Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Casualty noun ; plural Casualties . [ French casualité , Late Latin casualitas .]
1. That which comes without design or without being foreseen; contingency.

Losses that befall them by mere casualty .
Sir W. Raleigh.

2. Any injury of the body from accident; hence, death, or other misfortune, occasioned by an accident; as, an unhappy casualty .

3. plural (Mil. & Naval) Numerical loss caused by death, wounds, discharge, or desertion.

Casualty ward , A ward in a hospital devoted to the treatment of injuries received by accident.

Syn. -- Accident; contingency; fortuity; misfortune.

Casuarina noun [ New Latin , supposed to be named from the resemblance of the twigs to the feathers of the cassowary, of the genus Casuarius .] (Botany) A genus of leafless trees or shrubs, with drooping branchlets of a rushlike appearance, mostly natives of Australia. Some of them are large, producing hard and heavy timber of excellent quality, called beefwood from its color.

Casuist noun [ Latin casus fall, case; confer French casuiste . See Casual .] One who is skilled in, or given to, casuistry.

The judment of any casuist or learned divine concerning the state of a man's soul, is not sufficient to give him confidence.

Casuist intransitive verb To play the casuist. Milton.

Casuistic, Casuistical adjective Of or pertaining to casuists or casuistry.

Casuistry adjective
1. The science or doctrine of dealing with cases of conscience, of resolving questions of right or wrong in conduct, or determining the lawfulness or unlawfulness of what a man may do by rules and principles drawn from the Scriptures, from the laws of society or the church, or from equity and natural reason; the application of general moral rules to particular cases.

The consideration of these nice and puzzling question in the science of ethics has given rise, in modern times, to a particular department of it, distinguished by the title of casuistry .

Casuistry in the science of cases (i.e., oblique deflections from the general rule).
De Quincey.

2. Sophistical, equivocal, or false reasoning or teaching in regard to duties, obligations, and morals.

Casus noun [ Latin ] An event; an occurrence; an occasion; a combination of circumstances; a case; an act of God. See the Note under Accident .

Casus belli , an event or combination of events which is a cause war, or may be alleged as a justification of war. -- Casus fortuitus , an accident against which due prudence could not have provided. See Act of God , under Act . -- Casus omissus , a case not provided for by the statute.

Cat (kăt) noun [ Anglo-Saxon cat ; akin to D. & Danish kat , Swedish katt , Icelandic köttr , German katze , kater , Ir. cat , W. cath , Armor. kaz , Late Latin catus , Bisc. catua , NGr. ga`ta , ga`tos , Russian & Pol. kot , Turk. kedi , Arabic qitt ; of unknown origin. Confer Kitten .]
1. (Zoology) An animal of various species of the genera Felis and Lynx . The domestic cat is Felis domestica . The European wild cat ( Felis catus ) is much larger than the domestic cat. In the United States the name wild cat is commonly applied to the bay lynx ( Lynx rufus ) See Wild cat , and Tiger cat .

» The domestic cat includes many varieties named from their place of origin or from some peculiarity; as, the Angora cat ; the Maltese cat ; the Manx cat .

The word cat is also used to designate other animals, from some fancied resemblance; as, civet cat , fisher cat , cat bird, cat fish shark, sea cat .

2. (Nautical) (a) A strong vessel with a narrow stern, projecting quarters, and deep waist. It is employed in the coal and timber trade. (b) A strong tackle used to draw an anchor up to the cathead of a ship. Totten.

3. A double tripod (for holding a plate, etc.), having six feet, of which three rest on the ground, in whatever position it is placed.

4. An old game; (a) The game of tipcat and the implement with which it is played. See Tipcat . (c) A game of ball, called, according to the number of batters, one old cat , two old cat , etc.

5. A cat o' nine tails. See below.

Angora cat , blind cat , See under Angora , Blind . -- Black cat the fisher. See under Black . -- Cat and dog , like a cat and dog; quarrelsome; inharmonious. "I am sure we have lived a cat and dog life of it." Coleridge. -- Cat block (Nautical) , a heavy iron-strapped block with a large hook, part of the tackle used in drawing an anchor up to the cathead. -- Cat hook (Nautical) , a strong hook attached to a cat block. - - Cat nap , a very short sleep. [ Colloq.] -- Cat o' nine tails , an instrument of punishment consisting of nine pieces of knotted line or cord fastened to a handle; -- formerly used to flog offenders on the bare back. -- Cat's cradle , game played, esp. by children, with a string looped on the fingers so, as to resemble small cradle. The string is transferred from the fingers of one to those of another, at each transfer with a change of form. See Cratch , Cratch cradle . -- To let the cat out of the bag , to tell a secret, carelessly or willfully. [ Colloq.] -- Bush cat , the serval. See Serval .

Cat transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle tted ; present participle & verbal noun Catting .] (Nautical) To bring to the cathead; as, to cat an anchor. See Anchor . Totten.

Cat o' nine tails See under Cat .

Cata [ Greek kata` .] The Latin and English form of a Greek preposition, used as a prefix to signify down , downward , under , against , contrary or opposed to , wholly , completely ; as in cata clysm, cata rrh. It sometimes drops the final vowel, as in cato ptric; and is sometimes changed to cath , as in cath artic, cath olic.

Catabaptist noun [ Prefix cata + aptist . See Baptist .] (Eccl.) One who opposes baptism, especially of infants. [ Obsolete] Featley.

Catabasion noun [ New Latin , from Greek kataba`sion .] A vault under altar of a Greek church.

Catabiotic adjective See under Force .

Catacaustic adjective [ Prefix cata + caustic .] (Physics) Relating to, or having the properties of, a caustic curve formed by reflection. See Caustic , adjective Nichol.

Catacaustic noun (Physics) A caustic curve formed by reflection of light. Nichol.

Catachresis noun [ Latin from Greek ... misuse, from ... to misuse; kata` against + ... to use.] (Rhet.) A figure by which one word is wrongly put for another, or by which a word is wrested from its true signification; as, "To take arms against a sea of troubles". Shak. "Her voice was but the shadow of a sound." Young.

Catachrestic, Catachrestical adjective Belonging to, or in the manner of, a catachresis; wrested from its natural sense or form; forced; far-fetched.

-- Cat`a*chres"tic*al*ly , adverb

[ A] catachrestical and improper way of speaking.
Jer. Taylor.

Cataclasm noun [ Greek ...; ... down + ... to break.] A breaking asunder; disruption.

Cataclysm noun [ Latin cataclysmos , Greek kataklysmo`s , from ... to dash over, inundate; kata` downward, against + ... to wash or dash over: confer French cataclysme .]
1. An extensive overflow or sweeping flood of water; a deluge.

2. (Geol.) Any violent catastrophe, involving sudden and extensive changes of the earth's surface.

Cataclysmal, Cataclysmic adjective Of or pertaining to a cataclysm.

Cataclysmist noun One who believes that the most important geological phenomena have been produced by cataclysms.

Catacomb noun [ Italian catacomba , from Latin catacumba perhaps from Greek kata` downward, down + ky`mbh cavity.] A cave, grotto, or subterraneous place of large extent used for the burial of the dead; -- commonly in the plural.

» The terms is supposed to have been applied originally to the tombs under the church of St. Sebastian in Rome. The most celebrated catacombs are those near Rome, on the Appian Way, supposed to have been the place or refuge and interment of the early Christians; those of Egypt, extending for a wide distance in the vicinity of Cairo; and those of Paris, in abandoned stone quarries, excavated under a large portion of the city.

Catacoustic noun [ Prefix cata + acoustics : confer French caraconstique .] (Physics) That part of acoustics which treats of reflected sounds or echoes See Acoustics . Hutton.

Catacrotic adjective [ Cata- + Greek ... a beating.] (Physiol.) Designating, pertaining to, or characterized by, that form of pulse tracing, or sphygmogram, in which the descending portion of the curve is marked by secondary elevations due to two or more expansions of the artery in the same beat. -- Ca*tac"rotism noun

Catadicrotism noun [ Cata- + dicrotism .] (Physiol.) Quality or state of being catacrotic. -- Cat`a*di*crot"ic adjective

Catadioptric, Catadioptrical adjective [ Prefix cata + dioptric : confer French catadioptrique .] (Physics) Pertaining to, produced by, or involving, both the reflection and refraction of light; as, a catadioptric light. Hutton.

Catadioptrics noun The science which treats of catadioptric phenomena, or of the used of catadioptric instruments.

Catadrome noun [ Greek kata`dromos race course; kata` down + dro`mos course.]
1. A race course.

2. (Machinery) A machine for raising or lowering heavy weights.

Catadromous adjective [ Greek kata` down + dro`mos a running.]
1. (Botany) Having the lowest inferior segment of a pinna nearer the rachis than the lowest superior one; -- said of a mode of branching in ferns, and opposed to anadromous .

2. (Zoology) Living in fresh water, and going to the sea to spawn; -- opposed to anadromous , and said of the eel.

Catafalco noun [ Italian ] See Catafalque .

Catafalque noun [ French, from Italian catafalco , scaffold, funeral canopy; of uncertain origin; confer Spanish catafalso , cadahalso , cadalso , Pr. casafalc , Old French chafaut . Confer Scaffold .] A temporary structure sometimes used in the funeral solemnities of eminent persons, for the public exhibition of the remains, or their conveyance to the place of burial.

Catagmatic adjective [ Greek ... fracture, from ... to break in places; kata` down + 'agny`nai to break: confer French catagmatique .] (Medicine) Having the quality of consolidating broken bones.

Cataian noun A native of Cathay or China; a foreigner; -- formerly a term of reproach. Shak.

Catalan adjective Of or pertaining to Catalonia. -- noun A native or inhabitant of Catalonia; also, the language of Catalonia.

Catalan furnace , Catalan forge (Metal.) , a kind of furnace for producing wrought iron directly from the ore. It was formerly much used, esp. in Catalonia, and is still used in some parts of the United States and elsewhere.

Catalectic adjective [ Latin catalecticus , Greek ... incomplete, from ... to leave off; kata` down, wholly + lh`gein to stop.]
1. (Pros.) Wanting a syllable at the end, or terminating in an imperfect foot; as, a catalectic verse.

2. (Photog. & Chem.) Incomplete; partial; not affecting the whole of a substance. Abney.

Catalepsy Cat`a*lep"sis noun [ New Latin catalepsis , from Greek ... a seizure, from ... to seize upon; kata` down + ... to take, seize.] (Medicine) A sudden suspension of sensation and volition, the body and limbs preserving the position that may be given them, while the action of the heart and lungs continues.

Cataleptic adjective [ Greek katalhptiko`s .] Pertaining to, or resembling, catalepsy; affected with catalepsy; as, a cataleptic fit.

Catallacta noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek .... See Catallactics .] (Zoology) A division of Protozoa, of which Magosphæra is the type. They exist both in a myxopod state, with branched pseudopodia, and in the form of ciliated bodies united in free, spherical colonies.

Catallactics noun [ Greek ... to exchange; kata` wholly + ... to change.] The science of exchanges, a branch of political economy.

Catalog noun & v. Catalogue.

Catalogize transitive verb To insert in a catalogue; to register; to catalogue. [ R.] Coles.

Catalogue noun [ French, from catalogus , from Greek ... a counting up, list, from ... to count up; kata` down, completely + ... to say.] A list or enumeration of names, or articles arranged methodically, often in alphabetical order; as, a catalogue of the students of a college, or of books, or of the stars.

Card catalogue , a catalogue, as of books, having each item entered on a separate card, and the cards arranged in cases by subjects, or authors, or alphabetically. -- Catalogue raisonné [ French], a catalogue of books, etc., classed according to their subjects.

Syn. -- List; roll; index; schedule; enumeration; inventory. See List .

Catalogue transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Catalogued ; present participle & verbal noun Cataloguing .] To make a list or catalogue; to insert in a catalogue.

Cataloguer noun A maker of catalogues; esp. one skilled in the making of catalogues.

Catalpa noun [ From the language of the Indians of Carolina, where Catesby discovered this tree in the year 1726.] (Botany) A genus of American and East Indian trees, of which the best know species are the Catalpa bignonioides , a large, ornamental North American tree, with spotted white flowers and long cylindrical pods, and the C. speciosa , of the Mississipi valley; -- called also Indian bean .

Catalysis noun ; plural Catalyse . [ ML., from Greek ... dissolution, from ... to destroy, dissolve; kata` down, wholly + ... to loose.]

1. Dissolution; degeneration; decay. [ R.]

Sad catalysis and declension of piety.

2. (Chemistry) (a) A process by which reaction occurs in the presence of certain agents which were formerly believed to exert an influence by mere contact. It is now believed that such reactions are attended with the formation of an intermediate compound or compounds, so that by alternate composition and decomposition the agent is apparenty left unchanged; as, the catalysis of making ether from alcohol by means of sulphuric acid; or catalysis in the action of soluble ferments (as diastase, or ptyalin) on starch. (b) The catalytic force.

Catalytic adjective Relating to, or causing, catalysis. "The catalytic power is ill understood." Ure.

Catalytic force , that form of chemical energy formerly supposed to determine catalysis.

Catalytic noun (Chemistry) An agent employed in catalysis, as platinum black, aluminium chloride, etc.

Catamaran noun [ The native East Indian name.]
1. A kind of raft or float, consisting of two or more logs or pieces of wood lashed together, and moved by paddles or sail; -- used as a surf boat and for other purposes on the coasts of the East and West Indies and South America. Modified forms are much used in the lumber regions of North America, and at life-saving stations.

2. Any vessel with twin hulls, whether propelled by sails or by steam; esp., one of a class of double- hulled pleasure boats remarkable for speed.

3. A kind of fire raft or torpedo bat.

The incendiary rafts prepared by Sir Sidney Smith for destroying the French flotilla at Boulogne, 1804, were called catamarans .

4. A quarrelsome woman; a scold. [ Colloq.]