Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Casa noun [ Spanish or Italian , from Latin casa cabin.] A house or mansion. [ Spanish Amer. & Phil. Islands]

I saw that Enriquez had made no attempt to modernize the old casa , and that even the garden was left in its lawless native luxuriance.
Bret Harte.

Casal adjective (Gram.) Of or pertaining to case; as, a casal ending.

Cascabel noun [ Spanish cascabel a little bell, also (fr. the shape), a knob at the breech end of a cannon.] The projection in rear of the breech of a cannon, usually a knob or breeching loop connected with the gun by a neck. In old writers it included all in rear of the base ring. [ See Illust. of Cannon .]

Cascade (kăs*kād") noun [ French cascade , from Italian cascata , from cascare to fall.] A fall of water over a precipice, as in a river or brook; a waterfall less than a cataract.

The silver brook . . . pours the white cascade .
Longfellow.

Now murm'ring soft, now roaring in cascade .
Cowper.

Cascade intransitive verb
1. To fall in a cascade. Lowell.

2. To vomit. [ Slang] Smollett.

Cascade method (Physics) A method of attaining successively lower temperatures by utilizing the cooling effect of the expansion of one gas in condensing another less easily liquefiable, and so on.

Cascade system (Electricity) A system or method of connecting and operating two induction motors so that the primary circuit of one is connected to the secondary circuit of the other, the primary circuit of the latter being connected to the source of supply; also, a system of electric traction in which motors so connected are employed. The cascade system is also called tandem, or concatenated , system ; the connection a cascade, tandem, or concatenated , connection , or a concatenation ; and the control of the motors so obtained a tandem, or concatenation , control . In the cascade system of traction the cascade connection is used for starting and for low speeds up to half speed. For full speed the short- circuited motor is cut loose from the other motor and is either left idle or (commonly) connected direct to the line.

Cascalho noun [ Portuguese , a chip of stone, gravel.] A deposit of pebbles, gravel, and ferruginous sand, in which the Brazilian diamond is usually found.

Cascara buckthorn (Botany) The buckthorn ( Rhamnus Purshiana ) of the Pacific coast of the United States, which yields cascara sagrada.

Cascara sagrada [ Spanish ] Holy bark; the bark of the California buckthorn ( Rhamnus Purshianus ), used as a mild cathartic or laxative.

Cascarilla noun [ Spanish , small thin bark, Peruvian bark, dim. of cáscara bark.] (Botany) A euphorbiaceous West Indian shrub ( Croton Eleutheria ); also, its aromatic bark.

Cascarilla bark ( or Cascarilla ) (Medicine) , the bark of Croton Eleutheria . It has an aromatic odor and a warm, spicy, bitter taste, and when burnt emits a musky odor. It is used as a gentle tonic, and sometimes, for the sake of its fragrance, mixed with smoking tobacco, when it is said to occasion vertigo and intoxication.

Cascarillin noun (Chemistry) A white, crystallizable, bitter substance extracted from oil of cascarilla.

Cascaron noun [ Spanish cascarón .] Lit., an eggshell; hence, an eggshell filled with confetti to be thrown during balls, carnivals, etc. [ Western U. S.]

Case (kās) noun [ Old French casse , French caisse (cf. Italian cassa ), from Latin capsa chest, box, case, from capere to take, hold. See Capacious , and confer 4th Chase , Cash , Enchase , 3d Sash .]


1. A box, sheath, or covering; as, a case for holding goods; a case for spectacles; the case of a watch; the case (capsule) of a cartridge; a case (cover) for a book.

2. A box and its contents; the quantity contained in a box; as, a case of goods; a case of instruments.

3. (Print.) A shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for holding type.

» Cases for type are usually arranged in sets of two, called respectively the upper and the lower case. The upper case contains capitals, small capitals, accented and marked letters, fractions, and marks of reference: the lower case contains the small letters, figures, marks of punctuation, quadrats, and spaces.

4. An inclosing frame; a casing; as, a door case ; a window case .

5. (Mining) A small fissure which admits water to the workings. Knight.

Case transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cased ; present participle & verbal noun Casing .]
1. To cover or protect with, or as with, a case; to inclose.

The man who, cased in steel, had passed whole days and nights in the saddle.
Prescott.

2. To strip the skin from; as, to case a box. [ Obsolete]

Case noun [ French cas , from Latin casus , from cadere to fall, to happen. Confer Chance .]
1. Chance; accident; hap; opportunity. [ Obsolete]

By aventure, or sort, or cas .
Chaucer.

2. That which befalls, comes, or happens; an event; an instance; a circumstance, or all the circumstances; condition; state of things; affair; as, a strange case ; a case of injustice; the case of the Indian tribes.

In any case thou shalt deliver him the pledge.
Deut. xxiv. 13.

If the case of the man be so with his wife.
Matt. xix. 10.

And when a lady's in the case
You know all other things give place.
Gay.

You think this madness but a common case .
Pope.

I am in case to justle a constable,
Shak.

3. (Med. & Surg.) A patient under treatment; an instance of sickness or injury; as, ten cases of fever; also, the history of a disease or injury.

A proper remedy in hypochondriacal cases .
Arbuthnot.

4. (Law) The matters of fact or conditions involved in a suit, as distinguished from the questions of law; a suit or action at law; a cause.

Let us consider the reason of the case , for nothing is law that is not reason.
Sir John Powell.

Not one case in the reports of our courts.
Steele.

5. (Gram.) One of the forms, or the inflections or changes of form, of a noun, pronoun, or adjective, which indicate its relation to other words, and in the aggregate constitute its declension; the relation which a noun or pronoun sustains to some other word.

Case is properly a falling off from the nominative or first state of word; the name for which, however, is now, by extension of its signification, applied also to the nominative.
J. W. Gibbs.

» Cases other than the nominative are oblique cases . Case endings are terminations by which certain cases are distinguished. In old English, as in Latin, nouns had several cases distinguished by case endings , but in modern English only that of the possessive case is retained.

Action on the case (Law) , according to the old classification (now obsolete), was an action for redress of wrongs or injuries to person or property not specially provided against by law, in which the whole cause of complaint was set out in the writ; -- called also trespass on the case , or simply case . -- All a case , a matter of indifference. [ Obsolete] "It is all a case to me." L'Estrange. -- Case at bar . See under Bar , noun -- Case divinity , casuistry. -- Case lawyer , one versed in the reports of cases rather than in the science of the law. -- Case stated or agreed on (Law) , a statement in writing of facts agreed on and submitted to the court for a decision of the legal points arising on them. -- A hard case , an abandoned or incorrigible person. [ Colloq.] -- In any case , whatever may be the state of affairs; anyhow. -- In case , or In case that , if; supposing that; in the event or contingency; if it should happen that. " In case we are surprised, keep by me." W. Irving. -- In good case , in good condition, health, or state of body. -- To put a case , to suppose a hypothetical or illustrative case.

Syn. -- Situation, condition, state; circumstances; plight; predicament; occurrence; contingency; accident; event; conjuncture; cause; action; suit.

Case intransitive verb To propose hypothetical cases. [ Obsolete] " Casing upon the matter." L'Estrange.

Case shot (Mil.) A collection of small projectiles, inclosed in a case or canister.

» In the United States a case shot is a thin spherical or oblong cast-iron shell containing musket balls and a bursting charge, with a time fuse; -- called in Europe shrapnel . In Europe the term case shot is applied to what in the United States is called canister . Wilhelm.

Case system (Law) The system of teaching law in which the instruction is primarily a historical and inductive study of leading or selected cases, with or without the use of textbooks for reference and collateral reading.

Case-bay noun (Architecture) (a) The space between two principals or girders . (b) One of the joists framed between a pair of girders in naked flooring.

Caseation noun [ Confer French caséation . See Casein .] (Medicine) A degeneration of animal tissue into a cheesy or curdy mass.

Caseharden transitive verb
1. To subject to a process which converts the surface of iron into steel.

2. To render insensible to good influences.

Casehardened adjective
1. Having the surface hardened, as iron tools.

2. Hardened against, or insusceptible to, good influences; rendered callous by persistence in wrongdoing or resistance of good influences; -- said of persons.

Casehardening noun The act or process of converting the surface of iron into steel. Ure.

» Casehardening is now commonly effected by cementation with charcoal or other carbonizing material, the depth and degree of hardening (carbonization) depending on the time during which the iron is exposed to the heat. See Cementation .

Caseic adjective [ Confer French caséique , from Latin caseus cheese.] Of or pertaining to cheese; as, caseic acid.

Casein noun [ Confer French caséine , from Latin caseur cheese. Confer Cheese .] (Physiol. Chem.) A proteid substance present in both the animal and the vegetable kingdom. In the animal kingdom it is chiefly found in milk, and constitutes the main part of the curd separated by rennet; in the vegetable kingdom it is found more or less abundantly in the seeds of leguminous plants. Its reactions resemble those of alkali albumin. [ Written also caseine .]

Case" knife`
1. A knife carried in a sheath or case. Addison.

2. A large table knife; -- so called from being formerly kept in a case .

Casemate noun [ French casemate , from Italian casamatta , probably from casa house + matto , f. matta , mad, weak, feeble, dim. from the same source as English -mate in checkmate .]


1. (Fort.) A bombproof chamber, usually of masonry, in which cannon may be placed, to be fired through embrasures; or one capable of being used as a magazine, or for quartering troops.

2. (Architecture) A hollow molding, chiefly in cornices.

Casemated adjective Furnished with, protected by, or built like, a casemate. Campbell.

Casement noun [ Shortened from encasement . See Incase 1st Case , and confer Incasement .] (Architecture) A window sash opening on hinges affixed to the upright side of the frame into which it is fitted. (Poetically) A window.

A casement of the great chamber window.
Shak.

Casemented adjective Having a casement or casements.

Caseose noun [ Case in + - ose .] (Physiol.Chem.) A soluble product (proteose) formed in the gastric and pancreatic digestion of casein and caseinogen.

Caseous adjective [ Latin caseus . Confer Casein .] Of, pertaining to, or resembling, cheese; having the qualities of cheese; cheesy.

Caseous degeneration , a morbid process, in scrofulous or consumptive persons, in which the products of inflammation are converted into a cheesy substance which is neither absorbed nor organized.

Casern noun [ French caserne .] A lodging for soldiers in garrison towns, usually near the rampart; barracks. Bescherelle.

Caseum noun [ Latin caseus cheese.] Same as Casein .

Caseworm noun (Zoology) A worm or grub that makes for itself a case. See Caddice .

Cash noun [ French caisse case, box, cash box, cash. See Case a box.] A place where money is kept, or where it is deposited and paid out; a money box. [ Obsolete]

This bank is properly a general cash , where every man lodges his money.
Sir W. Temple.

£20,000 are known to be in her cash .
Sir R. Winwood.

2. (Com.) (a) Ready money; especially, coin or specie; but also applied to bank notes, drafts, bonds, or any paper easily convertible into money . (b) Immediate or prompt payment in current funds; as, to sell goods for cash ; to make a reduction in price for cash .

Cash account (Bookkeeping) , an account of money received, disbursed, and on hand. -- Cash boy , in large retail stores, a messenger who carries the money received by the salesman from customers to a cashier, and returns the proper change. [ Colloq.] -- Cash credit , an account with a bank by which a person or house, having given security for repayment, draws at pleasure upon the bank to the extent of an amount agreed upon; -- called also bank credit and cash account . -- Cash sales , sales made for ready, money, in distinction from those on which credit is given; stocks sold, to be delivered on the day of transaction.

Syn. -- Money; coin; specie; currency; capital.

Cash transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cashed ; present participle & verbal noun Casing .] To pay, or to receive, cash for; to exchange for money; as, cash a note or an order.

Cash transitive verb [ See Cashier .] To disband. [ Obsolete] Garges.

Cash noun sing & plural A Chinese coin.

» The cash ( Chinese tsien ) is the only current coin made by the chinese government. It is a thin circular disk of a very base alloy of copper, with a square hole in the center. 1,000 to 1,400 cash are equivalent to a dollar.

Cash railway A form of cash carrier in which a small carrier or car travels upon a kind of track.

Cash register A device for recording the amount of cash received, usually having an automatic adding machine and a money drawer and exhibiting the amount of the sale.

Cashbook (kăsh"bok) noun (Bookkeeping) A book in which is kept a register of money received or paid out.

Cashew (kȧ*shō") noun [ French acajou , for cajou , probably from Malay kāyu tree; confer Portuguese acaju , confer Acajou .] (Botany) A tree ( Anacardium occidentale ) of the same family which the sumac. It is native in tropical America, but is now naturalized in all tropical countries. Its fruit, a kidney-shaped nut, grows at the extremity of an edible, pear- shaped hypocarp, about three inches long.

Cashew nut , the large, kidney-shaped fruit of the cashew, which is edible after the caustic oil has been expelled from the shell by roasting the nut.

Cashier (kăsh*ēr") noun [ French caissier , from caisse . See Cash .] One who has charge of money; a cash keeper; the officer who has charge of the payments and receipts (moneys, checks, notes), of a bank or a mercantile company.

Cashier transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cahiered ; present participle &verbal noun Cashiering .] [ Earlier cash , from French casser to break, annul, cashier, from Latin cassare , equiv. to cassum reddere , to annul; confer German cassiren . Confer Quash to annul, Cass .]
1. To dismiss or discard; to discharge; to dismiss with ignominy from military service or from an office or place of trust.

They have cashiered several of their followers.
Addison.

He had insolence to cashier the captain of the lord lieutenant's own body guard.
Macaulay.

2. To put away or reject; to disregard. [ R.]

Connections formed for interest, and endeared

By selfish views, [ are] censured and cashiered .
Cowper.

They absolutely cashier the literal express sense of the words.
Sowth.

Cashier's check (Banking) A check drawn by a bank upon its own funds, signed by the cashier.

Cashierer noun One who rejects, discards, or dismisses; as, a cashierer of monarchs. [ R.] Burke.

Cashmere noun
1. A rich stuff for shawls, scarfs, etc., originally made in Cashmere from the soft wool found beneath the hair of the goats of Cashmere, Thibet, and the Himalayas. Some cashmere, of fine quality, is richly embroidered for sale to Europeans.

2. A dress fabric made of fine wool, or of fine wool and cotton, in imitation of the original cashmere.

Cashmere shawl , a rich and costly shawl made of cashmere; -- often called camel's-hair shawl .

Cashmerette noun A kind of dress goods, made with a soft and glossy surface like cashmere.

Cashoo noun [ French cachou , New Latin catechu , Cochin-Chin. cay cau from the tree called mimosa , or areca catechu . Confer Catechu .] See Catechu .