Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Gracile, Gracillent adjective [ Latin gracilis , gracilentus .] Slender; thin. [ Obsolete] Bailey.

Gracility noun [ Latin gracilitas; confer French gracilité .] State of being gracilent; slenderness. Milman. "Youthful gracility ." W. D. Howells.

Gracious (grā"shŭs) adjective [ French gracieux , Latin gratiosus . See Grace .]
1. Abounding in grace or mercy; manifesting love, or bestowing mercy; characterized by grace; beneficent; merciful; disposed to show kindness or favor; condescending; as, his most gracious majesty.

A god ready to pardon, gracious and merciful.
Neh. ix. 17.

So hallowed and so gracious in the time.
Shak.

2. Abounding in beauty, loveliness, or amiability; graceful; excellent.

Since the birth of Cain, the first male child, . . .
There was not such a gracious creature born.
Shak.

3. Produced by divine grace; influenced or controlled by the divine influence; as, gracious affections.

Syn. -- Favorable; kind; benevolent; friendly; beneficent; benignant; merciful.

Graciously adverb
1. In a gracious manner; courteously; benignantly. Dryden.

2. Fortunately; luckily. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Graciousness noun Quality of being gracious.

Grackle noun [ Confer Latin graculus jackdaw.] (Zoology) (a) One of several American blackbirds, of the family Icteridæ ; as, the rusty grackle ( Scolecophagus Carolinus ); the boat-tailed grackle (see Boat-tail); the purple grackle ( Quiscalus quiscula , or Q. versicolor ). See Crow blackbird , under Crow . (b) An Asiatic bird of the genus Gracula . See Myna .

Gradate transitive verb [ See Grade .]
1. To grade or arrange (parts in a whole, colors in painting, etc.), so that they shall harmonize.

2. (Chemistry) To bring to a certain strength or grade of concentration; as, to gradate a saline solution.

Gradation noun , [ Latin gradatio : confer French gradation . See Grade .]
1. The act of progressing by regular steps or orderly arrangement; the state of being graded or arranged in ranks; as, the gradation of castes.

2. The act or process of bringing to a certain grade.

3. Any degree or relative position in an order or series.

The several gradations of the intelligent universe.
I. Taylor.

4. (Fine Arts) A gradual passing from one tint to another or from a darker to a lighter shade, as in painting or drawing.

6. (Mus.) A diatonic ascending or descending succession of chords.

Gradation transitive verb To form with gradations. [ R.]

Gradational adjective By regular steps or gradations; of or pertaining to gradation.

Gradatory adjective [ See Grade .]
1. Proceeding step by step, or by gradations; gradual.

Could we have seen [ Macbeth's] crimes darkening on their progress . . . could this gradatory apostasy have been shown us.
A. Seward.

2. (Zoology) Suitable for walking; -- said of the limbs of an animal when adapted for walking on land.

Gradatory noun [ Confer Late Latin gradatarium .] (Architecture) A series of steps from a cloister into a church.

Grade noun [ French grade , Latin gradus step, pace, grade, from gradi to step, go. Confer Congress , Degree , Gradus .]
1. A step or degree in any series, rank, quality, order; relative position or standing; as, grades of military rank; crimes of every grade ; grades of flour.

They also appointed and removed, at their own pleasure,
teachers of every grade .
Buckle.

2. In a railroad or highway : (a) The rate of ascent or descent; gradient; deviation from a level surface to an inclined plane; -- usually stated as so many feet per mile, or as one foot rise or fall in so many of horizontal distance; as, a heavy grade ; a grade of twenty feet per mile, or of 1 in 264. (b) A graded ascending, descending, or level portion of a road; a gradient.

3. (Stock Breeding) The result of crossing a native stock with some better breed. If the crossbreed have more than three fourths of the better blood, it is called high grade.

At grade , on the same level; -- said of the crossing of a railroad with another railroad or a highway, when they are on the same level at the point of crossing. -- Down grade , a descent, as on a graded railroad. -- Up grade , an ascent, as on a graded railroad. -- Equating for grades . See under Equate . -- Grade crossing , a crossing at grade.

Grade transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Graded ; present participle & verbal noun Grading .]
1. To arrange in order, steps, or degrees, according to size, quality, rank, etc.

2. To reduce to a level, or to an evenly progressive ascent, as the line of a canal or road.

3. (Stock Breeding) To cross with some better breed; to improve the blood of.

Gradely adjective [ Confer Anglo-Saxon grad grade, step, order, from Latin gradus . See Grade .] Decent; orderly. [ Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. -- adverb Decently; in order. [ Prov. Eng.]

Grader noun One who grades, or that by means of which grading is done or facilitated.

Gradient adjective [ Latin gradiens , present participle of gradi to step, to go. See Grade .]
1. Moving by steps; walking; as, gradient automata. Wilkins.

2. Rising or descending by regular degrees of inclination; as, the gradient line of a railroad.

3. Adapted for walking, as the feet of certain birds.

Gradient noun
1. The rate of regular or graded ascent or descent in a road; grade.

2. A part of a road which slopes upward or downward; a portion of a way not level; a grade.

3. The rate of increase or decrease of a variable magnitude, or the curve which represents it; as, a thermometric gradient.

Gradient post , a post or stake indicating by its height or by marks on it the grade of a railroad, highway, or embankment, etc., at that spot.

Gradin, Gradine noun [ French gradin , dim . of grade . See Grade .] (Architecture) Any member like a step, as the raised back of an altar or the like; a set raised over another. "The gradines of the amphitheeater." Layard.

Gradine noun [ French gradine .] A toothed chised by sculptors.

Grading noun The act or method of arranging in or by grade, or of bringing, as the surface of land or a road, to the desired level or grade.

Gradino noun ; plural Gradinos . [ Italian ] (Architecture) A step or raised shelf, as above a sideboard or altar. Confer Superaltar , and Gradin .

Gradual ; adjective [ Cf; French graduel . See Grade , and confer Gradual , noun ] Proceeding by steps or degrees; advancing, step by step, as in ascent or descent or from one state to another; regularly progressive; slow; as, a gradual increase of knowledge; a gradual decline.

Creatures animate with gradual life
Of growth, sense, reason, all summed up in man.
Milton.

Gradual noun [ Late Latin graduale a gradual (in sense 1), from Latin gradus step: confer French graduel . See Grade , and confer Grail a gradual.]
1. (R. C. Ch.) (a) An antiphon or responsory after the epistle, in the Mass, which was sung on the steps, or while the deacon ascended the steps. (b) A service book containing the musical portions of the Mass.

2. A series of steps. [ Obsolete] Dryden.

Graduality noun The state of being gradual; gradualness. [ R.] Sir T. Browne.

Gradually adverb
1. In a gradual manner.

2. In degree. [ Obsolete]

Human reason doth not only gradually , but specifically, differ from the fantastic reason of brutes.
Grew.

Gradualness noun The quality or state of being gradual; regular progression or gradation; slowness.

The gradualness of this movement.
M. Arnold.

The gradualness of growth is a characteristic which strikes the simplest observer.
H. Drummond.

Graduate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Graduated present participle & verbal noun Graduating ] [ Confer French graduer . See Graduate , noun , Grade .]


1. To mark with degrees; to divide into regular steps, grades, or intervals, as the scale of a thermometer, a scheme of punishment or rewards, etc.

2. To admit or elevate to a certain grade or degree; esp., in a college or university, to admit, at the close of the course, to an honorable standing defined by a diploma; as, he was graduated at Yale College.

3. To prepare gradually; to arrange, temper, or modify by degrees or to a certain degree; to determine the degrees of; as, to graduate the heat of an oven.

Dyers advance and graduate their colors with salts.
Browne.

4. (Chemistry) To bring to a certain degree of consistency, by evaporation, as a fluid.

Graduating engine , a dividing engine. See Dividing engine, under Dividing .

Graduate intransitive verb
1. To pass by degrees; to change gradually; to shade off; as, sandstone which graduates into gneiss; carnelian sometimes graduates into quartz.

2. (Zoology) To taper, as the tail of certain birds.

3. To take a degree in a college or university; to become a graduate; to receive a diploma.

He graduated at Oxford.
Latham.

He was brought to their bar and asked where he had graduated .
Macaulay.

Graduate noun [ Late Latin graduatus , past participle of graduare to admit to a degree, from Latin gradus grade. See Grade , noun ]
1. One who has received an academical or professional degree; one who has completed the prescribed course of study in any school or institution of learning.

2. A graduated cup, tube, or flask; a measuring glass used by apothecaries and chemists. See under Graduated .

Graduate adjective [ See Graduate , noun & v. ] Arranged by successive steps or degrees; graduated.

Beginning with the genus, passing through all the graduate
and subordinate stages.
Tatham.

Graduated adjective
1. Marked with, or divided into, degrees; divided into grades.

2. (Zoology) Tapered; -- said of a bird's tail when the outer feathers are shortest, and the others successively longer.

Graduated tube, bottle, cap, or glass , a vessel, usually of glass, having horizontal marks upon its sides, with figures, to indicate the amount of the contents at the several levels. -- Graduated spring (Railroads) , a combination of metallic and rubber springs.

Graduateship noun State of being a graduate. Milton.

Graduation noun [ Late Latin graduatio promotion to a degree: confer F. graduation division into degrees.]


1. The act of graduating, or the state of being graduated; as, graduation of a scale; graduation at a college; graduation in color; graduation by evaporation; the graduation of a bird's tail, etc.

2. The marks on an instrument or vessel to indicate degrees or quantity; a scale.

3. The exposure of a liquid in large surfaces to the air, so as to hasten its evaporation.

Graduator noun
1. One who determines or indicates graduation; as, a graduator of instruments.

2. An instrument for dividing any line, right or curve, into small, regular intervals.

3. An apparatus for diffusing a solution, as brine or vinegar, over a large surface, for exposure to the air.

Gradus noun [ From Latin gradus ad Parnassum a step to Parnassus.] A dictionary of prosody, designed as an aid in writing Greek or Latin poetry.

He set to work . . . without gradus or other help.
T. Hughes.

Graf noun [ G. Confer -grave .] A German title of nobility, equivalent to earl in English, or count in French. See Earl .

Graff noun [ Middle English grafe , greife , greive . Confer Margrave .] A steward; an overseer.

[ A prince] is nothing but a servant, overseer, or graff , and not the head, which is a title belonging only to Christ.
John Knox.

Graff noun & v. See Graft .

Graffage noun [ Confer Grave, noun ] The scarp of a ditch or moat. "To clean the graffages ." Miss Mitford.

Graffer noun [ See Greffier.] (Law.) a notary or scrivener. Bouvier.

Graffiti noun plural [ Italian , plural of graffito scratched] Inscriptions, figure drawings, etc., found on the walls of ancient sepulchers or ruins, as in the Catacombs, or at Pompeii.

Graffito noun [ Italian , from graffio a scratching.] (Art) Production of decorative designs by scratching them through a surface of layer plaster, glazing, etc., revealing a different-colored ground; also, pottery or ware so decorated; -- chiefly used attributively.

Graft noun [ Middle English graff , French greffe , originally the same word as Old French grafe pencil, Latin graphium , Greek ..., ..., from ... to write; probably akin to English carve . So named from the resemblance of a scion or shoot to a pointed pencil. Confer Graphic , Grammar. ] (a) A small shoot or scion of a tree inserted in another tree, the stock of which is to support and nourish it. The two unite and become one tree, but the graft determines the kind of fruit. (b) A branch or portion of a tree growing from such a shoot. (c) (Surg.) A portion of living tissue used in the operation of autoplasty.

Graft transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Grafted ; present participle & verbal noun Grafting .] [ French greffer . See Graft , noun ]
1. To insert (a graft) in a branch or stem of another tree; to propagate by insertion in another stock; also, to insert a graft upon. [ Formerly written graff .]

2. (Surg.) To implant a portion of (living flesh or akin) in a lesion so as to form an organic union.

3. To join (one thing) to another as if by grafting, so as to bring about a close union.

And graft my love immortal on thy fame !
Pope.

4. (Nautical) To cover, as a ring bolt, block strap, splicing, etc., with a weaving of small cord or rope- yarns.

Graft intransitive verb To insert scions from one tree, or kind of tree, etc., into another; to practice grafting.

Graft noun [ Prob. orig. so called because illegitimate or improper profit was looked upon as a graft , or sort of excrescence, on a legitimate business undertaking, in distinction from its natural proper development.]
1. Acquisition of money, position, etc., by dishonest or unjust means, as by actual theft or by taking advantage of a public office or any position of trust or employment to obtain fees, perquisites, profits on contracts, legislation, pay for work not done or service not performed, etc.; illegal or unfair practice for profit or personal advantage; also, anything thus gained. [ Colloq.]

2. A "soft thing" or "easy thing;" a "snap." [ Slang]

Graftage noun (Hort.) The science of grafting, including the various methods of practice and details of operation.

Grafter noun
1. One who inserts scions on other stocks, or propagates fruit by ingrafting.

2. An instrument by which grafting is facilitated.

3. The original tree from which a scion has been taken for grafting upon another tree. Shak.

Grafting noun 1. (Hort.) The act, art, or process of inserting grafts.

2. (Nautical) The act or method of weaving a cover for a ring, rope end, etc.

3. (Surg.) The transplanting of a portion of flesh or skin to a denuded surface; autoplasty.

4. (Carp.) A scarfing or endwise attachment of one timber to another.

Cleft grafting (Hort.) a method of grafting in which the scion is placed in a cleft or slit in the stock or stump made by sawing off a branch, usually in such a manaer that its bark evenly joins that of the stock. -- Crown, or Rind, grafting , a method of grafting which the alburnum and inner bark are separated, and between them is inserted the lower end of the scion cut slantwise. -- Saddle grafting , a mode of grafting in which a deep cleft is made in the end of the scion by two sloping cuts, and the end of the stock is made wedge-shaped to fit the cleft in the scion, which is placed upon it saddlewise. -- Side grafting , a mode of grafting in which the scion, cut quite across very obliquely, so as to give it the form of a slender wedge, is thrust down inside of the bark of the stock or stem into which it is inserted, the cut side of the scion being next the wood of the stock. -- Skin grafting . (Surg.) See Autoplasty. -- Splice grafting (Hort.) , a method of grafting by cutting the ends of the scion and stock completely across and obliquely, in such a manner that the sections are of the same shape, then lapping the ends so that the one cut surface exactly fits the other, and securing them by tying or otherwise. -- Whip grafting , tongue grafting, the same as splice grafting, except that a cleft or slit is made in the end of both scion and stock, in the direction of the grain and in the middle of the sloping surface, forming a kind of tongue, so that when put together, the tongue of each is inserted in the slit of the other. -- Grafting scissors , a surgeon's scissors, used in rhinoplastic operations, etc. -- Grafting tool . (a) Any tool used in grafting. (b) A very strong curved spade used in digging canals. -- Grafting wax , a composition of rosin, beeswax tallow, etc., used in binding up the wounds of newly grafted trees.