Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Reckon (rĕk"'n) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Reckoned (-'nd); present participle & verbal noun Reckoning .] [ Middle English rekenen , Anglo-Saxon gerecenian to explain; akin to Dutch rekenen to reckon, German rechnen , Old High German rehhanōn (cf. Goth. rahnjan ), and to English reck , rake an implement; the original sense probably being, to bring together, count together. See Reck , transitive verb ]


1. To count; to enumerate; to number; also, to compute; to calculate.

The priest shall reckon to him the money according to the years that remain.
Lev. xxvii. 18.

I reckoned above two hundred and fifty on the outside of the church.
Addison.

2. To count as in a number, rank, or series; to estimate by rank or quality; to place by estimation; to account; to esteem; to repute.

He was reckoned among the transgressors.
Luke xxii. 37.

For him I reckon not in high estate.
Milton.

3. To charge, attribute, or adjudge to one, as having a certain quality or value.

Faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.
Rom. iv. 9.

Without her eccentricities being reckoned to her for a crime.
Hawthorne.

4. To conclude, as by an enumeration and balancing of chances; hence, to think; to suppose; -- followed by an objective clause; as, I reckon he won't try that again. [ Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U. S.]

Syn. -- To number; enumerate; compute; calculate; estimate; value; esteem; account; repute. See Calculate , Guess .

Reckon intransitive verb
1. To make an enumeration or computation; to engage in numbering or computing. Shak.

2. To come to an accounting; to make up accounts; to settle; to examine and strike the balance of debt and credit; to adjust relations of desert or penalty.

"Parfay," sayst thou, "sometime he reckon shall."
Chaucer.

To reckon for , to answer for; to pay the account for. "If they fail in their bounden duty, they shall reckon for it one day." Bp. Sanderson. -- To reckon on or upon , to count or depend on. -- To reckon with , to settle accounts or claims with; -- used literally or figuratively.

After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them.
Matt. xxv. 19.

-- To reckon without one's host , to ignore in a calculation or arrangement the person whose assent is essential; hence, to reckon erroneously.

Reckoner (-ẽr) noun One who reckons or computes; also, a book of calculations, tables, etc., to assist in reckoning.

Reckoners without their host must reckon twice.
Camden.

Reckoning noun
1. The act of one who reckons, counts, or computes; the result of reckoning or counting; calculation. Specifically: (a) An account of time . Sandys. (b) Adjustment of claims and accounts; settlement of obligations, liabilities, etc.

Even reckoning makes lasting friends, and the way to make reckonings even is to make them often.
South.

He quitted London, never to return till the day of a terrible and memorable reckoning had arrived.
Macaulay.

2. The charge or account made by a host at an inn.

A coin would have a nobler use than to pay a reckoning .
Addison.

3. Esteem; account; estimation.

You make no further reckoning of it [ beauty] than of an outward fading benefit nature bestowed.
Sir P. Sidney.

4. (Navigation) (a) The calculation of a ship's position, either from astronomical observations, or from the record of the courses steered and distances sailed as shown by compass and log, -- in the latter case called dead reckoning (see under Dead ); -- also used for dead reckoning in contradistinction to observation . (b) The position of a ship as determined by calculation.

To be out of her reckoning , to be at a distance from the place indicated by the reckoning; -- said of a ship.

Reclaim (rē*klām") transitive verb To claim back; to demand the return of as a right; to attempt to recover possession of.

A tract of land [ Holland] snatched from an element perpetually reclaiming its prior occupancy.
W. Coxe.

Reclaim (re*klām") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Reclaimed (-klāmd"); present participle & verbal noun Reclaiming .] [ French réclamer , Latin reclamare , reclamatum , to cry out against; prefix re- re- + clamare to call or cry aloud. See Claim .]
1. To call back, as a hawk to the wrist in falconry, by a certain customary call. Chaucer.

2. To call back from flight or disorderly action; to call to, for the purpose of subduing or quieting.

The headstrong horses hurried Octavius . . . along, and were deaf to his reclaiming them.
Dryden.

3. To reduce from a wild to a tamed state; to bring under discipline; -- said especially of birds trained for the chase, but also of other animals. "An eagle well reclaimed ." Dryden.

4. Hence: To reduce to a desired state by discipline, labor, cultivation, or the like; to rescue from being wild, desert, waste, submerged, or the like; as, to reclaim wild land, overflowed land, etc.

5. To call back to rectitude from moral wandering or transgression; to draw back to correct deportment or course of life; to reform.

It is the intention of Providence, in all the various expressions of his goodness, to reclaim mankind.
Rogers.

6. To correct; to reform; -- said of things. [ Obsolete]

Your error, in time reclaimed , will be venial.
Sir E. Hoby.

7. To exclaim against; to gainsay. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Syn. -- To reform; recover; restore; amend; correct.

Reclaim (re*klām") intransitive verb
1. To cry out in opposition or contradiction; to exclaim against anything; to contradict; to take exceptions.

Scripture reclaims , and the whole Catholic church reclaims , and Christian ears would not hear it.
Waterland.

At a later period Grote reclaimed strongly against Mill's setting Whately above Hamilton.
Bain.

2. To bring anyone back from evil courses; to reform.

They, hardened more by what might most reclaim ,
Grieving to see his glory, . . . took envy.
Milton.

3. To draw back; to give way. [ R. & Obsolete] Spenser.

Reclaim noun The act of reclaiming, or the state of being reclaimed; reclamation; recovery. [ Obsolete]

Reclaimable (-ȧ*b'l) adjective That may be reclaimed.

Reclaimant (- a nt) noun [ Confer French réclamant , present participle] One who reclaims; one who cries out against or contradicts. Waterland.

Reclaimer (-ẽr) noun One who reclaims.

Reclaimless adjective That can not be reclaimed.

Reclamation (rĕk`lȧ*mā"shŭn) noun [ French réclamation , Latin reclamatio . See Reclaim .]
1. The act or process of reclaiming.

2. Representation made in opposition; remonstrance.

I would now, on the reclamation both of generosity and of justice, try clemency.
Landor.

Reclasp (rē*klȧsp") intransitive verb To clasp or unite again.

Reclinant (re*klīn" a nt) adjective [ Latin reclinans , present participle See Recline .] Bending or leaning backward.

Reclinate (rĕk"lĭ*nat) adjective [ Latin reclinatus , past participle ] (Botany) Reclined, as a leaf; bent downward, so that the point, as of a stem or leaf, is lower than the base.

Reclination (rĕk`lĭ*nā"shŭn) noun [ Confer French réclinaison .]
1. The act of leaning or reclining, or the state of being reclined.

2. (Dialing) The angle which the plane of the dial makes with a vertical plane which it intersects in a horizontal line. Brande & C.

3. (Surg.) The act or process of removing a cataract, by applying the needle to its anterior surface, and depressing it into the vitreous humor in such a way that the front surface of the cataract becomes the upper one and its back surface the lower one. Dunglison.

Recline (re*klīn") transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Reclined (-klīnd"); present participle & verbal noun Reclining .] [ Latin reclinare ; prefix re- re- + clinare to lean, incline. See Incline , Lean to incline.] To cause or permit to lean, incline, rest, etc.; to place in a recumbent position; as, to recline the head on the hand.

The mother
Reclined her dying head upon his breast.
Dryden.

Recline intransitive verb
1. To lean or incline; as, to recline against a wall.

2. To assume, or to be in, a recumbent position; as, to recline on a couch.

Recline adjective [ Latin reclinis . See Recline , transitive verb ] Having a reclining posture; leaning; reclining. [ R.]

They sat, recline
On the soft downy bank, damasked with flowers.
Milton.

Reclined (re*klīnd") adjective (Botany) Falling or turned downward; reclinate.

Recliner (re*klīn"ẽr) noun One who, or that which, reclines.

Reclining adjective (Botany) (a) Bending or curving gradually back from the perpendicular. (b) Recumbent.

Reclining dial , a dial whose plane is inclined to the vertical line through its center. Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.) .

Reclose (rē*klōz") transitive verb To close again. Pope.

Reclothe (rē*klōth") transitive verb To clothe again.

Reclude (re*klūd") transitive verb [ Latin recludere to unclose, open; prefix re- again, back, un- + claudere to shut.] To open; to unclose. [ R.] Harvey.

Recluse (re*klūs") adjective [ French reclus , Latin reclusus , from recludere , reclusum , to unclose, open, in Late Latin , to shut up. See Close .] Shut up; sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a recluse monk or hermit; a recluse life.

In meditation deep, recluse
From human converse.
J. Philips.

Recluse noun [ French reclus , Late Latin reclusus . See Recluse , adjective ]
1. A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells, usually attached to monasteries.

2. The place where a recluse dwells. [ Obsolete] Foxe.

Recluse transitive verb To shut up; to seclude. [ Obsolete]

Reclusely adverb In a recluse or solitary manner.

Recluseness noun Quality or state of being recluse.

Reclusion (-klū"zhŭn) noun [ Late Latin reclusio : confer French reclusion .] A state of retirement from the world; seclusion.

Reclusive (-sĭv) adjective Affording retirement from society. "Some reclusive and religious life." Shak.

Reclusory (-so*rȳ) noun [ Late Latin reclusorium .] The habitation of a recluse; a hermitage.

Recoct (re*kŏkt") transitive verb [ Latin recoctus , past participle of recoquere to cook or boil over again. See Re- , and 4th Cook .] To boil or cook again; hence, to make over; to vamp up; to reconstruct. [ Obsolete] Jer. Taylor.

Recoction (re*kŏk"shŭn) noun A second coction or preparation; a vamping up.

Recognition (rĕk`ŏg*nĭsh"ŭn) noun [ Latin recognitio : confer French recognition . See Recognizance .] The act of recognizing, or the state of being recognized; acknowledgment; formal avowal; knowledge confessed or avowed; notice.

The lives of such saints had, at the time of their yearly memorials, solemn recognition in the church of God.
Hooker.

Recognitor (re*kŏg"nĭ*tẽr) noun [ Late Latin ] (Law) One of a jury impaneled on an assize. Blackstone.

Recognitory (-to*rȳ) adjective Pertaining to, or connected with, recognition. Lamb.

Recognizability (rĕk`ŏg*nī`zȧ*bĭl"ĭ*tȳ) noun The quality or condition of being recognizable.

Recognizable (rĕk"ŏg*nī`zȧ*b'l or re*kŏg"nĭ-; 277) adjective Capable of being recognized. [ Written also recognisable .] -- Rec"og*ni`za*bly , adverb

Recognizance (re*kŏg"nĭ*z a ns or re*kŏn"ĭ-) noun [ French reconnaissance , Old French recognoissance , from recognoissant , present participle of recognoistre to recognize, French reconnaître , from Latin recognoscere ; prefix re- re- + cognoscere to know. See Cognizance , Know , and confer Recognize , Reconnoissance .] [ Written also recognisance .]
1. (Law) (a) An obligation of record entered into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the same or some other court, to keep the peace, or pay a debt. A recognizance differs from a bond , being witnessed by the record only, and not by the party's seal. (b) The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize. Cowell.

» Among lawyers the g in this and the related words (except recognize ) is usually silent.

2. A token; a symbol; a pledge; a badge.

That recognizance and pledge of love
Which I first gave her.
Shak.

3. Acknowledgment of a person or thing; avowal; profession; recognition.

Recognization (-zā"shŭn) noun Recognition. [ R.]

Recognize (rĕk"ŏg*nīz) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Recognized (- nīzd); present participle & verbal noun Recognizing (- nī`zĭng).] [ From Recognizance ; see Cognition , and confer Reconnoiter .] [ Written also recognise .]
1. To know again; to perceive the identity of, with a person or thing previously known; to recover or recall knowledge of.

Speak, vassal; recognize thy sovereign queen.
Harte.

2. To avow knowledge of; to allow that one knows; to consent to admit, hold, or the like; to admit with a formal acknowledgment; as, to recognize an obligation; to recognize a consul.

3. To acknowledge acquaintance with, as by salutation, bowing, or the like.

4. To show appreciation of; as, to recognize services by a testimonial.

5. To review; to reëxamine. [ Obsolete] South.

6. To reconnoiter. [ Obsolete] R. Monro.

Syn. -- To acknowledge; avow; confess; own; allow; concede. See Acknowledge .

Recognize intransitive verb (Law) To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal; as, A B recognized in the sum of twenty dollars. [ Written also recognise .]

» In legal usage in the United States the second syllable is often accented.

Recognizee (re*kŏg`nĭ*zē" or re*kŏn`ĭ*zē") noun (Law) The person in whose favor a recognizance is made. [ Written also recognisee .] Blackstone.

Recognizer (rĕk"ŏg*nī`zẽr) noun One who recognizes; a recognizor. [ Written also recogniser .]

Recognizor (re*kŏg`nĭ*zôr" or re*kŏn`ĭ*zôr") noun (Law) One who enters into a recognizance. [ Written also recognisor .] Blackstone.

Recognosce (rĕk"ŏg*nŏs) transitive verb [ Latin recognoscere . See Recognizance .] To recognize. [ R. & Obsolete] Boyle.