Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913, 100,000 entries)
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O O (ō). 1. O, the fifteenth letter of the English alphabet, derives its form, value, and name from the Greek O, through the Latin. The letter came into the Greek from the Phœnician, which possibly derived it ultimately from the Egyptian. Etymologically, the letter o is most closely related to a , e , and u ; as in E. b o ne, Anglo-Saxon b ā n; E. st o ne, Anglo-Saxon st ā n; E. br o ke, Anglo-Saxon br e can to break; E. b o re, Anglo-Saxon b e ran to bear; E. d o ve, Anglo-Saxon d ū fe; E. t o ft, t u ft; t o ne, t u ne; n u mber, F. n o mbre. The letter o has several vowel sounds, the principal of which are its long sound, as in bone , its short sound, as in nod , and the sounds heard in the words orb , son , do ( feod ), and wolf ( book ). In connection with the other vowels it forms several digraphs and diphthongs. See Guide to Pronunciation , §§ 107-129. 2. Among the ancients, O was a mark of triple time, from the notion that the ternary, or number 3, is the most perfect of numbers, and properly expressed by a circle, the most perfect figure. O was also anciently used to represent 11: with a dash over it (Ō), 11,000.
; plural O's
(ōz). 1. The letter O, or its sound.
"Mouthing out his hollow oes
and aes." Tennyson. 2. Something shaped like the letter O; a circle or oval.
"This wooden O
[ Globe Theater]". Shak. 3. A cipher; zero.
Thou art an O without a figure. Shak.
O O (ō) adjective [ See One .] One. [ Obsolete] Chaucer. "Alle thre but o God." Piers Plowman.
O O interj. An exclamation used in calling or directly addressing a person or personified object; also, as an emotional or impassioned exclamation expressing pain, grief, surprise, desire, fear, etc.
For ever, O Lord, thy word is settled in heaven. Ps. cxix. 89.
O how love I thy law ! it is my meditation all the day. Ps. cxix. 97.
is frequently followed by an ellipsis and that
, an in expressing a wish: " O
[ I wish] that Ishmael might live before thee !" Gen. xvii. 18
; or in expressions of surprise, indignation, or regret: " O
[ it is sad] that such eyes should e'er meet other object !" Sheridan Knowles.
» A distinction between the use of O
is insisted upon by some, namely, that O
should be used only in direct address to a person or personified object, and should never be followed by the exclamation point, while Oh
) should be used in exclamations where no direct appeal or address to an object is made, and may be followed by the exclamation point or not, according to the nature or construction of the sentence. Some insist that oh
should be used only as an interjection expressing strong feeling. The form O
, however, is, it seems, the one most commonly employed for both uses by modern writers and correctors for the press. " O
, I am slain !" Shak.
what a fair and ministering angel !" " O
sweet angel !" Longfellow.
O for a kindling touch from that pure flame ! Wordsworth.
But she is in her grave, -- and oh Wordsworth.
The difference to me !
Oh for a lodge in some vast wilderness ! Cowper.
We should distinguish between the sign of the vocative and the emotional interjection, writing O for the former, and oh for the latter. Earle. O dear
, & O dear me!
[ corrupted from French O Dieu!
or Italian O Dio!
O God! O Dio mio!
O my God! Wyman
.], exclamations expressive of various emotions, but usually promoted by surprise, consternation, grief, pain, etc.
O' O' [ Ir. o a descendant.] A prefix to Irish family names, which signifies grandson or descendant of, and is a character of dignity; as, O' Neil, O' Carrol.
O' O' (ō; unaccented o) preposition A shortened form of of or on . "At the turning o' the tide." Shak.
O'er O'er preposition & adverb A contr. of Over . [ Poetic]
Oœcium O·œ"ci·um noun
; plural Oœcia
. [ New Latin , from Greek w,'o`n
an egg + ... a house.] (Zoology) One of the special zooids, or cells, of Bryozoa, destined to receive and develop ova; an ovicell. See Bryozoa .
Oad Oad (ōd) noun See Woad . [ Obsolete] Coles.
Oaf Oaf (ōf) noun [ See Auf .] Originally, an elf's child; a changeling left by fairies or goblins; hence, a deformed or foolish child; a simpleton; an idiot.
Oafish Oaf"ish adjective Like an oaf; simple. -- Oaf"ish*ness , noun
Oak Oak (ōk) noun [ Middle English oke , ok , ak , Anglo-Saxon āc ; akin to Dutch eik , German eiche , Old High German eih , Icelandic eik , Swedish ek , Danish eeg .] 1. (Botany) Any tree or shrub of the genus Quercus . The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and staminate flowers in catkins. The fruit is a smooth nut, called an acorn , which is more or less inclosed in a scaly involucre called the cup or cupule . There are now recognized about three hundred species, of which nearly fifty occur in the United States, the rest in Europe, Asia, and the other parts of North America, a very few barely reaching the northern parts of South America and Africa. Many of the oaks form forest trees of grand proportions and live many centuries. The wood is usually hard and tough, and provided with conspicuous medullary rays, forming the silver grain. 2. The strong wood or timber of the oak. » Among the true oaks in America are: Barren oak , or Black-jack , Q. nigra . -- Basket oak , Q. Michauxii . -- Black oak , Q. tinctoria ; -- called also yellow or quercitron oak . -- Bur oak (see under Bur .), Q. macrocarpa ; -- called also over-cup or mossy-cup oak . -- Chestnut oak , Q. Prinus and Q. densiflora . -- Chinquapin oak (see under Chinquapin ), Q. prinoides . -- Coast live oak , Q. agrifolia , of California; -- also called enceno . -- Live oak (see under Live ), Q. virens , the best of all for shipbuilding; also, Q. Chrysolepis , of California. -- Pin oak . Same as Swamp oak . - - Post oak , Q. obtusifolia . -- Red oak , Q. rubra . -- Scarlet oak , Q. coccinea . -- Scrub oak , Q. ilicifolia , Q. undulata , etc. -- Shingle oak , Q. imbricaria . -- Spanish oak , Q. falcata . -- Swamp Spanish oak , or Pin oak , Q. palustris . -- Swamp white oak , Q. bicolor . -- Water oak , Q. aguatica . -- Water white oak , Q. lyrata . -- Willow oak , Q. Phellos . Among the true oaks in Europe are: Bitter oak , or Turkey oak , Q. Cerris (see Cerris ). -- Cork oak , Q. Suber . -- English white oak , Q. Robur . -- Evergreen oak , Holly oak , or Holm oak , Q. Ilex . -- Kermes oak , Q. coccifera . -- Nutgall oak , Q. infectoria . » Among plants called oak , but not of the genus Quercus , are: African oak , a valuable timber tree ( Oldfieldia Africana ). -- Australian, or She , oak , any tree of the genus Casuarina (see Casuarina ). -- Indian oak , the teak tree (see Teak ). -- Jerusalem oak . See under Jerusalem . -- New Zealand oak , a sapindaceous tree ( Alectryon excelsum ). -- Poison oak , the poison ivy. See under Poison . -- Silky, or Silk-bark , oak , an Australian tree ( Grevillea robusta ). Green oak , oak wood colored green by the growth of the mycelium of certain fungi. -- Oak apple , a large, smooth, round gall produced on the leaves of the American red oak by a gallfly ( Cynips confluens ). It is green and pulpy when young. -- Oak beauty (Zoology) , a British geometrid moth ( Biston prodromaria ) whose larva feeds on the oak. -- Oak gall , a gall found on the oak. See 2d Gall . -- Oak leather (Botany) , the mycelium of a fungus which forms leatherlike patches in the fissures of oak wood. -- Oak pruner . (Zoology) See Pruner , the insect. -- Oak spangle , a kind of gall produced on the oak by the insect Diplolepis lenticularis . -- Oak wart , a wartlike gall on the twigs of an oak. -- The Oaks , one of the three great annual English horse races (the Derby and St. Leger being the others). It was instituted in 1779 by the Earl of Derby, and so called from his estate. -- To sport one's oak , to be "not at home to visitors," signified by closing the outer (oaken) door of one's rooms. [ Cant, Eng. Univ.]
Oaken Oak"en adjective
[ Anglo-Saxon ācen
.] Made or consisting of oaks or of the wood of oaks.
Oaken timber, wherewith to build ships. Bacon.
Oaker Oak"er noun See Ocher . [ Obsolete] Spenser.
Oakling Oak"ling noun A young oak. Evelyn.
Oakum Oak"um noun [ Anglo-Saxon ācumba ; prefix ... (cf.G. er- , Goth. us- , orig. meaning, out) + cemban to comb, camb comb. See Comb .] 1. The material obtained by untwisting and picking into loose fiber old hemp ropes; -- used for calking the seams of ships, stopping leaks, etc. 2. The coarse portion separated from flax or hemp in nackling. Knight. White oakum , that made from untarred rope.
Oaky Oak"y noun Resembling oak; strong. Bp. Hall.
Oar Oar n [ Anglo-Saxon ār ; akin to Icelandic ār , Danish aare , Swedish åra ; perhaps akin to English row , v. Confer Rowlock .] 1. An implement for impelling a boat, being a slender piece of timber, usually ash or spruce, with a grip or handle at one end and a broad blade at the other. The part which rests in the rowlock is called the loom . » An oar is a kind of long paddle, which swings about a kind of fulcrum, called a rowlock , fixed to the side of the boat. 2. An oarsman; a rower; as, he is a good oar . 3. (Zoology) An oarlike swimming organ of various invertebrates. Oar cock (Zoöl) , the water rail. [ Prov. Eng.] -- Spoon oar , an oar having the blade so curved as to afford a better hold upon the water in rowing. -- To boat the oars , to cease rowing, and lay the oars in the boat. -- To feather the oars . See under Feather . , transitive verb -- To lie on the oars , to cease pulling, raising the oars out of water, but not boating them; to cease from work of any kind; to be idle; to rest. -- To muffle the oars , to put something round that part which rests in the rowlock, to prevent noise in rowing. -- To put in one's oar , to give aid or advice; -- commonly used of a person who obtrudes aid or counsel not invited. -- To ship the oars , to place them in the rowlocks. -- To toss the oars , To peak the oars, to lift them from the rowlocks and hold them perpendicularly, the handle resting on the bottom of the boat. - - To trail oars , to allow them to trail in the water alongside of the boat. -- To unship the oars , to take them out of the rowlocks.
Oar Oar transitive verb & i.
[ imperfect & past participle Oared
; present participle & verbal noun Oaring
.] To row.
Oared with laboring arms. Pope.
Oar-footed Oar"-foot`ed adjective Having feet adapted for swimming.
Oared Oared adjective 1. Furnished with oars; -- chiefly used in composition; as, a four- oared boat. 2. (Zoology) (a) Having feet adapted for swimming. (b) Totipalmate; -- said of the feet of certain birds. See Illust. of Aves . Oared shrew (Zoology) , an aquatic European shrew ( Crossopus ciliatus ); -- called also black water shrew .
Oarfish Oar"fish` (ōr"fĭsh`) noun (Zoology) The ribbon fish.
Oarfoot Oar"foot` (-fot`) noun (Zoology) Any crustacean of the genus Remipes .
Oarless Oar"less adjective Without oars. Sylvester.
Oarlock Oar"lock` (ōr"lŏk`) noun (Nautical) , The notch, fork, or other device on the gunwale of a boat, in which the oar rests in rowing. See Rowlock .
; plural Oarsmen
n). One who uses, or is skilled in the use of, an oar; a rower.
At the prow of the boat, rose one of the oarsmen . Longfellow.
Oarsweed Oars"weed` (ōr"wēd`) noun (Botany) Any large seaweed of the genus Laminaria ; tangle; kelp. See Kelp .
Oary Oar"y (ōr"ȳ) adjective Having the form or the use of an oar; as, the swan's oary feet. Milton. Addison.
o*ā"sĭs; 277) noun
; plural Oases
(-sēz). [ Latin , from Greek 'o`asis
; confer Copt. ouahe
.] A fertile or green spot in a waste or desert, esp. in a sandy desert.
My one oasis in the dust and drouth Tennyson.
Of city life.
Oast Oast (ōst) noun [ Middle English ost , Anglo-Saxon āst ; confer Greek a'i^qos burning heat.] A kiln to dry hops or malt; a cockle. Mortimer.
; plural Oats
(ōts). [ Middle English ote
, Anglo-Saxon āta
, akin to Fries. oat
. Of uncertain origin.] 1. (Botany) A well-known cereal grass ( Avena sativa ), and its edible grain; -- commonly used in the plural and in a collective sense. 2. A musical pipe made of oat straw.
[ Obsolete] Milton. Animated oats or Animal oats (Botany)
, A grass ( Avena sterilis ) much like oats, but with a long spirally twisted awn which coils and uncoils with changes of moisture, and thus gives the grains an apparently automatic motion.
-- Oat fowl (Zoology)
, the snow bunting; -- so called from its feeding on oats.
[ Prov. Eng.] -- Oat grass (Botany)
, the name of several grasses more or less resembling oats, as Danthonia spicata , D. sericea , and Arrhenatherum avenaceum , all common in parts of the United States.
-- To feel one's oats
, to be conceited ro self-important.
[ Slang] -- To sow one's wild oats
, to indulge in youthful dissipation. Thackeray.
-- Wild oats (Botany)
, a grass ( Avena fatua ) much resembling oats, and by some persons supposed to be the original of cultivated oats.
Oatcake Oat"cake noun A cake made of oatmeal.
Oaten Oat"en adjective 1. Consisting of an oat straw or stem; as, an oaten pipe. Milton. 2. Made of oatmeal; as, oaten cakes.
; plural Oaths
(ō&thlig;z). [ Middle English othe
, Anglo-Saxon āð
; akin to Dutch eed
, Old Saxon ēð
, German eid
, Icelandic eiðr
, Swedish ed
, Danish eed
, Goth. aiþs
; confer OIr. oeth
.] 1. A solemn affirmation or declaration, made with a reverent appeal to God for the truth of what is affirmed.
"I have an oath
in heaven" Shak.
An oath of secrecy for the concealing of those [ inventions] which we think fit to keep secret. Bacon. 2. A solemn affirmation, connected with a sacred object, or one regarded as sacred, as the temple, the altar, the blood of Abel, the Bible, the Koran, etc. 3. (Law) An appeal (in verification of a statement made) to a superior sanction, in such a form as exposes the party making the appeal to an indictment for perjury if the statement be false. 4. A careless and blasphemous use of the name of the divine Being, or anything divine or sacred, by way of appeal or as a profane exclamation or ejaculation; an expression of profane swearing.
"A terrible oath
Oathable Oath"a·ble adjective Capable of having an oath administered to. [ Obsolete] Shak.
Oathbreaking Oath"break`ing noun The violation of an oath; perjury. Shak
Oatmeal Oat"meal` noun 1. Meal made of oats. Gay. 2. (Botany) A plant of the genus Panicum ; panic grass.
Ob- Ob- [ Latin ob , preposition Confer Epi- .] A prefix signifying to , toward , before , against , reversely , etc.; also, as a simple intensive; as in oblige , to bind to; obstacle, something standing before; object, lit., to throw against; obovate, reversely, ovate. Ob- is commonly assimilated before c , f , g , and p , to oc- , of- , og- , and op- .
Obcompressed Ob"com·pressed" adjective [ Prefix ob- + compressed .] Compressed or flattened antero- posteriorly, or in a way opposite to the usual one.
Obconic, Obconical Ob·con"ic, Ob·con"ic·al adjective [ Prefix ob- + conic , conical .] Conical, but having the apex downward; inversely conical.
Obcordate Ob·cor"date adjective [ Prefix ob- + cordate .] Heart-shaped, with the attachment at the pointed end; inversely cordate: as, an obcordate petal or leaf.
Obdiplostemonous Ob·dip`lo·stem"o·nous adjective [ Prefix ob- + diplostemonous .] (Botany) Having twice as many stamens as petals, those of the outer set being opposite the petals; -- said of flowers. Gray.
Obdiplostemony Ob·dip"lo·stem"o·ny noun (Botany) The condition of being obdiplostemonous.
Obdormition Ob"dor·mi"tion noun [ Latin obdormire to fall asleep.] Sleep. [ Obsolete] Bp. Hall.
Obduce Ob·duce" transitive verb [ Latin obducere , obductum ; ob (see Ob-) + ducere to lead.] To draw over, as a covering. [ Obsolete] Sir M. Hale.
Obduct Ob·duct" transitive verb [ See Obduce .] To draw over; to cover. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.
Obduction Ob·duc"tion noun [ Latin obductio .] The act of drawing or laying over, as a covering. [ Obsolete]
Obduracy Ob"du·ra·cy noun The duality or state of being obdurate; invincible hardness of heart; obstinacy.
and persistency." Shak.
The absolute completion of sin in final obduracy . South.
Obdurate Ob"du·rate adjective
[ Latin obduratus
, past participle of obdurare
to harden; ob
(see Ob-)+ durare
to harden, durus
hard. See Dure
.] 1. Hardened in feelings, esp. against moral or mollifying influences; unyielding; hard-hearted; stubbornly wicked.
The very custom of evil makes the heart obdurate against whatsoever instructions to the contrary. Hooker.
Art thou obdurate , flinty, hard as steel, Nay, more than flint, for stone at rain relenteth? Shak. 2. Hard; harsh; rugged; rough; intractable.
» Sometimes accented on the second syllable, especially by the older poets.
There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart. Cowper. Syn.
-- Hard; firm; unbending; inflexible; unyielding; stubborn; obstinate; impenitent; callous; unfeeling; insensible; unsusceptible. -- Obdurate
denotes a deadening of the sensibilities; as. a callous
implies a general and settled disregard for the claims of interest, duty, and sympathy; as, hardened
in vice. Obdurate
implies an active resistance of the heart and will aganst the pleadings of compassion and humanity. -- Ob"du*rate*ly adverb
Obdurate Ob"du·rate transitive verb To harden. [ Obsolete]
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