Webster's Dictionary, 1913
Re-ferment (r...`f...r*m...nt") transitive verb & i. To ferment, or cause to ferment, again. Blackmore.
Refashionment (-m e nt) noun The act of refashioning, or the state of being refashioned. [ R.] Leigh Hunt.
Refasten transitive verb To fasten again.
Refect transitive verb [ Latin refectus , past participle of reficere ; prefix re- re- + facere to make.] To restore after hunger or fatigue; to refresh. [ Archaic] Sir T. Browne.
[ Latin refectio
: confer French réfection
. See Refect
.] Refreshment after hunger or fatigue; a repast; a lunch.
[ His] feeble spirit inly felt refection . Spenser.
Those Attic nights, and those refections of the gods. Curran.
Refective adjective Refreshing; restoring.
Refective noun That which refreshes.
(-r...z). [ LL
: confer F. réfectoire
. See Refection
.] A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.
» Sometimes pronounced rĕf"ĕk*to*rȳ, especially when signifying the eating room in monasteries.
Refel transitive verb
[ Latin refellere
; prefix re-
re- + fallere
to deceive.] To refute; to disprove; as, to refel the tricks of a sophister.
How he refelled me, and how I replied. Shak.
(re*fẽr") transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Referred
(-fẽrd); present participle & verbal noun Referring
.] [ French référer
, Latin referre
; prefix re-
re- + ferre
to bear. See Bear
to carry.] 1. To carry or send back.
[ Obsolete] Chaucer. 2. Hence: To send or direct away; to send or direct elsewhere, as for treatment, aid, information, decision, etc.; to make over, or pass over, to another; as, to refer a student to an author; to refer a beggar to an officer; to refer a bill to a committee; a court refers a matter of fact to a commissioner for investigation, or refers a question of law to a superior tribunal. 3. To place in or under by a mental or rational process; to assign to, as a class, a cause, source, a motive, reason, or ground of explanation; as, he referred the phenomena to electrical disturbances. To refer one's self
, to have recourse; to betake one's self; to make application; to appeal.
I'll refer me to all things sense. Shak.
Refer intransitive verb 1. To have recourse; to apply; to appeal; to betake one's self; as, to refer to a dictionary.
In suits . . . it is to refer to some friend of trust. Bacon. 2. To have relation or reference; to relate; to point; as, the figure refers to a footnote.
Of those places that refer to the shutting and opening the abyss, I take notice of that in Job. Bp. Burnet. 3. To carry the mind or thought; to direct attention; as, the preacher referred to the late election. 4. To direct inquiry for information or a guarantee of any kind, as in respect to one's integrity, capacity, pecuniary ability, and the like; as, I referred to his employer for the truth of his story. Syn.
-- To allude; advert; suggest; appeal. Refer
. We refer
to a thing by specifically and distinctly introducing it into our discourse. We allude
to it by introducing it indirectly or indefinitely, as by something collaterally allied to it. We advert
to it by turning off somewhat abruptly to consider it more at large. Thus, Macaulay refers
to the early condition of England at the opening of his history; he alludes
to these statements from time to time; and adverts
, in the progress of his work, to various circumstances of peculiar interest, on which for a time he dwells. "But to do good is . . . that that Solomon chiefly refers
to in the text." Sharp.
"This, I doubt not, was that artificial structure here alluded
to." T. Burnet.
Now to the universal whole advert : Blackmore.
The earth regard as of that whole a part.
Referable adjective Capable of being referred, or considered in relation to something else; assignable; ascribable.
[ Written also referrible
It is a question among philosophers, whether all the attractions which obtain between bodies are referable to one general cause. W. Nicholson.
(-...) noun One to whom a thing is referred; a person to whom a matter in dispute has been referred, in order that he may settle it. Syn.
-- Judge; arbitrator; umpire. See Judge
[ See Refer
.] 1. The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, reference to a chart for guidance. 2. That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a reference in a text- book. 3. Relation; regard; respect.
Something that hath a reference to my state. Shak. 4. One who, or that which, is referred to.
Specifically; (a) One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another. (b) A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred. 5. (Law) (a) The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision. (b) (Equity) The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court. 6. Appeal.
[ R.] "Make your full reference
." Shak. Reference Bible
, a Bible in which brief explanations, and references to parallel passages, are printed in the margin of the text.
[ Late Latin referendarius
, from Latin referendus
to be referred, gerundive of referre
: confer French référendaire
. See Refer
.] 1. One to whose decision a cause is referred; a referee.
[ Obsolete] Bacon. 2. An officer who delivered the royal answer to petitions.
, or masters of request." Harmar. 3. Formerly, an officer of state charged with the duty of procuring and dispatching diplomas and decrees.
[ Gerundive from Latin referre
. See Refer
.] 1. A diplomatic agent's note asking for instructions from his government concerning a particular matter or point. 2. The right to approve or reject by popular vote a meassure passed upon by a legislature.
; plural - da
. [ Gerundive from Latin referre
. See Refer
.] The principle or practice of referring measures passed upon by the legislative body to the body of voters, or electorate, for approval or rejection, as in the Swiss cantons (except Freiburg) and in various local governments in the United States, and also in the local option laws, etc.; also, the right to so approve or reject laws, or the vote by which this is done. Referendum is distinguished from the mandate , or instruction of representatives by the people, from direct government by the people, in which they initiate and make the laws by direct action without representation, and from a plebiscite , or popular vote taken on any measure proposed by a person or body having the initiative but not constituting a representative or constituent body.
Referential (-sh a l) adjective Containing a reference; pointing to something out of itself; as, notes for referential use. -- Ref`er*en"tial*ly , adverb
Referment noun The act of referring; reference. Laud.
Referrer noun One who refers.
Referrible adjective Referable. Hallam.
Refigure transitive verb To figure again. Shak.
Refill transitive verb & i. To fill, or become full, again.
Refind transitive verb To find again; to get or experience again. Sandys.
Refine transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Refined
(-find"); present participle & verbal noun Refining
.] [ Prefix re-
to make fine: confer French raffiner
.] 1. To reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; to free from impurities; to free from dross or alloy; to separate from extraneous matter; to purify; to defecate; as, to refine gold or silver; to refine iron; to refine wine or sugar.
I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined . Zech. xiii. 9. 2. To purify from what is gross, coarse, vulgar, inelegant, low, and the like; to make elegant or exellent; to polish; as, to refine the manners, the language, the style, the taste, the intellect, or the moral feelings.
Love refines Milton. Syn.
The thoughts, and heart enlarges.
-- To purify; clarify; polish; ennoble.
Refine intransitive verb 1. To become pure; to be cleared of feculent matter.
So the pure, limpid stream, when foul with stains, Addison. 2. To improve in accuracy, delicacy, or excellence.
Works itself clear, and, as it runs, refines .
Chaucer refined on Boccace, and mended his stories. Dryden.
But let a lord once own the happy lines, Pope. 3. To affect nicety or subtilty in thought or language.
How the wit brightens! How the style refines !
"He makes another paragraph about our refining
in controversy." Atterbury.
Refined adjective Freed from impurities or alloy; purifed; polished; cultured; delicate; as; refined gold; refined language; refined sentiments.
Refined wits who honored poesy with their pens. Peacham.
[ Confer French raffinement
.] 1. The act of refining, or the state of being refined; as, the refinement or metals; refinement of ideas.
The more bodies are of kin to spirit in subtilty and refinement , the more diffusive are they. Norris.
From the civil war to this time, I doubt whether the corruptions in our language have not equaled its refinements . Swift. 2. That which is refined, elaborated, or polished to excess; an affected subtilty; as, refinements of logic.
of irregular cunning." Rogers. Syn.
-- Purification; polish; politeness; gentility; elegance; cultivation; civilization.
Refiner noun One who, or that which, refines.
; plural Refineries
(-...z). [ Confer French raffinerie
.] 1. The building and apparatus for refining or purifying, esp. metals and sugar. 2. A furnace in which cast iron is refined by the action of a blast on the molten metal.
Refit transitive verb
1. To fit or prepare for use again; to repair; to restore after damage or decay; as, to refit a garment; to refit ships of war. Macaulay. 2. To fit out or supply a second time.
Refit intransitive verb To obtain repairs or supplies; as, the fleet returned to refit .
Refitment (-m e nt) noun The act of refitting, or the state of being refitted.
Refix transitive verb To fix again or anew; to establish anew. Fuller.
Reflame intransitive verb To kindle again into flame.
Reflect transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Reflected
; present participle & verbal noun Reflecting
.] [ Latin reflectere
; prefix re-
re- + flectere
to bend or turn. See Flexible
, and confer Reflex
] 1. To bend back; to give a backwa...d turn to; to throw back; especially, to cause to return after striking upon any surface; as, a mirror reflects rays of light; polished metals reflect heat.
Let me mind the reader to reflect his eye on our quotations. Fuller.
Bodies close together reflect their own color. Dryden. 2. To give back an image or likeness of; to mirror.
Nature is the glass reflecting God, Young.
As by the sea reflected is the sun.
Reflect intransitive verb 1. To throw back light, heat, or the like; to return rays or beams. 2. To be sent back; to rebound as from a surface; to revert; to return.
Whose virtues will, I hope, Shak. 3. To throw or turn back the thoughts upon anything; to contemplate. Specifically: To attend earnestly to what passes within the mind; to attend to the facts or phenomena of consciousness; to use attention or earnest thought; to meditate; especially, to think in relation to moral truth or rules.
Reflect on Rome, as Titan's rays on earth.
We can not be said to reflect upon any external object, except so far as that object has been previously perceived, and its image become part and parcel of our intellectual furniture. Sir W. Hamilton.
All men are concious of the operations of their own minds, at all times, while they are awake, but there few who reflect upon them, or make them objects of thought. Reid.
As I much reflected , much I mourned. Prior. 4. To cast reproach; to cause censure or dishonor.
Errors of wives reflect on husbands still. Dryden.
Neither do I reflect in the least upon the memory of his late majesty. Swift. Syn.
-- To consider; think; cogitate; mediate; contemplate; ponder; muse; ruminate.
1. Thrown back after striking a surface; as, reflected light, heat, sound, etc. 2. Hence: Not one's own; received from another; as, his glory was reflected glory. 3. Bent backward or outward; reflexed.
[ Latin reflectens
, present participle of reflectere
. See Reflect
.] 1. Bending or flying back; reflected.
"The ray descendent, and the ray reflectent
flying with so great a speed." Sir K. Digby. 2. Reflecting; as, a reflectent body. Sir K. Digby.
Reflectible adjective Capable of being reflected, or thrown back; reflexible.
Reflecting adjective 1. Throwing back light, heat, etc., as a mirror or other surface. 2. Given to reflection or serious consideration; reflective; contemplative; as, a reflecting mind. Reflecting circle
, an astronomical instrument for measuring angless, like the sextant or Hadley's quadrant, by the reflection of light from two plane mirrors which it carries, and differing from the sextant chiefly in having an entire circle.
-- Reflecting galvanometer
, a galvanometer in which the deflections of the needle are read by means of a mirror attached to it, which reflects a ray of light or the image of a scale; -- called also mirror galvanometer .
-- Reflecting goniometer
. See under Goniometer .
-- Reflecting telescope
. See under Telescope .
Reflectingly adverb With reflection; also, with censure; reproachfully. Swift.
[ Latin reflexio
: confer French réflexion
. See Riflect
.] [ Written also reflexion
.] 1. The act of reflecting, or turning or sending back, or the state of being reflected.
Specifically: (a) The return of rays, beams, sound, or the like, from a surface. See Angle of reflection , below.
The eye sees not itself, Shak. (b) The reverting of the mind to that which has already occupied it; continued consideration; meditation; contemplation; hence, also, that operation or power of the mind by which it is conscious of its own acts or states; the capacity for judging rationally, especially in view of a moral rule or standard.
But by reflection , by some other things.
By reflection , . . . I would be understood to mean, that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of these operations in the understanding. Locke.
This delight grows and improves under thought and reflection . South. 2. Shining; brightness, as of the sun.
[ Obsolete] Shak. 3. That which is produced by reflection.
Specifically: (a) An image given back from a reflecting surface; a reflected counterpart.
As the sun water we can bear, Dryden. (b) A part reflected, or turned back, at an angle; as, the reflection of a membrane. (c) Result of meditation; thought or opinion after attentive consideration or contemplation; especially, thoughts suggested by truth.
Yet not the sun, but his reflection , there.
Job's reflections on his once flourishing estate did at the same time afflict and encourage him. Atterbury. 4. Censure; reproach cast.
He died; and oh! may no reflection shed Prior. 5. (Physiol.) The transference of an excitement from one nerve fiber to another by means of the nerve cells, as in reflex action. See Reflex action , under Reflex . Angle of reflection
Its poisonous venom on the royal dead.
, the angle which anything, as a ray of light, on leaving a reflecting surface, makes with the perpendicular to the surface.
-- Angle of total reflection
. (Opt.) Same as Critical angle , under Critical . Syn.
-- Meditation; contemplation; rumination; cogitation; consideration; musing; thinking.
[ Confer French réflectif
. Confer Reflexive
.] 1. Throwing back images; as, a reflective mirror.
In the reflective stream the sighing bride, viewing her charms. Prior. 2. Capable of exercising thought or judgment; as, reflective reason. Prior.
His perceptive and reflective faculties . . . thus acquired a precocious and extraordinary development. Motley. 3. Addicted to introspective or meditative habits; as, a reflective person. 4. (Gram.) Reflexive; reciprocal.
of manner." J. C. Shairp.
Reflector (-ẽr) noun [ Confer French réflecteur .]
1. One who, or that which, reflects. Boyle. 2. (Physics) (a) Something having a polished surface for reflecting light or heat, as a mirror, a speculum, etc. (b) A reflecting telescope. (c) A device for reflecting sound.
[ French, reflection. See Reflect
.] Luster; special brilliancy of surface; -- used esp. in ceramics to denote the peculiar metallic brilliancy seen in lustered pottery such as majolica; as, silver reflet ; gold reflet .
[ Latin reflexus
, past participle of reflectere
: confer French réflexe
. See Reflect
.] 1. Directed back; attended by reflection; retroactive; introspective.
The reflex act of the soul, or the turning of the intellectual eye inward upon its own actions. Sir M. Hale. 2. Produced in reaction, in resistance, or in return. 3. (Physiol.) Of, pertaining to, or produced by, stimulus or excitation without the necessary intervention of consciousness. Reflex action (Physiol.)
, any action performed involuntarily in consequence of an impulse or impression transmitted along afferent nerves to a nerve center, from which it is reflected to an efferent nerve, and so calls into action certain muscles, organs, or cells.
-- Reflex nerve (Physiol.)
, an excito-motory nerve. See Exito- motory .
[ Latin reflexus
a bending back. See Reflect
.] 1. Reflection; the light reflected from an illuminated surface to one in shade.
Yon gray is not the morning's eye, Shak.
'Tis but the pale reflex of Cynthia's brow.
On the depths of death there swims Tennyson. 2. (Physiol.) An involuntary movement produced by reflex action. Patellar reflex
The reflex of a human face.
. See Knee jerk , under Knee .
Reflex transitive verb
[ Latin reflexus
, past participle of reflectere
. See Reflect
.] 1. To reflect.
[ Obsolete] Shak. 2. To bend back; to turn back. J. Gregory.
Reflexed adjective Bent backward or outward.