jog intransitive verb To move by jogs or small shocks, like those of a slow trot; to move slowly, leisurely, or monotonously; -- usually with on , sometimes with over .

Jog on, jog on, the footpath way.
Shak.

So hung his destiny, never to rot,
While he might still jog on and keep his trot.
Milton.

The good old ways our sires jogged safely over.
R. Browning.

Jog noun
1. A slight shake; a shake or push intended to give notice or awaken attention; a push; a jolt.

To give them by turns an invisible jog .
Swift.

2. A rub; a slight stop; an obstruction; hence, an irregularity in motion of from; a hitch; a break in the direction of a line or the surface of a plane. Glanvill.

Jog trot , a slow, regular, jolting gait; hence, a routine habit or method, persistently adhered to. T. Hook.

Jogger noun One who jogs. Dryden.

Jogging noun The act of giving a jog or jogs; traveling at a jog.

Joggle transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Joggled ; present participle & verbal noun Joggling .] [ Freq. of jog .]


1. To shake slightly; to push suddenly but slightly, so as to cause to shake or totter; to jostle; to jog.

2. (Architecture) To join by means of joggles, so as to prevent sliding apart; sometimes, loosely, to dowel.

The struts of a roof are joggled into the truss posts.
Gwilt.

Joggle intransitive verb To shake or totter; to slip out of place.

Joggle noun [ Arch.] A notch or tooth in the joining surface of any piece of building material to prevent slipping; sometimes, but incorrectly, applied to a separate piece fitted into two adjacent stones, or the like.

Joggle joint (Architecture) , a joint in any kind of building material, where the joining surfaces are made with joggles.

Johannean (jo`hăn*nē" a n) adjective Of or pertaining to John, esp. to the Apostle John or his writings. M. Stuart.

Johannes (jo*hăn"nēz) noun [ New Latin , from Greek ..., Hebrew Yĕhōkhānān , Yōkhānān , i. e., one whom Jehovah has blessed; hence French Jean , English John .] (Numis.) A Portuguese gold coin of the value of eight dollars, named from the figure of King John which it bears; -- often contracted into joe ; as, a joe , or a half joe .

Johannisberger noun [ G.] A fine white wine produced on the estate of Schloss (or Castle) Johannisberg , on the Rhine.

John (jŏn) noun [ See Johannes .] A proper name of a man.

John-apple , a sort of apple ripe about St. John's Day. Same as Apple-john . -- John Bull , an ideal personification of the typical characteristics of an Englishman, or of the English people. -- John Bullism , English character. W. Irving. -- John Doe (Law) , the name formerly given to the fictitious plaintiff in an action of ejectment. Mozley & W. -- John Doree , John Dory . [ John (or French jaune yellow) + Doree , Dory .] (Zoology) An oval, compressed, European food fish ( Zeus faber ). Its color is yellow and olive, with golden, silvery, and blue reflections. It has a round dark spot on each side. Called also dory , doree , and St. Peter's fish .

John's-wort noun See St. John's-wort .

Johnadreams noun A dreamy, idle fellow. Shak.

Johnny noun ; plural Johnnies
1. A familiar diminutive of John .

2. (Zoology) A sculpin. [ Local cant]

Johny Crapaud a jocose designation of a Frenchman, or of the French people, collectively.

Johnnycake (-kāk`) noun A kind of bread made of the meal of maize (Indian corn), mixed with water or milk, etc., and baked. [ U.S.] J. Barlow.

Johnson grass [ Named after W. Johnson of Alabama, who planted it about 1840-1845.] (Botany) A tall perennial grass ( Sorghum Halepense ), valuable in the Southern and Western States for pasture and hay. The rootstocks are large and juicy and are eagerly sought by swine. Called also Cuba grass , Means grass , Evergreen millet , and Arabian millet .

Johnsonese noun The literary style of Dr. Samuel Johnson , or one formed in imitation of it; an inflated, stilted, or pompous style, affecting classical words. E. Everett.

Johnsonian adjective Pertaining to or resembling Dr. Johnson or his style; pompous; inflated.

Johnsonianism noun A manner of acting or of writing peculiar to, or characteristic of, Dr. Johnson . [ Written also Johnsonism .]

Join (join) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Joined ; present participle & verbal noun Joining .] [ Middle English joinen , joignen , French joindre , from Latin jungere to yoke, bind together, join; akin to jugum yoke. See Yoke , and confer Conjugal , Junction , Junta .]


1. To bring together, literally or figuratively; to place in contact; to connect; to couple; to unite; to combine; to associate; to add; to append.

Woe unto them that join house to house.
Is. v. 8.

Held up his left hand, which did flame and burn
Like twenty torches joined .
Shak.

Thy tuneful voice with numbers join .
Dryden.

2. To associate one's self to; to be or become connected with; to league one's self with; to unite with; as, to join a party; to join the church.

We jointly now to join no other head.
Dryden.

3. To unite in marriage.

He that joineth his virgin in matrimony.
Wyclif.

What, therefore, God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
Matt. xix. 6.

4. To enjoin upon; to command. [ Obsolete & R.]

They join them penance, as they call it.
Tyndale.

5. To accept, or engage in, as a contest; as, to join encounter, battle, issue. Milton.

To join battle , To join issue . See under Battle , Issue .

Syn. -- To add; annex; unite; connect; combine; consociate; couple; link; append. See Add .

Join intransitive verb To be contiguous, close, or in contact; to come together; to unite; to mingle; to form a union; as, the bones of the skull join ; two rivers join .

Whose house joined hard to the synagogue.
Acts xviii. 7.

Should we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations?
Ezra ix. 14.

Nature and fortune joined to make thee great.
Shak.

Join noun (Geom.) The line joining two points; the point common to two intersecting lines. Henrici.

Joinant adjective [ Old French & French joignant , present participle of joindre to join.] Adjoining. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Joinder noun [ French joindre . See Join , transitive verb ]


1. The act of joining; a putting together; conjunction.

Confirmed by mutual joinder of your hands.
Shak.

2. (Law) (a) A joining of parties as plaintiffs or defendants in a suit. (b) Acceptance of an issue tendered in law or fact. (c) A joining of causes of action or defense in civil suits or criminal prosecutions.

Joiner noun
1. One who, or that which, joins.

2. One whose occupation is to construct articles by joining pieces of wood; a mechanic who does the woodwork (as doors, stairs, etc.) necessary for the finishing of buildings. "One Snug, the joiner ." Shak.

3. A wood-working machine, for sawing, plaining, mortising, tenoning, grooving, etc.

Syn. -- See Carpenter .

Joinery noun The art, or trade, of a joiner; the work of a joiner.

A piece of joinery . . . whimsically dovetailed.
Burke.

Joinhand noun Writing in which letters are joined in words; -- distinguished from writing in single letters. Addison.

Joint (joint) noun [ French joint , from joindre , past participle joint . See Join .]


1. The place or part where two things or parts are joined or united; the union of two or more smooth or even surfaces admitting of a close-fitting or junction; junction; as, a joint between two pieces of timber; a joint in a pipe.

2. A joining of two things or parts so as to admit of motion; an articulation, whether movable or not; a hinge; as, the knee joint ; a node or joint of a stem; a ball and socket joint . See Articulation .

A scaly gauntlet now, with joints of steel,
Must glove this hand.
Shak.

To tear thee joint by joint .
Milton.

3. The part or space included between two joints, knots, nodes, or articulations; as, a joint of cane or of a grass stem; a joint of the leg.

4. Any one of the large pieces of meat, as cut into portions by the butcher for roasting.

5. (Geol.) A plane of fracture, or divisional plane, of a rock transverse to the stratification.

6. (Architecture) The space between the adjacent surfaces of two bodies joined and held together, as by means of cement, mortar, etc.; as, a thin joint .

7. The means whereby the meeting surfaces of pieces in a structure are secured together.

Coursing joint (Masonry) , the mortar joint between two courses of bricks or stones. -- Fish joint , Miter joint , Universal joint , etc. See under Fish , Miter , etc. -- Joint bolt , a bolt for fastening two pieces, as of wood, one endwise to the other, having a nut embedded in one of the pieces. -- Joint chair (Railroad) , the chair that supports the ends of abutting rails. -- Joint coupling , a universal joint for coupling shafting. See under Universal . -- Joint hinge , a hinge having long leaves; a strap hinge. -- Joint splice , a reënforce at a joint, to sustain the parts in their true relation. -- Joint stool . (a) A stool consisting of jointed parts; a folding stool. Shak. (b) A block for supporting the end of a piece at a joint; a joint chair. -- Out of joint , out of place; dislocated, as when the head of a bone slips from its socket; hence, not working well together; disordered. "The time is out of joint ." Shak.

Joint (joint) adjective [ French, past participle of joindre . See Join .]


1. Joined; united; combined; concerted; as, joint action.

2. Involving the united activity of two or more; done or produced by two or more working together.

I read this joint effusion twice over.
T. Hook.

3. United, joined, or sharing with another or with others; not solitary in interest or action; holding in common with an associate, or with associates; acting together; as, joint heir; joint creditor; joint debtor, etc. " Joint tenants of the world." Donne.

4. Shared by, or affecting two or more; held in common; as, joint property; a joint bond.

A joint burden laid upon us all.
Shak.

Joint committee (Parliamentary Practice) , a committee composed of members of the two houses of a legislative body, for the appointment of which concurrent resolutions of the two houses are necessary. Cushing. -- Joint meeting , or Joint session , the meeting or session of two distinct bodies as one; as, a joint meeting of committees representing different corporations; a joint session of both branches of a State legislature to chose a United States senator. "Such joint meeting shall not be dissolved until the electoral votes are all counted and the result declared." Joint Rules of Congress, U. S. -- Joint resolution (Parliamentary Practice) , a resolution adopted concurrently by the two branches of a legislative body. "By the constitution of the United States and the rules of the two houses, no absolute distinction is made between bills and joint resolutions ." Barclay (Digest). -- Joint rule (Parliamentary Practice) , a rule of proceeding adopted by the concurrent action of both branches of a legislative assembly. "Resolved, by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), that the sixteenth and seventeenth joint rules be suspended for the remainder of the session." Journal H. of R., U. S. -- Joint and several (Law) , a phrase signifying that the debt, credit, obligation, etc., to which it is applied is held in such a way that the parties in interest are engaged both together and individually thus a joint and several debt is one for which all the debtors may be sued together or either of them individually. -- Joint stock , stock held in company. -- Joint- stock company (Law) , a species of partnership, consisting generally of a large number of members, having a capital divided, or agreed to be divided, into shares, the shares owned by any member being usually transferable without the consent of the rest. -- Joint tenancy (Law) , a tenure by two or more persons of estate by unity of interest, title, time, and possession, under which the survivor takes the whole. Blackstone. -- Joint tenant (Law) , one who holds an estate by joint tenancy.

Joint transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jointed ; present participle & verbal noun Jointing .]


1. To unite by a joint or joints; to fit together; to prepare so as to fit together; as, to joint boards.

Pierced through the yielding planks of jointed wood.
Pope.

2. To join; to connect; to unite; to combine.

Jointing their force 'gainst Cæsar.
Shak.

3. To provide with a joint or joints; to articulate.

The fingers are jointed together for motion.
Ray.

4. To separate the joints; of; to divide at the joint or joints; to disjoint; to cut up into joints, as meat. "He joints the neck." Dryden.

Quartering, jointing , seething, and roasting.
Holland.

Joint intransitive verb To fit as if by joints; to coalesce as joints do; as, the stones joint , neatly.

Joint noun
1. [ Jag a notch.] A projecting or retreating part in something; any irregularity of line or surface, as in a wall. [ Now Chiefly U. S.]

2. (Theaters) A narrow piece of scenery used to join together two flats or wings of an interior setting.

3. A place of low resort, as for smoking opium. [ Slang]

Joint-fir noun (Botany) A genus ( Ephedra ) of leafless shrubs, with the stems conspicuously jointed; -- called also shrubby horsetail . There are about thirty species, of which two or three are found from Texas to California.

Jointed adjective Having joints; articulated; full of nodes; knotty; as, a jointed doll; jointed structure. "The jointed herbage." J. Philips. -- Joint"ed*ly , adverb

Jointer noun
1. One who, or that which, joints.

2. A plane for smoothing the surfaces of pieces which are to be accurately joined ; especially: (a) The longest plane used by a joiner. (b) (Coopering) A long stationary plane, for planing the edges of barrel staves.

3. (Masonry) (a) A bent piece of iron inserted to strengthen the joints of a wall. (b) A tool for pointing the joints in brickwork.

Jointing noun The act or process of making a joint; also, the joints thus produced.

Jointing machine , a planing machine for wood used in furniture and piano factories, etc. -- Jointing plane . See Jointer , 2. -- Jointing rule (Masonry) , a long straight rule, used by bricklayers for securing straight joints and faces.

Jointless adjective Without a joint; rigid; stiff.

Jointly adverb In a joint manner; together; unitedly; in concert; not separately.

Then jointly to the ground their knees they bow.
Shak.

Jointress noun (Law) A woman who has a jointure. [ Written also jointuress .] Blackstone.

Jointure noun [ French jointure a joint, orig., a joining, Latin junctura , from jungere to join. See Join , and confer Juncture .]


1. A joining; a joint. [ Obsolete]

2. (Law) An estate settled on a wife, which she is to enjoy after husband's decease, for her own life at least, in satisfaction of dower.

The jointure that your king must make,
Which with her dowry shall be counterpoised.
Shak.

Jointure transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jointured ; present participle & verbal noun Jointuring .] To settle a jointure upon.

Jointureless adjective Having no jointure.

Jointuress noun See Jointress . Bouvier.