Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Jumbler noun One who confuses things.

Jumblingly adverb In a confused manner.

Jumelle adjective [ French, fem. of jumeau , from Latin gemellus . Confer Gemel , adjective ] Twin; paired; -- said of various objects made or formed in pairs, as a binocular opera glass, a pair of gimmal rings, etc.

Jumelle noun A jumelle opera glass, or the like.

Jument noun [ Latin jumentum a beast of burden: confer French jument a mare, Old French , a beast of burden.] A beast; especially, a beast of burden. [ Obsolete]

Fitter for juments than men to feed on.
Burton.

Jump noun [ Confer French jupe a long petticoat, a skirt. Confer Juppon .] (a) A kind of loose jacket for men. (b) plural A bodice worn instead of stays by women in the 18th century.

Jump intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jumped ; present participle & verbal noun Jumping .] [ Akin to OD. gumpen , dial. German gumpen , jumpen .]


1. To spring free from the ground by the muscular action of the feet and legs; to project one's self through the air; to spring; to bound; to leap.

Not the worst of the three but jumps twelve foot and a half by the square.
Shak.

2. To move as if by jumping; to bounce; to jolt. "The jumping chariots." Nahum iii. 2.

A flock of geese jump down together.
Dryden.

3. To coincide; to agree; to accord; to tally; -- followed by with . "It jumps with my humor." Shak.

To jump at , to spring to; hence, fig., to accept suddenly or eagerly; as, a fish jumps at a bait; to jump at a chance.

Jump transitive verb
1. To pass by a spring or leap; to overleap; as, to jump a stream.

2. To cause to jump; as, he jumped his horse across the ditch.

3. To expose to danger; to risk; to hazard. [ Obsolete]

To jump a body with a dangerous physic.
Shak.

4. (Smithwork) (a) To join by a butt weld. (b) To thicken or enlarge by endwise blows; to upset.

5. (Quarrying) To bore with a jumper.

To jump a claim , to enter upon and take possession of land to which another has acquired a claim by prior entry and occupation. [ Western U. S. & Australia] See Claim , noun , 3. -- To jump one's bail , to abscond while at liberty under bail bonds. [ Slang, U. S.]

Jump noun
1. The act of jumping; a leap; a spring; a bound. "To advance by jumps ." Locke.

2. An effort; an attempt; a venture. [ Obsolete]

Our fortune lies
Upon this jump .
Shak.

3. The space traversed by a leap.

4. (Mining) A dislocation in a stratum; a fault.

5. (Architecture) An abrupt interruption of level in a piece of brickwork or masonry.

From the jump , from the start or beginning. [ Colloq.] -- Jump joint . (a) A butt joint . (b) A flush joint, as of plank in carvel-built vessels. -- Jump seat . (a) A movable carriage seat . (b) A carriage constructed with a seat which may be shifted so as to make room for second or extra seat. Also used adjectively; as, a jump-seat wagon.

Jump adjective Nice; exact; matched; fitting; precise. [ Obsolete] " Jump names." B. Jonson.

Jump adverb Exactly; pat. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Jump spark A spark produced by the jumping of electricity across a permanent gap.

Jumper noun
1. One who, or that which, jumps.

2. A long drilling tool used by masons and quarrymen.

3. A rude kind of sleigh; -- usually, a simple box on runners which are in one piece with the poles that form the thills. [ U.S.] J. F. Cooper.

4. (Zoology) The larva of the cheese fly. See Cheese fly , under Cheese .

5. (Eccl.) A name applied in the 18th century to certain Calvinistic Methodists in Wales whose worship was characterized by violent convulsions.

6. (Horology) spring to impel the star wheel, also a pawl to lock fast a wheel, in a repeating timepiece.

Baby jumper . See in the Vocabulary. -- Bounty jumper . See under Bounty .

Jumper noun [ See 1st Jump .] A loose upper garment ; as: (a) A sort of blouse worn by workmen over their ordinary dress to protect it. (b) A fur garment worn in Arctic journeys.

Jumper noun A thing that jumps; esp., any of various tools or other contrivances operating with a jumping motion; as, (Mining, Quarrying, etc.) , an instrument for boring holes in rocks by percussion without hammering, consisting of a bar of iron with a chisel-edged steel tip at one or both ends, operated by striking it against the rock, turning it slightly with each blow.

Jumping p. adjective & verbal noun of Jump , to leap.

Jumping bean , a seed of a Mexican Euphorbia , containing the larva of a moth ( Carpocapsa saltitans ). The larva by its sudden movements causes the seed to roll to roll and jump about. -- Jumping deer (Zoology) , a South African rodent ( Pedetes Caffer ), allied to the jerboa. -- Jumping jack , a toy figure of a man, jointed and made to jump or dance by means of strings. -- Jumping louse (Zoology) , any of the numerous species of plant lice belonging to the family Psyllidæ , several of which are injurious to fruit trees. -- Jumping mouse (Zoology) , North American mouse ( Zapus Hudsonius ), having a long tail and large hind legs. It is noted for its jumping powers. Called also kangaroo mouse . -- Jumping mullet (Zoology) , gray mullet. -- Jumping shrew (Zoology) , any African insectivore of the genus Macroscelides . They are allied to the shrews, but have large hind legs adapted for jumping. -- Jumping spider (Zoology) , spider of the genus Salticus and other related genera; one of the Saltigradæ; -- so called because it leaps upon its prey.

Jumping disease A convulsive tic similar to or identical with miryachit, observed among the woodsmen of Maine.

Jumpweld transitive verb See Buttweld , transitive verb

Jumpy adjective [ Compar. Jumpier ; superl. Jumpiest .] Jumping, or inducing to jump; characterized by jumps; hence, extremely nervous.

Juncaceous adjective [ See Juncate .] (Botany) Of. pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants ( Juncaceæ ), of which the common rush ( Juncus ) is the type.

Juncate noun See Junket . [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Juncite noun [ Latin juncus a rush.] (Paleon.) A fossil rush.

Junco noun (Zoology) Any bird of the genus Junco , which includes several species of North American finches; -- called also snowbird , or blue snowbird .

Juncous adjective [ Latin juncosus , from juncus a rush.] Full of rushes: resembling rushes; juncaceous. [ R.] Johnson.

Junction noun [ Latin junctio , from jungere , junctum , to join: confer French jonction . See Join .]


1. The act of joining, or the state of being joined; union; combination; coalition; as, the junction of two armies or detachments; the junction of paths.

2. The place or point of union, meeting, or junction; specifically, the place where two or more lines of railway meet or cross.

Junction plate (Boilers) , a covering or break-join plate riveted to and uniting the edges of sheets which make a butt joint. -- Junction rails (Railroads) , the switch, or movable, rails, connecting one line of track with another.

Junction box (Electricity) A box through which the main conductors of a system of electric distribution pass, and where connection is made with branch circuits.

Juncture (jŭnk"tur; 135) noun [ Latin junctura , from jungere to join. See Jointure .]
1. A joining; a union; an alliance. [ Obsolete] "Devotional compliance and juncture of hearts." Eikon Basilike.

2. The line or point at which two bodies are joined; a joint; an articulation; a seam; as, the junctures of a vessel or of the bones. Boyle.

3. A point of time; esp., one made critical or important by a concurrence of circumstances; hence, a crisis; an exigency. "Extraordinary junctures ." Addison.

In such a juncture , what can the most plausible and refined philosophy offer?
Berkeley.

June noun [ Latin Junius : confer French Juin . So called either from Junius , the name of a Roman gens, or from Juno , the goddess.] The sixth month of the year, containing thirty days.

And what is so rare as a day in June ?
Then, if ever, come perfect days.
Lowell.

June beetle , June bug (Zoology) , any one of several species of large brown beetles of the genus Lachnosterna and related genera; -- so called because they begin to fly, in the northern United States, about the first of June. The larvæ of the June beetles live under ground, and feed upon the roots of grasses and other plants. Called also May bug or May beetle . -- June grass (Botany) , a New England name for Kentucky blue grass. See Blue glass , and Illustration in Appendix.

Juneating noun A kind of early apple. [ Written also jenneting .]

Juneberry noun (Botany) (a) The small applelike berry of American trees of genus Amelanchier ; -- also called service berry . (b) The shrub or tree which bears this fruit; -- also called shad bush , and shad tree .

Jungermannia noun ; plural Jungermanniæ . [ New Latin Named after Ludwig Jungermann , a German botanist.] (Botany) A genus of hepatic mosses, now much circumscribed, but formerly comprising most plants of the order, which is sometimes therefore called Jungermanniaceæ .

Jungle (jŭn"g'l) noun [ Hind. jangal desert, forest, jungle; Sanskrit ja...gala desert.] A dense growth of brushwood, grasses, reeds, vines, etc.; an almost impenetrable thicket of trees, canes, and reedy vegetation, as in India, Africa, Australia, and Brazil.

The jungles of India are of bamboos, canes, and other palms, very difficult to penetrate.
Balfour (Cyc. of India).

Jungle bear (Zoology) , the aswail or sloth bear. -- Jungle cat (Zoology) , the chaus. -- Jungle cock (Zoology) , the male of a jungle fowl. -- Jungle fowl . (Zoology) (a) Any wild species of the genus Gallus , of which several species inhabit India and the adjacent islands; as, the fork-tailed jungle fowl ( G. varius ) of Java, G. Stanleyi of Ceylon, and G. Bankiva of India. The latter, which resembles the domestic gamecock, is supposed to be one of the original species from which the domestic fowl was derived. (b) An Australian grallatorial bird ( Megapodius tumulus ) which is allied to the brush turkey, and, like the latter, lays its eggs in mounds of vegetable matter, where they are hatched by the heat produced by decomposition.

Jungly (-glȳ) adjective Consisting of jungles; abounding with jungles; of the nature of a jungle.

Junior (jūn"yẽr; 277) adjective [ Latin contr. from juvenior , compar. of juvenis young. See Juvenile .]


1. Less advanced in age than another; younger.

» Junior is applied to distinguish the younger of two persons bearing the same name in the same family, and is opposed to senior or elder . Commonly applied to a son who has the same Christian name as his father.

2. Lower in standing or in rank; later in office; as, a junior partner; junior counsel; junior captain.

3. Composed of juniors, whether younger or a lower standing; as, the junior class; of or pertaining to juniors or to a junior class. See Junior , noun , 2.

4. Belonging to a younger person, or an earlier time of life.

Our first studies and junior endeavors.
Sir T. Browne.

Junior noun
1. A younger person.

His junior she, by thirty years.
Byron.

2. Hence: One of a lower or later standing; specifically, in American colleges, one in the third year of his course, one in the fourth or final year being designated a senior ; in some seminaries, one in the first year, in others, one in the second year, of a three years' course.

Juniority noun The state or quality of being junior.

Juniper noun [ Latin juniperus , prop., youth-producing, and so called from its evergreen appearance, from the roots of English juvenile , and parent . Cf . Gin the liquor.] (Botany) Any evergreen shrub or tree, of the genus Juniperus and order Coniferæ .

» The common juniper ( J. communis ) is a shrub of a low, spreading form, having awl-shaped, rigid leaves in whorls of threes, and bearing small purplish blue berries (or galbuli), of a warm, pungent taste, used as diuretic and in flavoring gin. A resin exudes from the bark, which has erroneously been considered identical with sandarach, and is used as pounce. The oil of juniper is acrid, and used for various purposes, as in medicine, for making varnish, etc. The wood of several species is of a reddish color, hard and durable, and is used in cabinetwork under the names of red cedar , Bermuda cedar , etc.

Juniper worm (Zoology) , the larva of a geometrid moth ( Drepanodes varus ). It feeds upon the leaves of the juniper, and mimics the small twigs both in form and color, in a remarkable manner.

Juniperin noun (Chemistry) A yellow amorphous substance extracted from juniper berries.

Juniperite noun (Paleon.) One of the fossil Coniferæ , evidently allied to the juniper.

Junk noun A fragment of any solid substance; a thick piece. See Chunk . [ Colloq.] Lowell.

Junk noun [ Portuguese junco junk, rush, Latin juncus a bulrush, of which ropes were made in early ages. Confer Junket .]


1. Pieces of old cable or old cordage, used for making gaskets, mats, swabs, etc., and when picked to pieces, forming oakum for filling the seams of ships.

2. Old iron, or other metal, glass, paper, etc., bought and sold by junk dealers.

3. (Nautical) Hard salted beef supplied to ships.

Junk bottle , a stout bottle made of thick dark-colored glass. -- Junk dealer , a dealer in old cordage, old metal, glass, etc. -- Junk hook (Whaling) , a hook for hauling heavy pieces of blubber on deck. -- Junk ring . (a) A packing of soft material round the piston of a steam engine . (b) A metallic ring for retaining a piston packing in place ; (c) A follower. -- Junk shop , a shop where old cordage, and ship's tackle, old iron, old bottles, old paper, etc., are kept for sale. -- Junk vat (Leather Manuf.) , a large vat into which spent tan liquor or ooze is pumped. -- Junk wad (Mil.) , a wad used in proving cannon; also used in firing hot shot.

Junker noun [ G. Confer Yonker .] A young German noble or squire; esp., a member of the aristocratic party in Prussia.

Junkerism noun The principles of the aristocratic party in Prussia.

Junket noun [ Formerly also juncate , from Italian giuncata cream cheese, made in a wicker or rush basket, from Latin juncus a rush. See 2d Junk , and confer Juncate .]


1. A cheese cake; a sweetmeat; any delicate food.

How Faery Mab the junkets eat.
Milton.

Victuals varied well in taste,
And other junkets .
Chapman.

2. A feast; an entertainment.

A new jaunt or junket every night.
Thackeray.

Junket intransitive verb To feast; to banquet; to make an entertainment; -- sometimes applied opprobriously to feasting by public officers at the public cost.

Job's children junketed and feasted together often.
South.

Junket transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Junketed ; present participle & verbal noun Junketing .] To give entertainment to; to feast.

The good woman took my lodgings over my head, and was in such a hurry to junket her neighbors.
Walpole.

Junketing noun A feast or entertainment; a revel.

All those snug junketings and public gormandizings for which the ancient magistrates were equally famous with their modern successors.
W. Irving.

The apostle would have no reveling or junketing upon the altar.
South.

Junketries noun plural Sweetmeats. [ Obsolete]

Juno (jū"no) noun ; plural Junos (-noz). [ Latin ]


1. (Rom. Myth.) The sister and wife of Jupiter, the queen of heaven, and the goddess who presided over marriage. She corresponds to the Greek Hera.

Sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes.
Shak.

2. (Astron.) One of the early discovered asteroids.

Bird of Juno , the peacock.