Encyclo - Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Recuperation noun . [ Latin recuperatio : confer French récup...ration .] Recovery, as of anything lost, especially of the health or strength.

Recuperative adjective [ Latin recuperativus , recuperatorius .] Of or pertaining to recuperation; tending to recovery.

Recuperator noun [ Confer Latin recuperator a recoverer.] (Steel Manuf.) Same as Regenerator .

Recur intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Recurred (-k?rd"); present participle & verbal noun Recurring .] [ Latin recurrere ; prefix re- re- + currere to run. See Current .]
1. To come back; to return again or repeatedly; to come again to mind.

When any word has been used to signify an idea, the old idea will recur in the mind when the word is heard.
I. Watts.

2. To occur at a stated interval, or according to some regular rule; as, the fever will recur to- night.

3. To resort; to have recourse; to go for help.

If, to avoid succession in eternal existence, they recur to the "punctum stans" of the schools, they will thereby very little help us to a more positive idea of infinite duration.

Recurring decimal (Math.) , a circulating decimal. See under Decimal . -- Recurring series (Math.) , an algebraic series in which the coefficients of the several terms can be expressed by means of certain preceding coefficients and constants in one uniform manner.

Recure transitive verb [ Confer Recover .]
1. To arrive at; to reach; to attain. [ Obsolete] Lydgate.

2. To recover; to regain; to repossess. [ Obsolete]

When their powers, impaired through labor long,
With due repast, they had recured well.

3. To restore, as from weariness, sickness; or the like; to repair.

In western waves his weary wagon did recure .

4. To be a cure for; to remedy. [ Obsolete]

No medicine
Might avail his sickness to recure .

Recure noun Cure; remedy; recovery. [ Obsolete]

But whom he hite, without recure he dies.

Recureless adjective Incapable of cure. [ Obsolete] Bp. Hall.

Recurrence (r?*k?r"r e ns), Re*cur"ren*cy (-r e n*s?) noun [ Confer French récurrence .] The act of recurring, or state of being recurrent; return; resort; recourse.

I shall insensibly go on from a rare to a frequent recurrence to the dangerous preparations.
I. Taylor.

Recurrent (-r e nt) adjective [ Latin recurrens , -entis , present participle of recurrere : confer French récurrent . See Recur .]
1. Returning from time to time; recurring; as, recurrent pains.

2. (Anat.) Running back toward its origin; as, a recurrent nerve or artery.

Recurrent fever . (Medicine) See Relapsing fever , under Relapsing . -- Recurrent pulse (Physiol.) , the pulse beat which appears (when the radial artery is compressed at the wrist) on the distal side of the point of pressure through the arteries of the palm of the hand. -- Recurrent sensibility (Physiol.) , the sensibility manifested by the anterior, or motor, roots of the spinal cord (their stimulation causing pain) owing to the presence of sensory fibers from the corresponding sensory or posterior roots.

Recursant adjective [ Latin recursans , -antis , present participle of recursare to run back, v. freq. of recurrere . See Recure .] (Her.) Displayed with the back toward the spectator; -- said especially of an eagle.

Recursion noun [ Latin recursio . See Recur .] The act of recurring; return. [ Obsolete] Boyle.

Recurvate adjective [ Latin recurvatus , past participle of recurvare . See Re- , and Curvate .] (Botany) Recurved.

Recurvate transitive verb To bend or curve back; to recurve. Pennant.

Recurvation noun The act of recurving, or the state of being recurved; a bending or flexure backward.

Recurve transitive verb To curve in an opposite or unusual direction; to bend back or down.

Recurved adjective Curved in an opposite or uncommon direction; bent back; as, a bird with a recurved bill; flowers with recurved petals.

Recurviroster noun [ Latin recurvus bent back + rostrum beack; confer French récurvirostre .] (Zool.) A bird whose beak bends upward, as the avocet.

Recurvirostral (-tr a l) adjective [ See Recurviroster .] (Zoology) Having the beak bent upwards.

Recurvity noun Recurvation.

Recurvous adjective [ Latin recurvus ; prefix re- re + curvus curved.] Recurved. Derham.

Recusancy noun The state of being recusant; nonconformity. Coke.

Recusant (-z a t; 277) adjective [ Latin recusans , -antis , present participle of recure to refuse, to oject to; prefix re- re + causa a cause, pretext: confer French récusant . See Cause , and confer Ruse .] Obstinate in refusal; specifically, in English history, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in the churc, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as, a recusant lord.

It stated him to have placed his son in the household of the Countess of Derby, a recusant papist.
Sir W. Scott.

Recusant noun
1. One who is obstinate in refusal; one standing out stubbornly against general practice or opinion.

The last rebellious recusants among the European family of nations.
De Quincey.

2. (Eng. Hist.) A person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as, a Roman Catholic recusant , who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope. Brande & C.

3. One who refuses communion with the Church of England; a nonconformist.

All that are recusants of holy rites.

Recusation noun [ Latin recusatio : confer French récusation .]
1. Refusal. [ Obsolete]

2. (Old Law) The act of refusing a judge or challenging that he shall not try the cause, on account of his supposed partiality. Blackstone.

Recusative adjective Refusing; denying; negative. [ R.] Jer. Taylor.

Recuse transitive verb [ French récuser , or Latin recusare . See Recusant .] (Law) To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause. [ Obsolete] Sir K. Digby.

Recussion noun [ Latin recutire , recussum , to beat back; prefix re- re- + quatere to shake.] The act of beating or striking back.

Red (rĕd), obsolete . imperfect & past participle of Read . Spenser.

Red transitive verb To put on order; to make tidy; also, to free from entanglement or embarrassement; -- generally with up ; as, to red up a house. [ Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Red adjective [ Compar. Redder (-d?r); superl. Reddest .] [ Middle English red , reed , Anglo-Saxon reád , reód ; akin to Old Saxon rōd , OFries. rād , Dutch rood , German roht , rot , Old High German rōt , Dan. & Swedish röd , Icelandic rauðr , rjōðr , Goth. ráuds , W. rhudd , Armor. ruz , Ir. & Gael. ruadh , Latin ruber , rufus , Greek 'eryqro`s , Sanskrit rudhira , rohita ; confer Latin rutilus . √113. Confer Erysipelas , Rouge , Rubric , Ruby , Ruddy , Russet , Rust .] Of the color of blood, or of a tint resembling that color; of the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is furthest from the violet part. "Fresh flowers, white and reede ." Chaucer.

Your color, I warrant you, is as red as any rose.

» Red is a general term, including many different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, and the like.

» Red is often used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, red -breasted, red -cheeked, red - faced, red -haired, red -headed, red- skinned, red -tailed, red- topped, red- whiskered, red -coasted.

Red admiral (Zoology) , a beautiful butterfly ( Vanessa Atalanta ) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atalanta butterfly , and nettle butterfly . -- Red ant . (Zoology) (a) A very small ant ( Myrmica molesta ) which often infests houses . (b) A larger reddish ant ( Formica sanguinea ), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.) , kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b) , under Kermes . -- Red ash (Botany) , an American tree ( Fraxinus pubescens ), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray. -- Red bass . (Zoology) See Redfish (d) . - - Red bay (Botany) , a tree ( Persea Caroliniensis ) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zoology) , a bright red sponge ( Microciona prolifera ), common on oyster shells and stones. [ Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Botany) , a species of birch ( Betula nigra ) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light- colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness . (Medicine) See Daltonism . -- Red book , a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [ Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer , an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass , an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug . (Zoology) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites . (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris , especially the European species ( P. apterus ), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder , under Cotton . -- Red cedar . (Botany) An evergreen North American tree ( Juniperus Virginiana ) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia ( Cedrela Toona ) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. -- Red chalk . See under Chalk . -- Red copper (Min.) , red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zoology) , the precious coral ( Corallium rubrum ). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea . -- Red cross . The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention , and Geneva cross , under Geneva . -- Red currant . (Botany) See Currant . -- Red deer . (Zoology) (a) The common stag ( Cervus elaphus ), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer . -- Red duck (Zoology) , a European reddish brown duck ( Fuligula nyroca ); -- called also ferruginous duck . -- Red ebony . (Botany) See Grenadillo . -- Red empress (Zoology) , a butterfly. See Tortoise shell . -- Red fir (Botany) , a coniferous tree ( Pseudotsuga Douglasii ) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and A. nobilis . -- Red fire . (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire , under Fire . -- Red flag . See under Flag . -- Red fox (Zoology) , the common American fox ( Vulpes fulvus ), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zoology) , the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan . -- Red gum , or Red gum-tree (Botany) , a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus amygdalina , resinifera , etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus . -- Red hand (Her.) , a left hand appaumé, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster . -- Red herring , the common herring dried and smoked. -- Red horse . (Zoology) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species . (b) See the Note under Drumfish . -- Red lead . (Chem) See under Lead , and Minium . -- Red-lead ore . (Min.) Same as Crocoite . -- Red liquor (Dyeing) , a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant . -- Red maggot (Zoology) , the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese . (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite . -- Red man , one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Botany) , a species of maple ( Acer rubrum ). See Maple . -- Red mite . (Zoology) See Red spider , below. -- Red mulberry (Botany) , an American mulberry of a dark purple color ( Morus rubra ). -- Red mullet (Zoology) , the surmullet. See Mullet . -- Red ocher (Min.) , a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zoology) , the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus . (Chemistry) See under Phosphorus . -- Red pine (Botany) , an American species of pine ( Pinus resinosa ); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate . See under Precipitate . -- Red Republican (European Politics) , originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [ Cant] -- Red ribbon , the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders . (Botany) See Sanders . -- Red sandstone . (Geol.) See under Sandstone . -- Red scale (Zoology) , a scale insect ( Aspidiotus aurantii ) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.) , an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite , or light red silver, and pyrargyrite , or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zoology) , a large fish ( Lutlanus aya or Blackfordii ) abundant in the Gulf of Mexico and about the Florida reefs. -- Red snow , snow colored by a mocroscopic unicellular alga ( Protococcus nivalis ) which produces large patches of scarlet on the snows of arctic or mountainous regions. -- Red softening (Medicine) a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zoology) , a very small web-spinning mite ( Tetranychus telarius ) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite . -- Red squirrel (Zoology) , the chickaree. -- Red tape , the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay. -- Red underwing (Zoology) , any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water , a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.

Red noun
1. The color of blood, or of that part of the spectrum farthest from violet, or a tint resembling these. "Celestial rosy red , love's proper hue." Milton.

2. A red pigment.

3. (European Politics) An abbreviation for Red Republican . See under Red, adjective [ Cant]

4. plural (Medicine) The menses. Dunglison.

English red , a pigment prepared by the Dutch, similar to Indian red. -- Hypericum red , a red resinous dyestuff extracted from Hypericum. -- Indian red . See under Indian , and Almagra .

Red Cross
1. The crusaders or the cause they represented.

2. A hospital or ambulance service established as a result of, though not provided for by, the Geneva convention of 1864; any of the national societies for alleviating the sufferings of the sick and wounded war, also giving aid and relief during great calamities; also, a member or worker of such a society; - - so called from the badge of neutrality; the Geneva cross.

Red dog, Red-dog flour The lowest grade of flour in milling. It is dark and of little expansive power, is secured largely from the germ or embryo and adjacent parts, and contains a relatively high percentage of protein. It is chiefly useful as feed for farm animals.

Redact transitive verb [ Latin redactus , past participle of redigere ; prefix red- , re- , again, back + agere to put in motion, to drive.] To reduce to form, as literary matter; to digest and put in shape (matter for publication); to edit.

Rédacteur (ra`dȧk`tẽr") noun [ French] See Redactor .

Redaction noun [ French rédaction .] The act of redacting; work produced by redacting; a digest.

Redactor noun One who redacts; one who prepares matter for publication; an editor. Carlyle.

Redan noun [ French, for Old French redent a double notching or jagging, as in the teeth of a saw, from Latin prefix re- re- + dens , dentis , a tooth. Confer Redented .] [ Written sometimes redent and redens .]
1. (Fort.) A work having two parapets whose faces unite so as to form a salient angle toward the enemy.

2. A step or vertical offset in a wall on uneven ground, to keep the parts level.

Redargue transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Redargued (-g?d); present participle & verbal noun Redarguing .] [ Latin redarguere ; prefix red- , re- re- + arguere to accuse, charge with: confer French rédarguer .] To disprove; to refute; toconfute; to reprove; to convict. [ Archaic]

How shall I . . . suffer that God should redargue me at doomsday, and the angels reproach my lukewarmness?
Jer. Taylor.

Now this objection to the immediate cognition of external objects has, as far as I know, been redargued in three different ways.
Sir W. Hamilton.

Redargution noun [ Latin redargutio .] The act of redarguing; refutation. [ Obsolete or R.] Bacon.

Redargutory adjective Pertaining to, or containing, redargution; refutatory. [ R.]

Redback noun (Zoology) The dunlin. [ U. S.]

Redbelly noun (Zoology) The char.

Redbird noun (Zoology) (a) The cardinal bird. (b) The summer redbird ( Piranga rubra ). (c) The scarlet tanager. See Tanager .

Redbreast noun
1. (Zoology) (a) The European robin. (b) The American robin. See Robin . (c) The knot, or red-breasted snipe; -- called also robin breast , and robin snipe . See Knot .

2. (Zoology) The long-eared pondfish. See Pondfish .

Redbud noun (Botany) A small ornamental leguminous tree of the American species of the genus Cercis . See Judas tree , under Judas .

Redcap noun
1. (Zoöl) The European goldfinch.

2. A specter having long teeth, popularly supposed to haunt old castles in Scotland. [ Scot.] Jamieson.

Redcoat (-kōt`) noun One who wears a red coat; specifically, a red-coated British soldier.

Redde (-de), obsolete imperfect of Read , or Rede . Chaucer.