Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Refractable adjective Capable of being refracted.

Refracted adjective
1. (Bot. & Zoology) Bent backward angularly, as if half- broken; as, a refracted stem or leaf.

2. Turned from a direct course by refraction; as, refracted rays of light.

Refracting adjective Serving or tending to refract; as, a refracting medium.

Refracting angle of a prism (Opt.) , the angle of a triangular prism included between the two sides through which the refracted beam passes in the decomposition of light. -- Refracting telescope . (Opt.) See under Telescope .

Refraction noun [ French réfraction .]
1. The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted.

2. The change in the direction of ray of light, heat, or the like, when it enters obliquely a medium of a different density from that through which it has previously moved.

Refraction out of the rarer medium into the denser, is made towards the perpendicular.
Sir I. Newton.

3. (Astron.) (a) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction. (b) The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.

Angle of refraction (Opt.) , the angle which a refracted ray makes with the perpendicular to the surface separating the two media traversed by the ray. -- Conical refraction (Opt.) , the refraction of a ray of light into an infinite number of rays, forming a hollow cone. This occurs when a ray of light is passed through crystals of some substances, under certain circumstances. Conical refraction is of two kinds; external conical refraction , in which the ray issues from the crystal in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is at the point of emergence; and internal conical refraction , in which the ray is changed into the form of a cone on entering the crystal, from which it issues in the form of a hollow cylinder. This singular phenomenon was first discovered by Sir W. R. Hamilton by mathematical reasoning alone, unaided by experiment. -- Differential refraction (Astron.) , the change of the apparent place of one object relative to a second object near it, due to refraction; also, the correction required to be made to the observed relative places of the two bodies. -- Double refraction (Opt.) , the refraction of light in two directions, which produces two distinct images. The power of double refraction is possessed by all crystals except those of the isometric system. A uniaxial crystal is said to be optically positive (like quartz), or optically negative (like calcite), or to have positive , or negative , double refraction , according as the optic axis is the axis of least or greatest elasticity for light; a biaxial crystal is similarly designated when the same relation holds for the acute bisectrix. -- Index of refraction . See under Index . -- Refraction circle (Opt.) , an instrument provided with a graduated circle for the measurement of refraction. -- Refraction of latitude , longitude , declination , right ascension , etc., the change in the apparent latitude, longitude, etc., of a heavenly body, due to the effect of atmospheric refraction. -- Terrestrial refraction , the change in the apparent altitude of a distant point on or near the earth's surface, as the top of a mountain, arising from the passage of light from it to the eye through atmospheric strata of varying density.

Refractive adjective [ Confer French réfractif . See Refract .] Serving or having power to refract, or turn from a direct course; pertaining to refraction; as, refractive surfaces; refractive powers.

Refractive index . (Opt.) See Index of refraction , under Index . -- Absolute refractive index (Opt.) , the index of refraction of a substances when the ray passes into it from a vacuum. -- Relative refractive index (of two media) (Opt.) , the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction for a ray passing out of one of the media into the other.

Refractiveness noun The quality or condition of being refractive.

Refractometer noun [ Refraction + -meter .] (Opt.) A contrivance for exhibiting and measuring the refraction of light.

Refractor (r...-fr...kt"...r) noun Anything that refracts ; specifically: (Opt.) A refracting telescope, in which the image to be viewed is formed by the refraction of light in passing through a convex lens.

Refractorily adverb In a refractory manner; perversely; obstinately.

Refractoriness noun The quality or condition of being refractory.

Refractory adjective [ Latin refractorius , from refringere : confer French refractaire . See Refract .]
1. Obstinate in disobedience; contumacious; stubborn; unmanageable; as, a refractory child; a refractory beast.

Raging appetites that are
Most disobedient and refractory .
Shak.

2. Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.

Syn. -- Perverse; contumacious; unruly; stubborn; obstinate; unyielding; ungovernable; unmanageable.

Refractory noun
1. A refractory person. Bp. Hall.

2. Refractoriness. [ Obsolete] Jer. TAylor.

3. O Pottery ) A piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln, to communicate a glaze to the other articles. Knight.

Refracture noun (Surg.) A second breaking (as of a badly set bone) by the surgeon.

Refracture transitive verb (Surg.) To break again, as a bone.

Refragable adjective [ Late Latin refragabilis , from Latin refragari to oppose.] Capable of being refuted; refutable. [ R.] -- Ref"ra*ga*ble*ness , noun [ R.] -- Ref`ra*ga*bil"i*ty (-b...l`...*t...) noun [ R.]

Refragate intransitive verb [ Latin refragatus , past participle of refragor .] To oppose. [ R.] Glanvill.

Refrain transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Refrained (-fr?nd"); present participle & vb/ noun Refraining .] [ Middle English refreinen , Old French refrener , French refr...ner , from Latin refrenare ; influenced by Old French refraindre to restrain, moderate, from Late Latin refrangere , for Latin refringere to break up, break (see Refract ). Latin refrenare is from prefix re- back + frenum bridle; confer Sanskrit dh... to hold.]
1. To hold back; to restrain; to keep within prescribed bounds; to curb; to govern.

His reson refraineth not his foul delight or talent.
Chaucer.

Refrain thy foot from their path.
Prointransitive verb 15.

2. To abstain from [ Obsolete]

Who, requiring a remedy for his gout, received no other counsel than to refrain cold drink.
Sir T. Browne.

Refrain intransitive verb To keep one's self from action or interference; to hold aloof; to forbear; to abstain.

Refrain from these men, and let them alone.
Acts v. 38.

They refrained therefrom [ eating flesh] some time after.
Sir T. Browne.

Syn. -- To hold back; forbear; abstain; withhold.

Refrain noun [ French refrain , from Old French refraindre ; confer Pr. refranhs a refrain, refranher to repeat. See Refract , Refrain , v. ] The burden of a song; a phrase or verse which recurs at the end of each of the separate stanzas or divisions of a poetic composition.

We hear the wild refrain .
Whittier.

Refrainer noun One who refrains.

Refrainment (-m e nt) noun Act of refraining. [ R.]

Reframe transitive verb To frame again or anew.

Refrangibility noun [ Confer French réfrangibilité .] The quality of being refrangible.

Refrangible adjective [ Confer French réfrangible . See Refract .] Capable of being refracted, or turned out of a direct course, in passing from one medium to another, as rays of light. -- Re*fran"gi*ble*ness , noun

Refrenation noun [ Latin refrenatio . See Refrain , transitive verb ] The act of refraining. [ Obsolete]

Refresh transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Refreshed (-fr?sht"); present participle & verbal noun Refreshing .] [ Middle English refreshen , refreschen , Old French refreschir (cf. Old French rafraischir , rafreschir , F. rafra...chir ); prefix re- re- + fres fresh. French frais . See Fresh , adjective ]
1. To make fresh again; to restore strength, spirit, animation, or the like, to; to relieve from fatigue or depression; to reinvigorate; to enliven anew; to reanimate; as, sleep refreshes the body and the mind. Chaucer.

Foer they have refreshed my spirit and yours.
1 Cor. xvi. 18.

And labor shall refresh itself with hope.
Shak.

2. To make as if new; to repair; to restore.

The rest refresh the scaly snakes that fol...
The shield of Pallas, and renew their gold.
Dryden.

To refresh the memory , to quicken or strengthen it, as by a reference, review, memorandum, or suggestion.

Syn. -- To cool; refrigerate; invigorate; revive; reanimate; renovate; renew; restore; recreate; enliven; cheer.

Refresh noun The act of refreshing. [ Obsolete] Daniel.

Refresher noun
1. One who, or that which, refreshes.

2. (Law) An extra fee paid to counsel in a case that has been adjourned from one term to another, or that is unusually protracted.

Ten guineas a day is the highest refresher which a counsel can charge.
London Truth.

Refreshful adjective Full of power to refresh; refreshing. -- Re*fresh"ful*ly , adverb

Refreshing adjective Reviving; reanimating. -- Re*fresh"ing*ly , adverb -- Re*fresh"ing*ness , noun

Refreshment (-m e nt) noun [ CF. Old French refreschissement , French rafraîchissement .]
1. The act of refreshing, or the state of being refreshed; restoration of strength, spirit, vigor, or liveliness; relief after suffering; new life or animation after depression.

2. That which refreshes; means of restoration or reanimation; especially, an article of food or drink.

Refret noun [ Old French refret , Latin refractus , past participle See Refrain , noun , Refract .] Refrain. [ Obsolete] Bailey.

Refreyd transitive verb [ Old French refreidier .] To chill; to cool. [ Obsolete]

Refreyded by sickness . . . or by cold drinks.
Chaucer.

Refrication noun [ Latin refricare to rub again.] A rubbing up afresh; a brightening. [ Obsolete]

A continual refrication of the memory.
Bp. Hall.

Refrigerant adjective [ Latin refrigerans , present participle of refrigerare : confer French réfrigérant . See Refrigerate .] Cooling; allaying heat or fever. Bacon.

Refrigerant noun That which makes to be cool or cold; specifically, a medicine or an application for allaying fever, or the symptoms of fever; -- used also figuratively. Holland. "A refrigerant to passion." Blair.

Refrigerate (-āt) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Refrigerated (- ā`tĕd); present participle & verbal noun Refrigerating .] [ Latin refrigeratus , past participle of refrigerare ; prefix re- re- + frigerare to make cool, from frigus , frigoris , coolness. See Frigid .] To cause to become cool; to make or keep cold or cool.

Refrigeration noun [ Confer French réfrigération , Latin refrigeratio .] The act or process of refrigerating or cooling, or the state of being cooled.

Refrigerative adjective [ Confer French réfrigératif .] Cooling; allaying heat. -- noun A refrigerant.

Crazed brains should come under a refrigerative treatment.
I. Taylor.

Refrigerator noun That which refrigerates or makes cold; that which keeps cool. Specifically: (a) A box or room for keeping food or other articles cool, usually by means of ice. (b) An apparatus for rapidly cooling heated liquids or vapors, connected with a still, etc.

Refrigerator car (Railroad) , a freight car constructed as a refrigerator, for the transportation of fresh meats, fish, etc., in a temperature kept cool by ice.

Refrigeratory adjective [ Latin refrigeratorius .] Mitigating heat; cooling.

Refrigeratory noun ; plural -ries (-fr...z). [ CF. French réfrigératoire .] That which refrigerates or cools. Specifically: (a) In distillation, a vessel filled with cold water, surrounding the worm, the vapor in which is thereby condensed. (b) The chamber, or tank, in which ice is formed, in an ice machine.

Refrigerium noun [ Latin ] Cooling refreshment; refrigeration. [ Obsolete] South.

Refringency noun The power possessed by a substance to refract a ray; as, different substances have different refringencies . Nichol.

Refringent (-j e nt) adjective [ Latin refringens , present participle of refringere . See Refract .] Pertaining to, or possessing, refringency; refractive; refracting; as, a refringent prism of spar. Nichol.

Reft imperfect & past participle of Reave . Bereft.

Reft of thy sons, amid thy foes forlorn.
Heber.

Reft noun A chink; a rift. See Rift . Rom. of R.

Refuge noun [ French réfuge , Latin refugium , from refugere to flee back; prefix re- + figere . SEe Fugitive .]


1. Shelter or protection from danger or distress.

Rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these
Find place or refuge .
Milton.

We might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us.
Hebrew vi. 18.

2. That which shelters or protects from danger, or from distress or calamity; a stronghold which protects by its strength, or a sanctuary which secures safety by its sacredness; a place inaccessible to an enemy.

The high hills are a refuge r the wild goats.
Ps. civ. 18.

The Lord also will be a refuge for the oppressed.
Ps. ix. 9.

3. An expedient to secure protection or defense; a device or contrivance.

Their latest refuge
Was to send him.
Shak.

Light must be supplied, among graceful refuges , by terracing ......... story in danger of darkness.
Sir H. Wotton.

Cities of refuge (Jewish Antiq.) , certain cities appointed as places of safe refuge for persons who had committed homicide without design. Of these there were three on each side of Jordan. Josh. xx. -- House of refuge , a charitable institution for giving shelter and protection to the homeless, destitute, or tempted.

Syn. -- Shelter; asylum; retreat; covert.

Refuge transitive verb To shelter; to protect. [ Obsolete]

Refugee noun [ French réfugié , from se réfugier to take refuge. See Refuge , noun ]
1. One who flees to a shelter, or place of safety.

2. Especially, one who, in times of persecution or political commotion, flees to a foreign power or country for safety; as, the French refugees who left France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.