Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Junta (jŭn"tȧ) noun ; plural Juntas (-tȧz). [ Spanish , from Latin junctus joined, past participle of jungere to join. See Join , and confer Junto .] A council; a convention; a tribunal; an assembly; esp., the grand council of state in Spain.

Junto (-to) noun ; plural Juntos (-toz). [ Spanish junto united. See Junta .] A secret council to deliberate on affairs of government or politics; a number of men combined for party intrigue; a faction; a cabal; as, a junto of ministers; a junto of politicians.

The puzzling sons of party next appeared,
In dark cabals and mighty juntos met.
Thomson.

Jupartie noun Jeopardy. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Jupati palm (Botany) A great Brazilian palm tree ( Raphia tædigera ), used by the natives for many purposes.

Jupe noun Same as Jupon .

Jupiter noun [ Latin , from Jovis pater . See Jove .]


1. (Rom. Myth.) The supreme deity, king of gods and men, and reputed to be the son of Saturn and Rhea; Jove. He corresponds to the Greek Zeus.

2. (Astron.) One of the planets, being the brightest except Venus, and the largest of them all, its mean diameter being about 85,000 miles. It revolves about the sun in 4,332.6 days, at a mean distance of 5.2028 from the sun, the earth's mean distance being taken as unity.

Jupiter's beard . (Botany) (a) A South European herb, with cymes of small red blossoms ( Centranthus ruber ) . (b) The houseleek ( Sempervivum tectorum ); -- so called from its massive inflorescence, like the sculptured beard of Jove . Prior. (c) the cloverlike Anthyllis Barba-Jovis . -- Jupiter's staff (Botany) , the common mullein; -- so called from its long, rigid spike of yellow blossoms.

Jupon, Juppon noun [ French jupon , from jupe skirt, Spanish aljuba a Moorish garment, Arabic jubba .] [ Written variously jupe , jump , juppo , etc.]


1. A sleeveless jacket worn over the armor in the 14th century. It fitted closely, and descended below the hips. Dryden.

2. A petticoat. Halliwell.

Jura noun [ French & Latin ] 1. A range of mountains between France and Switzerland.

2. (Geol.) The Jurassic period. See Jurassic .

Jura-trias noun (Geol.) A term applied to many American Mesozoic strata, in which the characteristics of the Jurassic and Triassic periods appear to be blended. -- Ju`ra-tri*as"sic adjective

Jural adjective [ Latin jus , juris , right.]


1. Pertaining to natural or positive right. [ R.]

By the adjective jural we shall denote that which has reference to the doctrine of rights and obligations; as by the adjective "moral" we denote that which has reference to the doctrine of duties.
Whewell.

2. (Law) Of or pertaining to jurisprudence.

Juramentum noun ; plural Juramenta [ Latin ] (Roman & Old Eng. Law) An oath.

Jurassic adjective (Geol.) Of the age of the middle Mesozoic, including, as divided in England and Europe, the Lias, Oölite, and Wealden; -- named from certain rocks of the Jura mountains. -- noun The Jurassic period or formation; -- called also the Jura .

Jurat noun [ Prov. French jurat , from Latin juratus sworn, past participle of jurare to swear. See Jury , noun ]


1. A person under oath; specifically, an officer of the nature of an alderman, in certain municipal corporations in England. Burrill.

2. (Law) The memorandum or certificate at the end of an asffidavit, or a bill or answer in chancery, showing when, before whom, and (in English practice), where, it was sworn or affirmed. Wharton. Bouvier.

Juratory adjective [ Latin juratorius , from jurare to swear: confer French juratoire .] Relating to or comprising an oath; as, juratory caution. Ayliffe.

Jurdiccion (jŭr*dĭk"sĭ*ŏn) noun Jurisdiction. [ Obsolete]

Jurdon (jûr"dŏn) noun Jordan. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Jurel noun (Zoology) A yellow carangoid fish of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts ( Caranx chrysos ), most abundant southward, where it is valued as a food fish; -- called also hardtail , horse crevallé , jack , buffalo jack , skipjack , yellow mackerel , and sometimes, improperly, horse mackerel . Other species of Caranx (as C. fallax ) are also sometimes called jurel .

Juridic, Juridical adjective [ Latin juridicus relating to the administration of justice; jus , juris , right, law + dicare to pronounce: confer French juridique . See Just , adjective , and Diction .] Pertaining to a judge or to jurisprudence; acting in the distribution of justice; used in courts of law; according to law; legal; as, juridical law. "This juridical sword." Milton.

The body corporate of the kingdom, in juridical construction, never dies.
Burke.

Juridical days , days on which courts are open.

Juridically adverb In a juridical manner.

Jurisconsult noun [ Latin jurisconsultus ; jus , juris , right + consulere , consultum , to consult: confer French jurisconsulte .] (Law) A man learned in the civil law; an expert in juridical science; a professor of jurisprudence; a jurist.

Jurisdiction noun [ Latin jurisdictio ; jus , juris , right, law + dictio a saying, speaking: confer Old French jurisdiction , French juridiction . See Just , adjective , and Diction .]


1. (Law) The legal power, right, or authority of a particular court to hear and determine causes, to try criminals, or to execute justice; judicial authority over a cause or class of causes; as, certain suits or actions, or the cognizance of certain crimes, are within the jurisdiction of a particular court, that is, within the limits of its authority or commission.

2. The authority of a sovereign power to govern or legislate; the right of making or enforcing laws; the power or right of exercising authority.

To live exempt
From Heaven's high jurisdiction .
Milton.

You wrought to be a legate; by which power
You maim'd the jurisdiction of all bishops.
Shak.

3. Sphere of authority; the limits within which any particular power may be exercised, or within which a government or a court has authority.

» Jurisdiction , in its most general sense, is the power to make, declare, or apply the law. When confined to the judiciary department , it is what we denominate the judicial power , the right of administering justice through the laws, by the means which the laws have provided for that purpose. Jurisdiction is limited to place or territory, to persons, or to particular subjects. Duponceau.

Jurisdictional adjective [ Confer Late Latin jurisdictionalis , French juridictionnel .] Of or pertaining to jurisdiction; as, jurisdictional rights. Barrow.

Jurisdictive adjective Having jurisdiction. Milton.

Jurisprudence noun [ Latin jurisprudentia ; jus , juris , right, law + prudentia a foreseeing, knowledge of a matter, prudence: confer French jurisprudence . See Just , adjective , and Prudence .] The science of juridical law; the knowledge of the laws, customs, and rights of men in a state or community, necessary for the due administration of justice.

The talents of Abelard were not confined to theology, jurisprudence , philosophy.
J. Warton.

Medical jurisprudence , that branch of juridical law which concerns questions of medicine.

Jurisprudent adjective [ See Jurisprudence .] Understanding law; skilled in jurisprudence. G. West.

Jurisprudent noun [ Confer French jurisprudent .] One skilled in law or jurisprudence. [ R.] De Quincey.

Jurisprudential adjective Of or pertaining to jurisprudence. Stewart.

Jurist noun [ French juriste , Late Latin jurista , from Latin jus , juris , right, law. See Just , adjective ] One who professes the science of law; one versed in the law, especially in the civil law; a writer on civil and international law.

It has ever been the method of public jurists to ...raw a great part of the analogies on which they form the law of nations from the principles of law which prevail in civil community.
Burke.

Juristic, Juristical adjective Of or pertaining to a jurist, to the legal profession, or to jurisprudence. [ R.] " Juristic ancestry." Lowell.

Juror noun [ French jureur one who takes oath, Latin jurator a swearer, from jurare , jurari , to swear. See Jury , noun ]


1. (Law) A member of a jury; a juryman.

I shall both find your lordship judge and juror .
Shak.

2. A member of any jury for awarding prizes, etc.

Jury adjective [ Etymol. uncertain.] (Nautical) For temporary use; -- applied to a temporary contrivance.

Jury mast , a temporary mast, in place of one that has been carried away, or broken. -- Jury rudder , a rudder constructed for temporary use.

Jury noun ; plural Juries . [ Old French jurée an assize, from jurer to swear, Latin jurare , jurari ; akin to jus , juris , right, law. See Just , adjective , and confer Jurat , Abjure .]


1. (Law) A body of men, usually twelve, selected according to law, impaneled and sworn to inquire into and try any matter of fact, and to render their true verdict according to the evidence legally adduced. See Grand jury under Grand , and Inquest .

The jury , passing on the prisoner's life.
Shak.

2. A committee for determining relative merit or awarding prizes at an exhibition or competition; as, the art jury gave him the first prize.

Jury of inquest , a coroner's jury. See Inquest .

Jury mast (a) A temporary mast, in place of one that has been carried away, or broken. (b) (Medicine) An apparatus to support the trunk and head in spinal disease.

Jury-rigged adjective (Nautical) Rigged for temporary service. See Jury , adjective

Juryman noun ; plural Jurymen One who is impaneled on a jury, or who serves as a juror.

Jussi noun A delicate fiber, produced in the Philippine Islands from an unidentified plant, of which dresses, etc., are made.

Just adjective [ French juste , Latin justus , from jus right, law, justice; orig., that which is fitting; akin to Sanskrit yu to join. Confer Injury , Judge , Jury , Giusto .]


1. Conforming or conformable to rectitude or justice; not doing wrong to any; violating no right or obligation; upright; righteous; honest; true; -- said both of persons and things. "O just but severe law!" Shak.

There is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.
Eccl. vii. 20.

Just balances, just weights, . . . shall ye have.
Lev. xix. 36.

How should man be just with God?
Job ix. 2.

We know your grace to be a man.
Just and upright.
Shak.

2. Not transgressing the requirement of truth and propriety; conformed to the truth of things, to reason, or to a proper standard; exact; normal; reasonable; regular; due; as, a just statement; a just inference.

Just of thy word, in every thought sincere.
Pope.

The prince is here at hand: pleaseth your lordship
To meet his grace just distance 'tween our armies.
Shak.

He was a comely personage, a little above just stature.
Bacon.

Fire fitted with just materials casts a constant heat.
Jer. Taylor.

When all
The war shall stand ranged in its just array.
Addison.

Their named alone would make a just volume.
Burton.

3. Rendering or disposed to render to each one his due; equitable; fair; impartial; as, just judge.

Men are commonly so just to virtue and goodness as to praise it in others, even when they do not practice it themselves.
Tillotson.

Just intonation . (Mus.) (a) The correct sounding of notes or intervals; true pitch . (b) The giving all chords and intervals in their purity or their exact mathematical ratio, or without temperament ; a process in which the number of notes and intervals required in the various keys is much greater than the twelve to the octave used in systems of temperament. H. W. Poole.

Syn. -- Equitable; upright; honest; true; fair; impartial; proper; exact; normal; orderly; regular.

Just adverb
1. Precisely; exactly; -- in place, time, or degree; neither more nor less than is stated.

And having just enough, not covet more.
Dryden.

The god Pan guided my hand just to the heart of the beast.
Sir P. Sidney.

To-night, at Herne's oak, just 'twixt twelve and one.
Shak.

2. Closely; nearly; almost.

Just at the point of death.
Sir W. Temple.

3. Barely; merely; scarcely; only; by a very small space or time; as, he just missed the train; just too late.

A soft Etesian gale
But just inspired and gently swelled the sail.
Dryden.

Just now , the least possible time since; a moment ago.

Just intransitive verb [ See Joust .] To joust. Fairfax.

Just noun A joust. Dryden.

Justice noun [ French, from Latin justitia , from justus just. See Just , adjective ]


1. The quality of being just; conformity to the principles of righteousness and rectitude in all things; strict performance of moral obligations; practical conformity to human or divine law; integrity in the dealings of men with each other; rectitude; equity; uprightness.

Justice and judgment are the haditation of thy throne.
Ps. ixxxix. 11.

The king-becoming graces,
As justice, verity, temperance, stableness, . . .
I have no relish of them.
Shak.

2. Conformity to truth and reality in expressing opinions and in conduct; fair representation of facts respecting merit or demerit; honesty; fidelity; impartiality; as, the justice of a description or of a judgment; historical justice .

3. The rendering to every one his due or right; just treatment; requital of desert; merited reward or punishment; that which is due to one's conduct or motives.

This even-handed justice
Commends the ingredients of our poisoned chalice
To our own lips.
Shak.

4. Agreeableness to right; equity; justness; as, the justice of a claim.

5. A person duly commissioned to hold courts, or to try and decide controversies and administer justice.

» This title is given to the judges of the common law courts in England and in the United States, and extends to judicial officers and magistrates of every grade.

Bed of justice . See under Bed . - - Chief justice . See in the Vocabulary. -- Justice of the peace (Law) , a judicial officer or subordinate magistrate appointed for the conservation of the peace in a specified district, with other incidental powers specified in his commission. In the United States a justice of the peace has jurisdiction to adjudicate certain minor cases, commit offenders, etc.

Syn. -- Equity; law; right; rectitude; honesty; integrity; uprightness; fairness; impartiality. -- Justice , Equity , Law . Justice and equity are the same; but human laws, though designed to secure justice, are of necessity imperfect, and hence what is strictly legal is at times far from being equitable or just . Here a court of equity comes in to redress the grievances. It does so, as distinguished from courts of law ; and as the latter are often styled courts of justice , some have fancied that there is in this case a conflict between justice and equity . The real conflict is against the working of the law ; this a court of equity brings into accordance with the claims of justice . It would be an unfortunate use of language which should lead any one to imagine he might have justice on his side while practicing iniquity ( inequity ).

Justice , Rectitude . Rectitude , in its widest sense, is one of the most comprehensive words in our language, denoting absolute conformity to the rule of right in principle and practice. Justice refers more especially to the carrying out of law, and has been considered by moralists as of three kinds: (1) Commutative justice, which gives every man his own property, including things pledged by promise. (2) Distributive justice, which gives every man his exact deserts. (3) General justice, which carries out all the ends of law, though not in every case through the precise channels of commutative or distributive justice; as we see often done by a parent or a ruler in his dealings with those who are subject to his control.

Justice transitive verb To administer justice to. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Justiceable adjective Liable to trial in a court of justice. [ Obsolete] Hayward.

Justicehood noun Justiceship. B. Jonson.

Justicement noun Administration of justice; procedure in courts of justice. [ Obsolete] Johnson.

Justicer noun One who administers justice; a judge. [ Obsolete] "Some upright justicer ." Shak.

Justiceship noun The office or dignity of a justice. Holland.

Justiciable adjective [ Confer Late Latin justitiabilis , French justiciable .] Proper to be examined in a court of justice. Bailey.

Justiciar noun Same as Justiciary .