Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ CF. Latin sucrulosus
woody. See Surcle
.] (Botany) Producing suckers, or shoots resembling suckers.
[ Latin surdus
deaf (whence the meaning, deaf to reason, irrational), perhaps akin to English swart
. Confer Sordine
.] 1. Net having the sense of hearing; deaf.
[ Obsolete] "A surd
. . . generation." Sir T. Browne. 2. Unheard.
[ Obsolete] Kenrick. 3. (Math.) Involving surds; not capable of being expressed in rational numbers; radical; irrational; as, a surd expression or quantity; a surd number. 4. (Phonetics) Uttered, as an element of speech, without tone, or proper vocal sound; voiceless; unintonated; nonvocal; atonic; whispered; aspirated; sharp; hard, as f , p , s , etc.; -- opposed to sonant . See Guide to Pronunciation , §§169, 179, 180.
Surd noun (Math.) 1. A quantity which can not be expressed by rational numbers; thus, √2 is a surd . 2. (Phon.) A surd element of speech. See Surd , adjective , 4.
Surdal adjective (Math.) Same as Surd , adjective , 3.
Surdiny noun A sardine. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.
Surdity noun [ Latin surditas .] Deafness. [ Obsolete]
[ Compar. Surer
; superl. Surest
.] [ Middle English sur
, Old French seür
, French sûr
, Latin securus
aside, without + cura
care. See Secure
, and confer Assure
sure.] 1. Certainly knowing and believing; confident beyond doubt; implicity trusting; unquestioning; positive.
We are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things. Rom. ii. 2.
I'm sure care 's an enemy of life. Shak. 2. Certain to find or retain; as, to be sure of game; to be sure of success; to be sure of life or health. 3. Fit or worthy to be depended on; certain not to fail or disappoint expectation; unfailing; strong; permanent; enduring.
The Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fighteth the battles of the Lord. 1 Sam. xxv. 28.
The testimony of the Lord is sure . Ps. xix. 7.
Which put in good sure leather sacks. Chapman. 4. Betrothed; engaged to marry.
The king was sure to Dame Elizabeth Lucy, and her husband before God. Sir T. More.
I presume . . . that you had been sure as fast as faith could bind you, man and wife. Brome. 5. Free from danger; safe; secure.
Fear not; the forest is not three leagues off; Shak.
If we recover that we are sure enough.
-- To be sure
, or Be sure
, certainly; without doubt; as, Shall you do? To be sure I shall.
-- To make sure
. (a) To make certain; to secure so that there can be no failure of the purpose or object.
"A peace can not fail, provided we make sure
of Spain." Sir W. Temple. (b) To betroth.
She that's made sure to him she loves not well. Cotgrave. Syn.
-- Certain; unfailing; infallible; safe; firm; permanent; steady; stable; strong; secure; indisputable; confident; positive.
Sure adverb In a sure manner; safely; certainly.
, shall be thy meed." Spenser.
'T is pleasant, sure , to see one's name in print. Byron.
Sure-footed adjective Not liable to stumble or fall; as, a sure-footed horse.
Surely adverb 1. In a sure or certain manner; certainly; infallibly; undoubtedly; assuredly.
In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Gen. ii. 17.
He that created something out of nothing, surely can raise great things out of small. South. 2. Without danger; firmly; steadly; securely.
He that walketh uprightly walketh surely . Prov. x. 9.
Surement noun A making sure; surety.
Every surement and every bond. Chaucer.
Sureness noun The state of being sure; certainty.
For more sureness he repeats it. Woodward.
The law holds with equal sureness for all right action. Emerson.
[ Etymol. uncertain. See Rudesby
.] One to be sure of, or to be relied on.
There is one which is suresby , as they say, to serve, if anything will serve. Bradford.
Suretiship noun Suretyship. Prov. xi. 15.
; plural Sureties
. [ Middle English seurte
, Old French seürté
, French sûreté
. See Sure
.] 1. The state of being sure; certainty; security.
Know of a surety , that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs. Gen. xv. 13.
For the more surety they looked round about. Sir P. Sidney. 2. That which makes sure; that which confirms; ground of confidence or security.
[ We] our happy state Milton. 3. Security against loss or damage; security for payment, or for the performance of some act.
Hold, as you yours, while our obedience holds;
On other surety none.
There remains unpaid Shak. 4. (Law) One who is bound with and for another who is primarily liable, and who is called the principal ; one who engages to answer for another's appearance in court, or for his payment of a debt, or for performance of some act; a bondsman; a bail.
A hundred thousand more; in surety of the which
One part of Aquitaine is bound to us.
He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it. Prov. xi. 15. 5. Hence, a substitute; a hostage. Cowper. 6. Evidence; confirmation; warrant.
She called the saints to surety , Shak.
That she would never put it from her finger,
Unless she gave it to yourself.
Surety transitive verb To act as surety for. [ Obsolete] Shak.
Suretyship noun The state of being surety; the obligation of a person to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another. Bouvier.
[ Formerly spelled suffe
, and probably the same word as English sough
.] The swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, esp. upon a sloping beach. Surf bird (Zoology)
, a ploverlike bird of the genus Aphriza , allied to the turnstone.
-- Surf clam (Zoology)
, a large clam living on the open coast, especially Mactra, or Spisula, solidissima . See Mactra .
-- Surf duck (Zoology)
, any one of several species of sea ducks of the genus Oidemia , especially O. percpicillata ; -- called also surf scoter . See the Note under Scoter .
-- Surf fish (Zoology)
, any one of numerous species of California embiotocoid fishes. See Embiotocoid .
-- Surf smelt
. (Zoology) See Smelt .
-- Surf whiting
. (Zoology) See under Whiting .
Surf noun The bottom of a drain. [ Prov. Eng.]
[ French See Sur-
, and Face
, and confer Superficial
.] 1. The exterior part of anything that has length and breadth; one of the limits that bound a solid, esp. the upper face; superficies; the outside; as, the surface of the earth; the surface of a diamond; the surface of the body.
The bright surface of this ethereous mold. Milton. 2. Hence, outward or external appearance.
Vain and weak understandings, which penetrate no deeper than the surface . V. Knox. 3. (Geom.) A magnitude that has length and breadth without thickness; superficies; as, a plane surface ; a spherical surface . 4. (Fort.) That part of the side which is terminated by the flank prolonged, and the angle of the nearest bastion. Stocqueler. Caustic surface
, Heating surface
, etc. See under Caustic , Heating , etc.
-- Surface condensation
, Surface condenser
. See under Condensation , and Condenser .
-- Surface gauge (Machinery)
, an instrument consisting of a standard having a flat base and carrying an adjustable pointer, for gauging the evenness of a surface or its height, or for marking a line parallel with a surface.
-- Surface grub (Zoology)
, the larva of the great yellow underwing moth ( Triphœna pronuba ). It is often destructive to the roots of grasses and other plants.
-- Surface plate (Machinery)
, a plate having an accurately dressed flat surface, used as a standard of flatness by which to test other surfaces.
-- Surface printing
, printing from a surface in relief, as from type, in distinction from plate printing , in which the ink is contained in engraved lines.
Surface transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surfaced
; present participle & verbal noun Surfacing
.] 1. To give a surface to; especially, to cause to have a smooth or plain surface; to make smooth or plain. 2. To work over the surface or soil of, as ground, in hunting for gold.
Surface loading (Aëronautics) The weight supported per square unit of surface; the quotient obtained by dividing the gross weight, in pounds, of a fully loaded flying machine, by the total area, in square feet, of its supporting surface.
Surface tension (Physics) That property, due to molecular forces, which exists in the surface film of all liquids and tends to bring the contained volume into a form having the least superficial area. The thickness of this film, amounting to less than a thousandth of a millimeter, is considered to equal the radius of the sphere of molecular action, that is, the greatest distance at which there is cohesion between two particles. Particles lying below this film, being equally acted on from all sides, are in equilibrium as to forces of cohesion, but those in the film are on the whole attracted inward, and tension results.
Surfacer noun A form of machine for dressing the surface of wood, metal, stone, etc.
Surfboat noun (Nautical) A boat intended for use in heavy surf. It is built with a pronounced sheer, and with a view to resist the shock of waves and of contact with the beach.
[ Middle English surfet
, Old French surfait
, excess, arrogance, crime, from surfaire
, to augment, exaggerate, French surfaire
to overcharge; sur
over + faire
to make, do, Latin facere
. See Sur-
, and Fact
.] 1. Excess in eating and drinking.
Let not Sir Surfeit sit at thy board. Piers Plowman.
Now comes the sick hour that his surfeit made. Shak. 2. Fullness and oppression of the system, occasioned often by excessive eating and drinking.
To prevent surfeit and other diseases that are incident to those that heat their blood by travels. Bunyan. 3. Disgust caused by excess; satiety. Sir P. Sidney.
Matter and argument have been supplied abundantly, and even to surfeit . Burke.
Surfeit intransitive verb 1. To load the stomach with food, so that sickness or uneasiness ensues; to eat to excess.
They are as sick that surfeit with too much as they that starve with nothing. Shak. 2. To indulge to satiety in any gratification.
Surfeit transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surfeited
; present participle & verbal noun Surfeiting
.] 1. To feed so as to oppress the stomach and derange the function of the system; to overfeed, and produce satiety, sickness, or uneasiness; -- often reflexive; as, to surfeit one's self with sweets. 2. To fill to satiety and disgust; to cloy; as, he surfeits us with compliments. V. Knox.
Surfeit-water noun Water for the cure of surfeits. [ Obsolete] Locke.
Surfeiter noun One who surfeits. Shak.
Surfel, Surfle transitive verb
[ Confer Sulphur
.] To wash, as the face, with a cosmetic water, said by some to be prepared from the sulphur.
She shall no oftener powder her hair, [ or] surfel her cheeks, . . . but she shall as often gaze on my picture. Ford.
Surfer noun (Zoology) The surf duck. [ U. S.]
; plural Surmen One who serves in a surfboat in the life-saving service.
Surfoot adjective Tired or sore of foot from travel; lamed. [ Obsolete] Nares.
Surfy adjective Consisting of, abounding in, or resembling, surf; as, a surfy shore.
Scarce had they cleared the surfy waves Moore.
That foam around those frightful caves.
[ Latin surgere
, to raise, to rise; sub
under + regere
to direct: confer Old French surgeon
, fountain. See Regent
, and confer Insurrection
.] 1. A spring; a fountain.
[ Obsolete] "Divers surges
and springs of water." Ld. Berners. 2. A large wave or billow; a great, rolling swell of water, produced generally by a high wind.
He that doubteth is like the surge of the sea driven by the wind and tossed. James i. 6 (Rev. Ver.)
He flies aloft, and, with impetuous roar, Dryden. 3. The motion of, or produced by, a great wave. 4. The tapered part of a windlass barrel or a capstan, upon which the cable surges, or slips.
Pursues the foaming surges to the shore.
Surge intransitive verb 1. To swell; to rise hifg and roll.
The surging waters like a mountain rise. Spenser. 2. (Nautical) To slip along a windlass.
Surge transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surged
; present participle & verbal noun Surging
.] [ Confer French surgir
to cast anchor, to land. Confer Surge
] (Nautical) To let go or slacken suddenly, as a rope; as, to surge a hawser or messenger; also, to slacken the rope about (a capstan).
Surgeful adjective Abounding in surges; surgy. "Tossing the surgeful tides." Drayton.
Surgeless adjective Free from surges; smooth; calm.
Surgent adjective [ Latin surgens , present participle] Rising; swelling, as a flood. [ R.] Robert Greene.
[ Middle English surgien
, Old French surgien
, contr. from chirurgien
. See Chirurgeon
.] 1. One whose profession or occupation is to cure diseases or injuries of the body by manual operation; one whose occupation is to cure local injuries or disorders (such as wounds, dislocations, tumors, etc.), whether by manual operation, or by medication and constitutional treatment. 2. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of chætodont fishes of the family Teuthidæ , or Acanthuridæ , which have one or two sharp lancelike spines on each side of the base of the tail. Called also surgeon fish , doctor fish , lancet fish , and sea surgeon . Surgeon apothecary
, one who unites the practice of surgery with that of the apothecary. Dunglison.
-- Surgeon dentist
, a dental surgeon; a dentist.
-- Surgeon fish
. See def. 2, above.
-- Surgeon general
. (a) In the United States army, the chief of the medical department. (b) In the British army, a surgeon ranking next below the chief of the medical department.
Surgeoncy noun The office or employment of a surgeon, as in the naval or military service.
Surgeonry noun Surgery. [ Obsolete]
[ Middle English surgenrie
; confer Old French cirurgie
, French chirurgie
, Latin chirurgia
, Greek .... See Surgeon
.] 1. The art of healing by manual operation; that branch of medical science which treats of manual operations for the healing of diseases or injuries of the body; that branch of medical science which has for its object the cure of local injuries or diseases, as wounds or fractures, tumors, etc., whether by manual operation or by medicines and constitutional treatment. 2. A surgeon's operating room or laboratory.
Surgical adjective Of or pertaining to surgeons or surgery; done by means of surgery; used in surgery; as, a surgical operation; surgical instruments. Surgical fever . (Medicine) (a) Pyæmia. (b) Traumatic fever, or the fever accompanying inflammation.
Surgically adverb By means of surgery.
Surgy adjective Rising in surges or billows; full of surges; resembling surges in motion or appearance; swelling. "Over the surgy main." Pope.
[ French surikate
, from the native name in South Africa.] (Zoology) Same as Zenick .
[ Written also suricate
Surinam toad (Zoology) A species of toad native of Surinam. See Pipa .