Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Jouk intransitive verb See Juke .

Joul transitive verb See Jowl .

Joule (jōl) noun [ From the distinguished English physicist, James P. Joule .] (Physics.) A unit of work which is equal to 10 7 units of work in the C. G. S. system of units (ergs), and is practically equivalent to the energy expended in one second by an electric current of one ampere in a resistance of one ohm. One joule is approximately equal to 0.738 foot pounds.

Joule's equivalent . See under Equivalent , noun

Joule's cycle (Thermodynamics) The cycle for the air engine proposed by Joule. In it air is taken by a pump from a cold chamber and compressed adiabatically until its pressure is eqal to that of the air in a hot chamber, into which it is then delivered, thereby displacing an equal amount of hot air into the engine cylinder. Here it expands adiabatically to the temperature of the cold chamber into which it is finally exhausted. This cycle, reversed, is used in refrigerating machines.

Joule's law
1. (Electricity) The law that the rate at which heat is produced in any part of an electric circuit is measured by the product of the square of the current into the resistance of that part of the circuit. If the current (i) is constant for an interval of time (t) , the energy ( H ) in heat units equals i 2 Rt , R being resistance.

2. (Thermodynamics) The law that there is no change of temperature when a gas expands without doing external work and without receiving or rejecting heat.

Joulemeter noun An integrating wattmeter for measuring the energy in joules expended in an electric circuit or developed by a machine.

Jounce (jouns) transitive verb & i. [ imperfect & past participle Jounced (jounst); present participle & verbal noun Jouncing (joun"sĭng).] [ Confer Jaunce .] To jolt; to shake, especially by rough riding or by driving over obstructions.

Jounce noun A jolt; a shake; a hard trot.

Journal adjective [ French, from Latin diurnalis diurnal, from diurnus belonging to the day, from dies day. See Diurnal .] Daily; diurnal. [ Obsolete]

Whiles from their journal labors they did rest.
Spenser.

Journal noun [ French journal . See Journal , adjective ]


1. A diary; an account of daily transactions and events. Specifically: (a) (Bookkeeping) A book of accounts, in which is entered a condensed and grouped statement of the daily transactions. (b) (Nautical) A daily register of the ship's course and distance, the winds, weather, incidents of the voyage, etc. (c) (Legislature) The record of daily proceedings, kept by the clerk. (d) A newspaper published daily; by extension, a weekly newspaper or any periodical publication, giving an account of passing events, the proceedings and memoirs of societies, etc.; a periodical; a magazine.

2. That which has occurred in a day; a day's work or travel; a day's journey. [ Obsolete & R.] B. Jonson.

3. (Machinery) That portion of a rotating piece, as a shaft, axle, spindle, etc., which turns in a bearing or box. See Illust. of Axle box .

Journal box , or Journal bearing (Machinery) the carrier of a journal; the box in which the journal of a shaft, axle, or pin turns.

Journalism noun [ Confer French journalisme .]


1. The keeping of a journal or diary. [ Obsolete]

2. The periodical collection and publication of current news; the business of managing, editing, or writing for, journals or newspapers; as, political journalism .

Journalism is now truly an estate of the realm.
Ed. Rev.

Journalist noun [ Confer French journaliste .]


1. One who keeps a journal or diary. [ Obsolete] Mickle.

2. The conductor of a public journal, or one whose business it to write for a public journal; an editorial or other professional writer for a periodical. Addison.

Journalistic adjective Pertaining to journals or to journalists; contained in, or characteristic of, the public journals; as, journalistic literature or enterprise.

Journalize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Journalized ; present participle & verbal noun Journalizing .] To enter or record in a journal or diary. Johnson.

Journalize intransitive verb to conduct or contribute to a public journal; to follow the profession of a journalist.

Journey noun ; plural Journeys . [ Middle English jornee , journee , prop., a day's journey, Old French jornée , jurnée , a day, a day's work of journey, French journée , from Old French jorn , jurn , jor a day, French jour , from Latin diurnus . See Journal .]


1. The travel or work of a day. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

We have yet large day, for scarce the sun
Hath finished half his journey .
Milton.

2. Travel or passage from one place to another; hence, figuratively, a passage through life.

The good man . . . is gone a long journey .
Prov. vii. 19.

We must all have the same journey's end.
Bp. Stillingfleet.

Syn. -- Tour; excursion; trip; expedition; pilgrimage. -- Journey , Tour , Excursion , Pilgrimage . The word journey suggests the idea of a somewhat prolonged traveling for a specific object, leading a person to pass directly from one point to another. In a tour , we take a roundabout course from place to place, more commonly for pleasure, though sometimes on business. An excursion is usually a brief tour or trip for pleasure, health, etc. In a pilgrimage we travel to a place hallowed by our religions affections, or by some train of sacred or tender associations. A journey on important business; the tour of Europe; an excursion to the lakes; a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

Journey intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Journeyed ; present participle & verbal noun Journeying .] To travel from place to place; to go from home to a distance.

Abram journeyed , going on still toward the south.
Gen. xii. 9.

Journey transitive verb To traverse; to travel over or through. [ R.] "I journeyed many a land." Sir W. Scott.

Journey-bated adjective Worn out with journeying. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Journeyer noun One who journeys.

Journeyman noun ; plural Journeymen Formerly, a man hired to work by the day; now, commonly, one who has mastered a handicraft or trade; -- distinguished from apprentice and from master workman .

I have thought some of nature's journeymen had made men, and not made them well.
Shak.

Journeywork noun Originally, work done by the day; work done by a journeyman at his trade.

Joust intransitive verb [ Middle English justen , jousten , Old French jouster , jouster , joster , French jouter , from Latin juxta near to, nigh, from the root of jungere to join. See Join , and confer Jostle .] To engage in mock combat on horseback, as two knights in the lists; to tilt. [ Written also just .]

For the whole army to joust and tourney.
Holland.

Joust noun [ Middle English juste , jouste , Old French juste , jouste , joste , French joute . See Joust , intransitive verb ] A tilting match; a mock combat on horseback between two knights in the lists or inclosed field. [ Written also just .]

Gorgeous knights at joust and tournament.
Milton.

Jouster noun One who jousts or tilts.

Jove noun [ Latin Jupiter , gen. Jovis , OL. Jovis , nom. & gen. for Djovis ; akin to English Tuesday . See Tuesday , and confer Jupiter .]


1. The chief divinity of the ancient Romans; Jupiter.

2. (Astron.) The planet Jupiter. [ R.] Pope.

3. (Alchemy) The metal tin.

Bird of Jove , the eagle.

Jovial adjective [ French, from Latin Jovialis pertaining to Jove. The planet Jupiter was thought to make those born under it joyful or jovial. See Jove .]


1. Of or pertaining to the god, or the planet, Jupiter. [ Obsolete]

Our jovial star reigned at his birth.
Shak.

The fixed stars astrologically differenced by the planets, and esteemed Martial or Jovial according to the colors whereby they answer these planets.
Sir T. Browne.

2. Sunny; serene. [ Obsolete] "The heavens always joviall ." Spenser.

3. Gay; merry; joyous; jolly; mirth- inspiring; hilarious; characterized by mirth or jollity; as, a jovial youth; a jovial company; a jovial poem.

Be bright and jovial among your guests.
Shak.

His odes are some of them panegyrical, others moral; the rest are jovial or bacchanalian.
Dryden.

» This word is a relic of the belief in planetary influence. Other examples are saturnine , mercurial , martial , lunatic , etc.

Syn. -- Merry; joyous; gay; festive; mirthful; gleeful; jolly; hilarious.

Jovialist noun One who lives a jovial life. Bp. Hall.

Joviality noun [ Confer French jovialité .] The quality or state of being jovial. Sir T. Herbert.

Jovially adverb In a jovial manner; merrily; gayly. B. Jonson.

Jovialness noun Noisy mirth; joviality. Hewyt.

Jovialty noun Joviality. [ R.] Barrow.

Jovian adjective Of or pertaining to Jove, or Jupiter (either the deity or the planet).

Jovicentric adjective [ See Jove , and Center .] (Astron.) Revolving around the planet Jupiter; appearing as viewed from Jupiter. [ R.] J. R. Hind.

Jovinianist noun (Script. Hist.) An adherent to the doctrines of Jovinian, a monk of the fourth century, who denied the virginity of Mary, and opposed the asceticism of his time.

Jowl noun [ For older chole , chaul , Anglo-Saxon ceaft jaw. Confer Chaps .] The cheek; the jaw. [ Written also jole , choule , chowle , and geoule .]

Cheek by jowl , with the cheeks close together; side by side; in close proximity. "I will go with thee cheek by jole ." Shak. " Sits cheek by jowl ." Dryden.

Jowl transitive verb To throw, dash, or knock. [ Obsolete]

How the knave jowls it to the ground.
Shak.

Jowler noun (Zoology) A dog with large jowls, as the beagle.

Jowter noun A mounted peddler of fish; -- called also jouster . [ Obsolete] Carew.

Joy noun [ Middle English joye , Old French joye , joie , goie , French joie , Latin gaudia , plural of gaudium joy, from gaudere to rejoice, to be glad; confer Greek ... to rejoice, ... proud. Confer Gaud , Jewel .]


1. The passion or emotion excited by the acquisition or expectation of good; pleasurable feelings or emotions caused by success, good fortune, and the like, or by a rational prospect of possessing what we love or desire; gladness; exhilaration of spirits; delight.

Her heavenly form beheld, all wished her joy .
Dryden.

Glides the smooth current of domestic joy .
Johnson.

Who, for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross, despising the shame.
Hebrew xii. 2.

Tears of true joy for his return.
Shak.

Joy is a delight of the mind, from the consideration of the present or assured approaching possession of a good.
Locke.

2. That which causes joy or happiness.

For ye are our glory and joy .
1 Thess. ii. 20.

A thing of beauty is a joy forever.
Keats.

3. The sign or exhibition of joy; gayety; mirth; merriment; festivity.

Such joy made Una, when her knight she found.
Spenser.

The roofs with joy resound.
Dryden.

» Joy is used in composition, esp. with participles, to from many self-explaining compounds; as, joy -bells, joy -bringing, joy -inspiring, joy -resounding, etc.

Syn. -- Gladness; pleasure; delight; happiness; exultation; transport; felicity; ecstasy; rapture; bliss; gayety; mirth; merriment; festivity; hilarity.

Joy intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Joyed (joid); present participle & verbal noun Joying .] [ Old French joir , French jouir . See Joy , noun ] To rejoice; to be glad; to delight; to exult.

I will joy in the God of my salvation.
Hab. iii. 18.

In whose sight all things joy .
Milton.

Joy transitive verb
1. To give joy to; to congratulate. [ Obsolete] " Joy us of our conquest." Dryden.

To joy the friend, or grapple with the foe.
Prior.

2. To gladden; to make joyful; to exhilarate. [ Obsolete]

Neither pleasure's art can joy my spirits.
Shak.

3. To enjoy. [ Obsolete] See Enjoy .

Who might have lived and joyed immortal bliss.
Milton.

Joyance noun [ Old French joiance .] Enjoyment; gayety; festivity; joyfulness. Spenser.

Some days of joyance are decreed to all.
Byron.

From what hid fountains doth thy joyance flow?
Trench.

Joyancy noun Joyance. [ R.] Carlyle.

Joyful adjective Full of joy; having or causing joy; very glad; as, a joyful heart. " Joyful tidings." Shak.

My soul shall be joyful in my God.
Is. lxi. 10.

Sad for their loss, but joyful of our life.
Pope.

-- Joy"ful*ly , adverb -- Joy"ful*ness , noun

Joyless adjective Not having joy; not causing joy; unenjoyable. -- Joy"less*ly , adverb -- Joy"less*ness , noun

With downcast eyes the joyless victor sat.
Dryden.

Youth and health and war are joyless to him.
Addison.

[ He] pining for the lass,
Is joyless of the grove, and spurns the growing grass.
Dryden.

Joyous adjective [ Middle English joyous , joious , joios , French joyeux .See Joy .] Glad; gay; merry; joyful; also, affording or inspiring joy; with of before the word or words expressing the cause of joy.

Is this your joyous city?
Is. xxiii. 7.

They all as glad as birds of joyous prime.
Spenser.

And joyous of our conquest early won.
Dryden.

Syn. -- Merry; lively; blithe; gleeful; gay; glad; mirthful; sportive; festive; joyful; happy; blissful; charming; delightful.

-- Joy"ous*ly , adverb -- Joy"ous*ness , noun

Joysome adjective Causing joyfulness. [ R.]

This all joysome grove.
T. Browne.

Jub noun [ Perh. corrupted from jug .] A vessel for holding ale or wine; a jug. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Juba noun ; plural Jubæ (-bē). [ Latin , a mane.]


1. (Zoology) The mane of an animal.

2. (Botany) A loose panicle, the axis of which falls to pieces, as in certain grasses.