Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ French See Superintendent
Surlily adverb In a surly manner.
Surliness noun The quality or state of being surly.
[ See Surly
.] A sour, morose fellow.
[ Obsolete] Camden.
[ French surlonge
upon + longe
loin. See Sur-
, and Loin
.] A loin of beef, or the upper part of the loin. See Sirloin , the more usual, but not etymologically preferable, orthography.
[ Compar. Surlier
; superl. Surliest
.] [ Probably from sir
, and originally meaning, sirlike
, i.e., proud. See Sir
, and Like
] 1. Arrogant; haughty.
[ Obsolete] Cotgrave. 2. Gloomily morose; ill-natured, abrupt, and rude; severe; sour; crabbed; rough; sullen; gloomy; as, a surly groom; a surly dog; surly language; a surly look.
spirit, melancholy." Shak. 3. Rough; dark; tempestuous.
Now softened into joy the surly storm. Thomson.
Surmark noun (Shipbuilding) A mark made on the molds of a ship, when building, to show where the angles of the timbers are to be placed. [ Written also sirmark .]
Surmisable adjective Capable of being surmised; as, a surmisable result.
Surmisal noun Surmise. [ R.] Milton.
[ Old French surmise
accusation, from surmettre
, past participle surmis
, to impose, accuse; sur
) + mettre
to put, set, Latin mittere
to send. See Mission
.] 1. A thought, imagination, or conjecture, which is based upon feeble or scanty evidence; suspicion; guess; as, the surmisses of jealousy or of envy.
[ We] double honor gain Milton.
From his surmise proved false.
No man ought to be charged with principles he actually disowns, unless his practicies contradict his profession; not upon small surmises . Swift. 2. Reflection; thought.
[ Obsolete] Shak. Syn.
-- Conjecture; supposition; suspicion; doubt.
Surmise transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surmised
; present participle & verbal noun Surmising
.] To imagine without certain knowledge; to infer on slight grounds; to suppose, conjecture, or suspect; to guess.
It wafted nearer yet, and then she knew Dryden.
That what before she but surmised , was true.
This change was not wrought by altering the form or position of the earth, as was surmised by a very learned man, but by dissolving it. Woodward.
Surmiser noun One who surmises.
Surmising adjective & noun from Surmise , v.
Surmount transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surmounted
; present participle & verbal noun Surmounting
.] [ Middle English sourmounten
, Old French surmonter
, French surmonter
over + monter
to mount. See Sur-
, and Mount
, intransitive verb
] 1. To rise above; to be higher than; to overtop.
The mountains of Olympus, Athos, and Atlas, overreach and surmount all winds and clouds. Sir W. Raleigh. 2. To conquer; to overcome; as, to surmount difficulties or obstacles. Macaulay. 3. To surpass; to exceed. Spenser.
What surmounts the reach Milton. Syn.
Of human sense I shall delineate.
-- To conquer; overcome; vanquish; subdue; surpass; exceed.
Surmountable adjective [ Confer French surmontable .] Capable of being surmounted or overcome; superable. -- Sur*mount"a*ble*ness , noun
1. (Architecture) Having its vertical height greater than the half span; -- said of an arch. 2. (Her.) Partly covered by another charge; -- said of an ordinary or other bearing.
Surmounter noun One who, or that which, surmounts.
[ French surmulet
, brownish yellow, red + mulet
a mullet. See Sorrel
, and Mullet
.] (Zoology) Any one of various species of mullets of the family Millidæ , esp. the European species ( Millus surmulletus ), which is highly prized as a food fish. See Mullet .
Surmulot noun [ French] (Zoology) The brown, or Norway, rat.
[ Prefix sur + name
; really a substitution for Middle English sournoun
, from French surnom
. See Sur-
, and Noun
.] 1. A name or appellation which is added to, or over and above, the baptismal or Christian name, and becomes a family name.
» Surnames originally designated occupation, estate, place of residence, or some particular thing or event that related to the person; thus, Edmund Ironsides
; Robert Smith
, or the smith
; William Turner
. Surnames are often also patronymics; as, John Johnson
. 2. An appellation added to the original name; an agnomen.
, Coriolanus." Shak.
» This word has been sometimes written sirname
, as if it signified sire
-name, or the name derived from one's father.
Surname transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surnamed
; present participle & verbal noun Surnaming
.] [ Confer French surnommer
.] To name or call by an appellation added to the original name; to give a surname to.
Another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name of Israel. Isa. xliv. 5.
And Simon he surnamed Peter. Mark iii. 16.
Surnominal adjective Of or pertaining to a surname or surnames.
Suroxidate transitive verb (Chemistry) To combine with oxygen so as to form a suroxide or peroxide. [ Obsolete]
[ Confer French suroxyde
. See Sur-
, and Oxide
.] (Chemistry) A peroxide.
Surpass transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surpassed
; present participle & verbal noun Surpassing
.] [ French surpasser
over + passer
to pass. See Sur-
, and Pass
.] To go beyond in anything good or bad; to exceed; to excel.
This would surpass Milton. Syn.
Common revenge and interrupt his joy.
-- To exceed; excel; outdo; outstrip.
Surpassable adjective That may be surpassed.
Surpassing adjective Eminently excellent; exceeding others. "With surpassing glory crowned." Milton. -- Sur*pass"ing*ly , adverb -- Sur*pass"ing*ness , noun
Surphul transitive verb To surfel. [ Obsolete] Marston.
[ French surplis
, Old French surpeiz
, Late Latin superpellicium
over + pellicium
, a robe of fur, Latin pellicius
made of skins. See Pelisse
.] (Eccl.) A white garment worn over another dress by the clergy of the Roman Catholic, Episcopal, and certain other churches, in some of their ministrations. Surplice fees (Eccl.)
, fees paid to the English clergy for occasional duties.
Surpliced adjective Wearing a surplice.
[ French, from sur
over + plus
more. See Sur-
, and Plus
, and confer Superplus
.] 1. That which remains when use or need is satisfied, or when a limit is reached; excess; overplus. 2. Specifically, an amount in the public treasury at any time greater than is required for the ordinary purposes of the government.
Surplus adjective Being or constituting a surplus; more than sufficient; as, surplus revenues; surplus population; surplus words.
When the price of corn falleth, men give over surplus tillage, and break no more ground. Carew.
[ See Surplus
, and confer Superplusage
.] 1. Surplus; excess; overplus; as, surplusage of grain or goods beyond what is wanted.
Take what thou please of all this surplusage . Spenser.
A surplusage given to one part is paid out of a reduction from another part of the same creature. Emerson. 2. (Law) Matter in pleading which is not necessary or relevant to the case, and which may be rejected. 3. (Accounts) A greater disbursement than the charge of the accountant amounts to.
[ Obsolete] Rees.
[ See Surprise
] The act of surprising, or state of being surprised; surprise.
How to secure the lady from surprisal . Milton.
Because death is uncertain, let us prevent its surprisal . Barrow.
[ French surprise
, from surprendre
over + prendre
to take, Latin prehendere
. See Sur-
, and Prehensile
.] 1. The act of coming upon, or taking, unawares; the act of seizing unexpectedly; surprisal; as, the fort was taken by surprise . 2. The state of being surprised, or taken unawares, by some act or event which could not reasonably be foreseen; emotion excited by what is sudden and strange; a suddenly excited feeling of wonder or astonishment.
Pure surprise and fear Shak. 3. Anything that causes such a state or emotion. 4. A dish covered with a crust of raised paste, but with no other contents.
Made me to quit the house.
[ Obsolete] King. Surprise party
, a party of persons who assemble by mutual agreement, and without invitation, at the house of a common friend.
[ U.S.] Bartlett. Syn.
-- Wonder; astonishment; amazement.
Surprise transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Surprised
; present participle & verbal noun Surprising
.] [ From Surprise
: confer French surprendre
, past participle surpris
.] 1. To come or fall suddenly and unexpectedly; to take unawares; to seize or capture by unexpected attack.
Fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites. Isa. xxxiii. 14.
The castle of Macduff I will surprise . Shak.
Who can speak Thomson. 2. To strike with wonder, astonishment, or confusion, by something sudden, unexpected, or remarkable; to confound; as, his conduct surprised me.
The mingled passions that surprised his heart?
I am surprised with an uncouth fear. Shak.
Up he starts, Milton. 3. To lead (one) to do suddenly and without forethought; to bring (one) into some unexpected state; -- with into ; as, to be surprised into an indiscretion; to be surprised into generosity. 4. To hold possession of; to hold.
Discovered and surprised .
Not with me, J. Webster. Syn.
That in my hands surprise the sovereignity.
-- See Astonish
Surprisement noun Surprisal. [ Obsolete] Daniel.
Surpriser noun One who surprises.
Surprising adjective Exciting surprise; extraordinary; of a nature to excite wonder and astonishment; as, surprising bravery; a surprising escape from danger. -- Sur*pris"ing*ly , adverb -- Sur*pris"ing*ness , noun Syn. -- Wonderful; extraordinary; unexpected; astonishing; striking.
Surquedous, Surquedrous adjective Having or exhibiting surquedry; arrogant; insolent. [ Obsolete] Gower. James II. of Scot.
Surquedry, Surquidry noun
[ Old French surcuidier
to presume; sur
over + cuidier
to think, Latin cogitare
. See Sur-
, and Cogitate
.] Overweening pride; arrogance; presumption; insolence.
[ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Then pay you the price of your surquedry . Spenser.
Surrebound intransitive verb To give back echoes; to reëcho. [ Obsolete] Chapman.
Surrebut intransitive verb [ Prefix sur + rebut .] (Law) To reply, as a plaintiff to a defendant's rebutter.
Surrebuter noun (Law) The reply of a plaintiff to a defendant's rebutter.
Surrein transitive verb [ Prefix sur + rein .] To override; to exhaust by riding. [ Obsolete] Shak.
Surrejoin intransitive verb [ Prefix sur + rejoin .] (Law) To reply, as a plaintiff to a defendant's rejoinder.
Surrejoinder noun (Law) The answer of a plaintiff to a defendant's rejoinder.