Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Red-riband noun (Zoology) The European red band fish, or fireflame. See Rend fish .

Red-short adjective (Metal.) Hot-short; brittle when red-hot; -- said of certain kinds of iron. -- Red"-short`ness , noun

Red-tailed adjective Having a red tail.

Red-tailed hawk (Zoology) , a large North American hawk ( Buteo borealis ). When adult its tail is chestnut red. Called also hen hawck , and red-tailed buzzard .

Red-tape adjective Pertaining to, or characterized by, official formality. See Red tape , under Red , adjective

Red-tapism noun Strict adherence to official formalities. J. C. Shairp.

Red-tapist noun One who is tenacious of a strict adherence to official formalities. Ld. Lytton.

Redressal noun Redress.

Redresser noun One who redresses.

Redressible adjective Such as may be redressed.

Redressive adjective Tending to redress. Thomson.

Redressless adjective Not having redress; such as can not be redressed; irremediable. Sherwood.

Redressment (-m e nt) noun [ Confer French redressement .] The act of redressing; redress. Jefferson.

Redroot noun (Botany) A name of several plants having red roots, as the New Jersey tea (see under Tea ), the gromwell, the bloodroot, and the Lachnanthes tinctoria , an endogenous plant found in sandy swamps from Rhode Island to Florida.

Redsear intransitive verb To be brittle when red-hot; to be red-short. Moxon.

Redshank noun
1. (Zoology) (a) A common Old World limicoline bird ( Totanus calidris ), having the legs and feet pale red. The spotted redshank ( T. fuscus ) is larger, and has orange-red legs. Called also redshanks , redleg , and clee . (b) The fieldfare.

2. A bare-legged person; -- a contemptuous appellation formerly given to the Scotch Highlanders, in allusion to their bare legs. Spenser.

Redskin noun A common appellation for a North American Indian; -- so called from the color of the skin. Cooper.

Redstart noun [ Red + start tail.] (Zoology) (a) A small, handsome European singing bird ( Ruticilla phœnicurus ), allied to the nightingale; -- called also redtail , brantail , fireflirt , firetail . The black redstart is P.tithys . The name is also applied to several other species of Ruticilla amnd allied genera, native of India. (b) An American fly-catching warbler ( Setophaga ruticilla ). The male is black, with large patches of orange-red on the sides, wings, and tail. The female is olive, with yellow patches.

Redstreak noun
1. A kind of apple having the skin streaked with red and yellow, -- a favorite English cider apple. Mortimer.

2. Cider pressed from redstreak apples.

Redtail noun (Zoology) (a) The red-tailed hawk. (b) The European redstart.

Redthroat noun (Zoology) A small Australian singing bird ( Phyrrholæmus brunneus ). The upper parts are brown, the center of the throat red.

Redtop noun (Botany) A kind of grass ( Agrostis vulgaris ) highly valued in the United States for pasturage and hay for cattle; -- called also English grass , and in some localities herd's grass . See Illustration in Appendix. The tall redtop is Triodia seslerioides .

Redub transitive verb [ French radouber to refit or repair.] To refit; to repair, or make reparation for; hence, to repay or requite. [ Obsolete]

It shall be good that you redub that negligence.
Wyatt.

God shall give power to redub it with some like requital to the French .
Grafton.

Reduce (re*dūs") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Reduced (-dūst"),; present participle & verbal noun Reducing (- dū"sĭng).] [ Latin reducere , reductum ; prefix red- . re- , re- + ducere to lead. See Duke , and confer Redoubt , noun ]
1. To bring or lead back to any former place or condition. [ Obsolete]

And to his brother's house reduced his wife.
Chapman.

The sheep must of necessity be scattered, unless the great Shephered of souls oppose, or some of his delegates reduce and direct us.
Evelyn.

2. To bring to any inferior state, with respect to rank, size, quantity, quality, value, etc.; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; to impair; as, to reduce a sergeant to the ranks; to reduce a drawing; to reduce expenses; to reduce the intensity of heat. "An ancient but reduced family." Sir W. Scott.

Nothing so excellent but a man may fasten upon something belonging to it, to reduce it.
Tillotson.

Having reduced
Their foe to misery beneath their fears.
Milton.

Hester Prynne was shocked at the condition to which she found the clergyman reduced .
Hawthorne.

3. To bring to terms; to humble; to conquer; to subdue; to capture; as, to reduce a province or a fort.

4. To bring to a certain state or condition by grinding, pounding, kneading, rubbing, etc.; as, to reduce a substance to powder, or to a pasty mass; to reduce fruit, wood, or paper rags, to pulp.

It were but right
And equal to reduce me to my dust.
Milton.

5. To bring into a certain order, arrangement, classification, etc.; to bring under rules or within certain limits of descriptions and terms adapted to use in computation; as, to reduce animals or vegetables to a class or classes; to reduce a series of observations in astronomy; to reduce language to rules.

6. (Arith.) (a) To change, as numbers, from one denomination into another without altering their value, or from one denomination into others of the same value; as, to reduce pounds, shillings, and pence to pence, or to reduce pence to pounds; to reduce days and hours to minutes, or minutes to days and hours. (b) To change the form of a quantity or expression without altering its value; as, to reduce fractions to their lowest terms, to a common denominator, etc.

7. (Chemistry) To bring to the metallic state by separating from impurities; hence, in general, to remove oxygen from; to deoxidize; to combine with, or to subject to the action of, hydrogen; as, ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron; or metals are reduced from their ores; -- opposed to oxidize .

8. (Medicine) To restore to its proper place or condition, as a displaced organ or part; as, to reduce a dislocation, a fracture, or a hernia.

Reduced iron (Chemistry) , metallic iron obtained through deoxidation of an oxide of iron by exposure to a current of hydrogen or other reducing agent. When hydrogen is used the product is called also iron by hydrogen . -- To reduce an equation (Alg.) , to bring the unknown quantity by itself on one side, and all the known quantities on the other side, without destroying the equation. -- To reduce an expression (Alg.) , to obtain an equivalent expression of simpler form. -- To reduce a square (Mil.) , to reform the line or column from the square.

Syn. -- To diminish; lessen; decrease; abate; shorten; curtail; impair; lower; subject; subdue; subjugate; conquer.

Reducement noun Reduction. Milton.

Reducent adjective [ Latin reducens , present participle of reducere .] Tending to reduce. -- noun A reducent agent.

Reducer noun One who, or that which, reduces.

Reducer noun
1. (Machinery) (a) A contrivance for reducing the dimensions of one part so as to fit it to another, as a reducing coupling, or a device for holding a drilling a chuck. (b) A reducing motion. (c) A reducing valve. (d) A hydraulic device for reducing pressure and hence increasing movement, used to transmit the load from the hydraulic support of the lower shackle to the lever weighing apparatus in some kinds of heavy testing machines.

2. (Photog.) A reducing agent, either a developer or an agent for reducing density.

Reducible adjective Capable of being reduced.

Reducibleness noun Quality of being reducible.

Reducing (r?*d?"s?ng), a & noun from Reduce .

Reducing furnace (Metal.) , a furnace for reducing ores. -- Reducing pipe fitting , a pipe fitting, as a coupling, an elbow, a tee, etc., for connecting a large pipe with a smaller one. -- Reducing valve , a device for automatically maintaining a diminished pressure of steam, air, gas, etc., in a pipe, or other receiver, which is fed from a boiler or pipe in which the pressure is higher than is desired in the receiver.

Reduct transitive verb . [ Latin reductus , past participle of reducere . See Reduce .] To reduce. [ Obsolete] W. Warde.

Reductibility noun The quality of being reducible; reducibleness.

Reduction noun [ French réduction , Latin reductio . See Reduce .]
1. The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the reduction of a body to powder; the reduction of things to order; the reduction of the expenses of government; the reduction of a rebellious province.

2. (Arith. & Alq.) The act or process of reducing. See Reduce , transitive verb , 6. and To reduce an equation , To reduce an expression , under Reduce , transitive verb

3. (Astron.) (a) The correction of observations for known errors of instruments, etc. (b) The preparation of the facts and measurements of observations in order to deduce a general result.

4. The process of making a copy of something, as a figure, design, or draught, on a smaller scale, preserving the proper proportions. Fairholt.

5. (Logic) The bringing of a syllogism in one of the so-called imperfect modes into a mode in the first figure.

6. (Chem. & Metal.) The act, process, or result of reducing; as, the reduction of iron from its ores; the reduction of aldehyde from alcohol.

7. (Medicine) The operation of restoring a dislocated or fractured part to its former place.

Reduction ascending (Arith.) , the operation of changing numbers of a lower into others of a higher denomination, as cents to dollars. -- Reduction descending (Arith.) , the operation of changing numbers of a higher into others of a lower denomination, as dollars to cents.

Syn. -- Diminution; decrease; abatement; curtailment; subjugation; conquest; subjection.

Reductive adjective [ Confer French réductif .] Tending to reduce; having the power or effect of reducing. -- noun A reductive agent. Sir M. Hale.

Reductively adverb By reduction; by consequence.

Réduit noun [ French See Redoubt , noun ] (Fort.) A central or retired work within any other work.

Redundance (r?*d?n"d a ns), Re*dun"dan*cy (-d a n*s?) noun [ Latin redundantia : confer French redondance .]


1. The quality or state of being redundant; superfluity; superabundance; excess.

2. That which is redundant or in excess; anything superfluous or superabundant.

Labor . . . throws off redundacies .
Addison.

3. (Law) Surplusage inserted in a pleading which may be rejected by the court without impairing the validity of what remains.

Redundant (-d a nt) adjective [ Latin redundans , -antis , present participle of redundare : confer French redondant . See Redound .]
1. Exceeding what is natural or necessary; superabundant; exuberant; as, a redundant quantity of bile or food.

Notwithstanding the redundant oil in fishes, they do not increase fat so much as flesh.
Arbuthnot.

2. Using more worrds or images than are necessary or useful; pleonastic.

Where an suthor is redundant , mark those paragraphs to be retrenched.
I. Watts.

Syn. -- Superfluous; superabundant; excessive; exuberant; overflowing; plentiful; copious.

Redundantly adverb In a refundant manner.

Reduplicate adjective [ Prefix re- + duplicate : confer Latin reduplicatus . Confer Redouble .]
1. Double; doubled; reduplicative; repeated.

2. (Botany) Valvate with the margins curved outwardly; -- said of the ...stivation of certain flowers.

Reduplicate transitive verb [ Confer Late Latin reduplicare .]


1. To redouble; to multiply; to repeat.

2. (Gram.) To repeat the first letter or letters of (a word). See Reduplication , 3.

Reduplication noun [ Confer French réduplication , Latin reduplicatio repetition.]
1. The act of doubling, or the state of being doubled.

2. (Pros.) A figure in which the first word of a verse is the same as the last word of the preceding verse.

3. (Philol.) The doubling of a stem or syllable (more or less modified), with the effect of changing the time expressed, intensifying the meaning, or making the word more imitative; also, the syllable thus added; as, Latin te tuli; po posci.

Reduplicative adjective [ Confer French réduplicatif .] Double; formed by reduplication; reduplicate. I. Watts.

Reduvid noun [ Latin reduvia a hangnail.] (Zoology) Any hemipterous insect of the genus Redivius , or family Reduvidæ . They live by sucking the blood of other insects, and some species also attack man.

Redweed (rĕd"wēd`) noun (Botany) The red poppy ( Papaver Rhœas ). Dr. Prior.

Redwing noun (Zoology) A European thrush ( Turdus iliacus ). Its under wing coverts are orange red. Called also redwinged thrush . (b) A North American passerine bird ( Agelarius phœniceus ) of the family Icteridæ . The male is black, with a conspicuous patch of bright red, bordered with orange, on each wing. Called also redwinged blackbird , red-winged troupial , marsh blackbird , and swamp blackbird .

Redwithe noun (Botany) A west Indian climbing shrub ( Combretum Jacquini ) with slender reddish branchlets.

Redwood (-wod`) noun (Botany) (a) A gigantic coniferous tree ( Sequoia sempervirens ) of California, and its light and durable reddish timber. See Sequoia . (b) An East Indian dyewood, obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus , Cæsalpinia Sappan , and several other trees.

» The redwood of Andaman is Pterocarpus dalbergioides ; that of some parts of tropical America, several species of Erythoxylum ; that of Brazil, the species of Humirium .

Ree (rē) noun [ Portuguese real , plural reis . See Real the money.] See Rei .

Ree transitive verb [ Confer Prov. German räden , raden , raiten . Confer Riddle a sieve.] To riddle; to sift; to separate or throw off. [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.] Mortimer.