Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Jubate adjective [ Latin jubatus having a mane.] (Zoology) Fringed with long, pendent hair.

Jubbah noun Also Jub"beh Joob"beh [ Hind. jubba , from Arabic jubbah .] A long outer garment worn by both sexes of Mohammedans of the better class.

Jubé noun [ French] (Architecture) (a) A chancel screen or rood screen. (b) The gallery above such a screen, from which certain parts of the service were formerly read. See Rood loft , under Rood .

Jubilant adjective [ Latin jubilans , -antis , present participle of jubilare to shout for joy: confer French jubilant . See Jubilate .] Uttering songs of triumph; shouting with joy; triumphant; exulting. "The jubilant age." Coleridge.

While the bright pomp ascended jubilant .
Milton.

Jubilantly adverb In a jubilant manner.

Jubilar adjective [ Confer French jubilaire .] Pertaining to, or having the character of, a jubilee. [ R.] Bp. Hall.

Jubilate noun [ Latin , imperat. of jubilare to shout for joy.]


1. The third Sunday after Easter; -- so called because the introit is the 66th Psalm, which, in the Latin version, begins with the words, "Jubilate Deo."

2. A name of the 100th Psalm; -- so called from its opening word in the Latin version.

Jubilate intransitive verb [ Latin jubilatus , past participle of jubilare .] To exult; to rejoice. [ R.] De Quincey.

Jubilation noun [ Latin jubilatio : confer French jubilation .] A triumphant shouting; rejoicing; exultation. " Jubilations and hallelujahs." South.

Jubilee noun [ French jubilé , Latin jubilaeus , Greek ..., from Hebrew y...bel the blast of a trumpet, also the grand sabbatical year, which was announced by sound of trumpet.]


1. (Jewish Hist.) Every fiftieth year, being the year following the completion of each seventh sabbath of years, at which time all the slaves of Hebrew blood were liberated, and all lands which had been alienated during the whole period reverted to their former owners. [ In this sense spelled also, in some English Bibles, jubile .] Lev. xxv. 8-17.

2. The joyful commemoration held on the fiftieth anniversary of any event; as, the jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign; the jubilee of the American Board of Missions.

3. (R. C. Ch.) A church solemnity or ceremony celebrated at Rome, at stated intervals, originally of one hundred years, but latterly of twenty-five; a plenary and extraordinary indulgence granted by the sovereign pontiff to the universal church. One invariable condition of granting this indulgence is the confession of sins and receiving of the eucharist.

4. A season of general joy.

The town was all a jubilee of feasts.
Dryden.

5. A state of joy or exultation. [ R.] "In the jubilee of his spirits." Sir W. Scott.

Jucundity noun [ Latin jucunditas , from jucundus .] Pleasantness; agreeableness. See Jocundity . [ R.] Sir T. Browne.

Judahite noun One of the tribe of Judah; a member of the kingdom of Judah; a Jew. Kitto.

Judaic, Judaical adjective [ Latin Judaïcus , from Judaea , the country Judea: confer French Judaïque . See Jew .] Of or pertaining to the Jews. "The natural or Judaical [ religion]." South.

Judaically adverb After the Jewish manner. Milton.

Judaism noun [ Latin Judaïsmus : confer French judaïsme .]


1. The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses. J. S. Mill.

2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and ceremonies.

Judaist noun One who believes and practices Judaism.

Judaistic adjective Of or pertaining to Judaism.

Judaization noun The act of Judaizing; a conforming to the Jewish religion or ritual. [ R.]

Judaize intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Judaized ; present participle & verbal noun Judaizing .] [ Confer French judaïser .] To conform to the doctrines, observances, or methods of the Jews; to inculcate or impose Judaism.

They . . . prevailed on the Galatians to Judaize so far as to observe the rites of Moses in various instances.
They were Judaizing doctors, who taught the observation of the Mosaic law.
Bp. Bull.

Judaize transitive verb To impose Jewish observances or rites upon; to convert to Judaism.

The heretical Theodotion, the Judaized Symmachus.
Milton.

Judaizer noun One who conforms to or inculcates Judaism; specifically, plural (Ch. Hist.) , those Jews who accepted Christianity but still adhered to the law of Moses and worshiped in the temple at Jerusalem.

Judaizers (jū"da*īz`ẽrz) noun plural See Raskolnik .

Judas noun The disciple who betrayed Christ. Hence: A treacherous person; one who betrays under the semblance of friendship. -- adjective Treacherous; betraying.

Judas hole , a peephole or secret opening for spying. -- Judas kiss , a deceitful and treacherous kiss. -- Judas tree (Botany) , a leguminous tree of the genus Cercis , with pretty, rose- colored flowers in clusters along the branches. Judas is said to have hanged himself on a tree of this genus ( C. Siliquastrum ). C. Canadensis and C. occidentalis are the American species, and are called also redbud .

Judas-colored adjective Red; -- from a tradition that Judas Iscariot had red hair and beard.

There's treachery in that Judas-colored beard.
Dryden.

Juddock (jŭd"dŏk) noun [ For judcock ; jud (equiv. to Prov. English gid a jacksnipe, W. giach snipe) + cock .] (Zoology) See Jacksnipe .

Judean (ju*dē" a n) adjective [ Latin Judaeus . See Jew .] Of or pertaining to Judea. -- noun A native of Judea; a Jew.

Judge (jŭj) noun [ Middle English juge , Old French & French juge , from Old French jugier , French juger , to judge. See Judge , intransitive verb ]


1. (Law) A public officer who is invested with authority to hear and determine litigated causes, and to administer justice between parties in courts held for that purpose.

The parts of a judge in hearing are four: to direct the evidence; to moderate length, repetition, or impertinency of speech; to recapitulate, select, and collate the material points of that which hath been said; and to give the rule or sentence.
Bacon.

2. One who has skill, knowledge, or experience, sufficient to decide on the merits of a question, or on the quality or value of anything; one who discerns properties or relations with skill and readiness; a connoisseur; an expert; a critic.

A man who is no judge of law may be a good judge of poetry, or eloquence, or of the merits of a painting.
Dryden.

3. A person appointed to decide in a trial of skill, speed, etc., between two or more parties; an umpire; as, a judge in a horse race.

4. (Jewish Hist.) One of the supreme magistrates, with both civil and military powers, who governed Israel for more than four hundred years.

5. plural The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of Judges.

Judge Advocate (Mil. & Nav.) , a person appointed to act as prosecutor at a court-martial; he acts as the representative of the government, as the responsible adviser of the court, and also, to a certain extent, as counsel for the accused, when he has no other counsel. -- Judge-Advocate General , in the United States, the title of two officers, one attached to the War Department and having the rank of brigadier general, the other attached to the Navy Department and having the rank of colonel of marines or captain in the navy. The first is chief of the Bureau of Military Justice of the army, the other performs a similar duty for the navy. In England, the designation of a member of the ministry who is the legal adviser of the secretary of state for war, and supreme judge of the proceedings of courts-martial.

Syn. -- Judge , Umpire , Arbitrator , Referee . A judge , in the legal sense, is a magistrate appointed to determine questions of law. An umpire is a person selected to decide between two or more who contend for a prize. An arbitrator is one chosen to allot to two contestants their portion of a claim, usually on grounds of equity and common sense. A referee is one to whom a case is referred for final adjustment. Arbitrations and references are sometimes voluntary, sometimes appointed by a court.

Judge intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Judged ; present participle & verbal noun Judging .] [ Middle English jugen , Old French jugier , French juger , Latin judicare , from judex judge; jus law or right + dicare to proclaim, pronounce, akin to dicere to say. See Just , adjective , and Diction , and confer Judicial .]


1. To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to decide as a judge; to give judgment; to pass sentence.

The Lord judge between thee and me.
Gen. xvi. 5.

Father, who art judge
Of all things made, and judgest only right!
Milton.

2. To assume the right to pass judgment on another; to sit in judgment or commendation; to criticise or pass adverse judgment upon others. See Judge , transitive verb , 3.

Forbear to judge , for we are sinners all.
Shak.

3. To compare facts or ideas, and perceive their relations and attributes, and thus distinguish truth from falsehood; to determine; to discern; to distinguish; to form an opinion about.

Judge not according to the appearance.
John vii. 24.

She is wise if I can judge of her.
Shak.

Judge transitive verb
1. To hear and determine by authority, as a case before a court, or a controversy between two parties. "Chaos [ shall] judge the strife." Milton.

2. To examine and pass sentence on; to try; to doom.

God shall judge the righteous and the wicked.
Eccl. iii. 7.

To bring my whole cause 'fore his holiness,
And to be judged by him.
Shak.

3. To arrogate judicial authority over; to sit in judgment upon; to be censorious toward.

Judge not, that ye be not judged .
Matt. vii. 1.

4. To determine upon or deliberation; to esteem; to think; to reckon.

If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord.
Acts xvi. 15.

5. To exercise the functions of a magistrate over; to govern. [ Obsolete]

Make us a king to judge us.
1 Sam. viii. 5.

Judge-made adjective Created by judges or judicial decision; -- applied esp. to law applied or established by the judicial interpretation of statutes so as extend or restrict their scope, as to meet new cases, to provide new or better remedies, etc., and often used opprobriously of acts of judicial interpretation considered as doing this.

The law of the 13th century was judge-made law in a fuller and more literal sense than the law of any succeeding century has been.
Sir Frederick Pollock.

Judger noun One who judges. Sir K. Digby.

Judgeship noun The office of a judge.

Judgment noun [ Middle English jugement , French jugement , Late Latin judicamentum , from Latin judicare . See Judge , intransitive verb ]


1. The act of judging; the operation of the mind, involving comparison and discrimination, by which a knowledge of the values and relations of thins, whether of moral qualities, intellectual concepts, logical propositions, or material facts, is obtained; as, by careful judgment he avoided the peril; by a series of wrong judgments he forfeited confidence.

I oughte deme, of skilful jugement ,
That in the salte sea my wife is deed.
Chaucer.

2. The power or faculty of performing such operations (see 1); esp., when unqualified, the faculty of judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely; good sense; as, a man of judgment ; a politician without judgment .

He shall judge thy people with righteousness and thy poor with judgment .
Ps. lxxii. 2.

Hernia . I would my father look'd but with my eyes.
Theseus . Rather your eyes must with his judgment look.
Shak.

3. The conclusion or result of judging; an opinion; a decision.

She in my judgment was as fair as you.
Shak.

Who first his judgment asked, and then a place.
Pope.

4. The act of determining, as in courts of law, what is conformable to law and justice; also, the determination, decision, or sentence of a court, or of a judge; the mandate or sentence of God as the judge of all.

In judgments between rich and poor, consider not what the poor man needs, but what is his own.
Jer. Taylor.

Most heartily I do beseech the court
To give the judgment .
Shak.

5. (Philos.) (a) That act of the mind by which two notions or ideas which are apprehended as distinct are compared for the purpose of ascertaining their agreement or disagreement. See 1. The comparison may be threefold: (1) Of individual objects forming a concept. (2) Of concepts giving what is technically called a judgment. (3) Of two judgments giving an inference. Judgments have been further classed as analytic, synthetic, and identical. (b) That power or faculty by which knowledge dependent upon comparison and discrimination is acquired. See 2.

A judgment is the mental act by which one thing is affirmed or denied of another.
Sir W. Hamilton.

The power by which we are enabled to perceive what is true or false, probable or improbable, is called by logicians the faculty of judgment .
Stewart.

6. A calamity regarded as sent by God, by way of recompense for wrong committed; a providential punishment. " Judgments are prepared for scorners." Prov. xix. 29. "This judgment of the heavens that makes us tremble." Shak.

7. (Theol.) The final award; the last sentence.

» Judgment , abridgment , acknowledgment , and lodgment are in England sometimes written, judgement , abridgement , acknowledgement , and lodgement .

» Judgment is used adjectively in many self-explaining combinations; as, judgment hour; judgment throne.

Judgment day (Theol.) , the last day, or period when final judgment will be pronounced on the subjects of God's moral government. -- Judgment debt (Law) , a debt secured to the creditor by a judge's order. -- Judgment hall , a hall where courts are held. -- Judgment seat , the seat or bench on which judges sit in court; hence, a court; a tribunal. "We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ." Rom. xiv. 10. -- Judgment summons (Law) , a proceeding by a judgment creditor against a judgment debtor upon an unsatisfied judgment.

Arrest of judgment . (Law) See under Arrest , noun -- Judgment of God , a term formerly applied to extraordinary trials of secret crimes, as by arms and single combat, by ordeal, etc.; it being imagined that God would work miracles to vindicate innocence. See under Ordeal .

Syn. -- Discernment; decision; determination; award; estimate; criticism; taste; discrimination; penetration; sagacity; intelligence; understanding. See Taste .

Judicable adjective [ Latin judicabilis . See Judge , intransitive verb ] Capable of being judged; capable of being tried or decided upon. Jer. Taylor.

Judicative adjective Having power to judge; judicial; as, the judicative faculty. Hammond.

Judicatory adjective [ Latin judicatorius .] Pertaining to the administration of justice; dispensing justice; judicial; as, judicatory tribunals. T. Wharton.

Power to reject in an authoritative or judicatory way.
Bp. Hall.

Judicatory -277 noun [ Latin judicatorium .]


1. A court of justice; a tribunal. Milton.

2. Administration of justice.

The supreme court of <
Judicature noun [ French, from Late Latin judicatura .]


1. The state or profession of those employed in the administration of justice; also, the dispensing or administration of justice.

The honor of the judges in their judicature is the king's honor.
Bacon.

2. A court of justice; a judicatory. South.

3. The right of judicial action; jurisdiction; extent jurisdiction of a judge or court.

Our Savior disputes not here the judicature , for that was not his office, but the morality, of divorce.
Milton.

Judicial adjective [ Latin judicialis , from judicium judgment, from judex judge: confer Old French judicial . See Judge .]


1. Pertaining or appropriate to courts of justice, or to a judge; practiced or conformed to in the administration of justice; sanctioned or ordered by a court; as, judicial power; judicial proceedings; a judicial sale. " Judicial massacres." Macaulay.

Not a moral but a judicial law, and so was abrogated.
Milton.

2. Fitted or apt for judging or deciding; as, a judicial mind.

3. Belonging to the judiciary, as distinguished from legislative , administrative , or executive . See Executive .

4. Judicious. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

Judicially adverb In a judicial capacity or judicial manner. "The Lords . . . sitting judicially ." Macaulay.

Judiciary adjective [ Latin judiciarius , from judicium judgment: confer French judiciare . See Judicial .] Of or pertaining to courts of judicature, or legal tribunals; judicial; as, a judiciary proceeding. Bp. Burnet.

Judiciary noun [ Confer Late Latin judiciaria , French judiciaire .] That branch of government in which judicial power is vested; the system of courts of justice in a country; the judges, taken collectively; as, an independent judiciary ; the senate committee on the judiciary .

Judicious adjective [ French judicieux , from Latin judicium judgment. See Judicial .] Of or relating to a court; judicial. [ Obsolete]

His last offenses to us
Shall have judicious hearing.
Shak.

2. Directed or governed by sound judgment; having sound judgment; wise; prudent; sagacious; discreet.

He is noble, wise, judicious , and best knows
The fits o' the season.
Shak.

Syn. -- Prudent; discreet; rational; wise; skillful; discerning; sagacious; well-advised.

Judiciously adverb In a judicious manner; with good judgment; wisely.

Judiciousness noun The quality or state of being judicious; sagacity; sound judgment.

Jug noun [ Prob. from Jug , a corruption of, or nickname for, Joanna ; confer 2d Jack , and Jill . See Johannes .]


1. A vessel, usually of coarse earthenware, with a swelling belly and narrow mouth, and having a handle on one side.

2. A pitcher; a ewer. [ Eng.]

3. A prison; a jail; a lockup. [ Slang] Gay.

Jug transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Jugged ; present participle & verbal noun Jugging .]


1. To seethe or stew, as in a jug or jar placed in boiling water; as, to jug a hare.

2. To commit to jail; to imprison. [ Slang]

Jug intransitive verb (Zoology)
1. To utter a sound resembling this word, as certain birds do, especially the nightingale.

2. To nestle or collect together in a covey; -- said of quails and partridges.

Jugal adjective [ Latin jugalis , from jugum yoke.]


1. Relating to a yoke, or to marriage. [ Obsolete]

2. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or in the region of, the malar, or cheek bone.

Jugata noun plural [ Neut. plural of Latin jugatus , past participle of jugare to join.] (Numis.) The figures of two heads on a medal or coin, either side by side or joined.