Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Grated adjective [ From 2d Grate .] Furnished with a grate or grating; as, grated windows.

Grateful adjective [ Grate , adjective + full ; confer French gré thanks, good will, from Latin gratum , neut. of gratus agreeable, grateful. See Grate , adjective ]
1. Having a due sense of benefits received; kindly disposed toward one from whom a favor has been received; willing to acknowledge and repay, or give thanks for, benefits; as, a grateful heart.

A grateful mind
By owing, owes not, but still pays.
Milton.

2. Affording pleasure; pleasing to the senses; gratifying; delicious; as, a grateful present; food grateful to the palate; grateful sleep.

Now golden fruits on loaded branches shine,
And grateful clusters swell.
Pope.

Syn. -- Thankful; pleasing; acceptable; gratifying; agreeable; welcome; delightful; delicious.

-- Grate"ful*ly , adverb -- Grate"ful*ness , noun

Grater adjective [ From Qrate, v.] One who, or that which, grates; especially, an instrument or utensil with a rough, indented surface, for rubbing off small particles of any substance; as a grater for nutmegs.

Graticulation noun [ French graticulation , craticulation , from graticuler , craticuler , to square, from graticule , craticule , graticule, Latin craticula , dim. of crates wickerwork. See 2d Grate .] The division of a design or draught into squares, in order the more easily to reproduce it in larger or smaller dimensions.

Graticule noun [ French See Graticulation. ] A design or draught which has been divided into squares, in order to reproduce it in other dimensions.

Gratification noun [ Latin gratificatio: confer F. gratification.]
1. The act of gratifying, or pleasing, either the mind, the taste, or the appetite; as, the gratification of the palate, of the appetites, of the senses, of the desires, of the heart.

2. That which affords pleasure; satisfaction; enjoyment; fruition: delight.

3. A reward; a recompense; a gratuity. Bp. Morton.

Gratified adjective Pleased; indulged according to desire.

Syn. -- Glad; pleased. See Glad.

Gratifier noun One who gratifies or pleases.

Gratify transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Gratified ; present participle & verbal noun Gratifying .] [ French gratifier , Latin gratificari ; gratus pleasing + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See - fy .]
1. To please; to give pleasure to; to satisfy; to soothe; to indulge; as, to gratify the taste, the appetite, the senses, the desires, the mind, etc.

For who would die to gratify a foe?
Dryden.

2. To requite; to recompense. [ Obsolete]

It remains . . .
To gratify his noble service.
Shak.

Syn. -- To indulge; humor please; delight; requite; recompense. -- To Gratify , Indulge , Humor. Gratify , is the generic term, and has reference simply to the pleasure communicated. To indulge a person implies that we concede something to his wishes or his weaknesses which he could not claim, and which had better, perhaps, be spared. To humor is to adapt ourselves to the varying moods, and, perhaps, caprices, of others. We gratify a child by showing him the sights of a large city; we indulge him in some extra expense on such an occasion; we humor him when he is tired and exacting.

Gratin noun [ French] (Cookery) The brown crust formed upon a gratinated dish; also, dish itself, as crusts bread, game, or poultry.

Gratinate transitive verb [ French gratiner , v.i., to form a crust.] (Cookery) To cook, as macaroni, in a savory juice or sauce until juice is absorbed and a crisp surface forms.

Grating noun [ See 2d Grate.]
1. A partition, covering, or frame of parallel or cross bars; a latticework resembling a window grate; as, the grating of a prison or convent.

2. (Optics) A system of close equidistant and parallel lines lines or bars, especially lines ruled on a polished surface, used for producing spectra by diffraction; -- called also diffraction grating .

3. plural (Nautical) The strong wooden lattice used to cover a hatch, admitting light and air; also, a movable Lattice used for the flooring of boats.
[ 1913 Webster]

Grating adjective [ See Grate to rub harshy.] That grates; making a harsh sound; harsh. -- Grat"ing*ly , adverb

Grating noun A harsh sound caused by attrition.

Grating noun (Optics) A system of close equidistant parallel lines or bars, esp. lines ruled on a polished surface, used for producing spectra by diffraction. Gratings have been made with over 40,000 such lines to the inch, but those with a somewhat smaller number give the best definition.

Gratiolin noun (Chemistry) One of the essential principles of the hedge hyssop ( Gratiola officinalis ).

Gratis adverb [ Latin , contr. from gratiis out of favor or kindness, without recompense, for nothing, from gratia favor. See Grace. ] For nothing; without fee or recompense; freely; gratuitously.

Gratitude noun [ French gratitude , Late Latin gratitudo , from gratus agreeable, grateful. See Grate , adjective ] The state of being grateful; warm and friendly feeling toward a benefactor; kindness awakened by a favor received; thankfulness.

The debt immense of endless gratitude.
Milton.

Gratuitous adjective [ Latin gratuitus , from gratus pleasing. See Grate , adjective , Gratis. ]
1. Given without an equivalent or recompense; conferred without valuable consideration; granted without pay, or without claim or merit; not required by justice.

We mistake the gratuitous blessings of Heaven for the fruits of our own industry.
L'Estrange.

2. Not called for by the circumstances; without reason, cause, or proof; adopted or asserted without any good ground; as, a gratuitous assumption.

Acts of gratuitous self- humiliation.
De Quincye.

-- Gra*tu"i*tous*ly , adverb -- Gra*tu"i*tous*ness , noun

Gratuity noun ; plural Gratuities . [ French gratuité , or Late Latin gratuitas .]
1. Something given freely or without recompense; a free gift; a present. Swift.

2. Something voluntarily given in return for a favor or service, as a recompense or acknowledgment.

Gratulate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Grqatulated ; present participle & verbal noun Gratulating .] [ Latin gratulatus , past participle of gratulari to congratulate, from gratus pleasing, agreeable. See Grate , adjective ] To salute with declaration of joy; to congratulate. [ R.] Shak.

Gratulate adjective Worthy of gratulation. [ Obsolete]

There's more behind that is more gratulate .
Shak.

Gratulation noun [ Latin gratulatio.] The act of gratulating or felicitating; congratulation.

I shall turn my wishes into gratulations.
South.

Gratulatory adjective [ Latin gratulatorius.] Expressing gratulation or joy; congratulatory.

The usual groundwork of such gratulatory odes.
Bp. Horsley.

Graunt v. & noun [ Obsolete] See Grant. Chaucer.

Grauwacke noun [ G.] Graywacke.

Gravamen noun ; plural Latin Gravamina , English Gravamens . [ Latin , from gravare to load, burden, from gravis heavy, weighty. See Grave , adjective ] (Law) The grievance complained of; the substantial cause of the action; also, in general, the ground or essence of a complaint. Bouvier.

Grave transitive verb (Nautical) To clean, as a vessel's bottom, of barnacles, grass, etc., and pay it over with pitch; -- so called because graves or greaves was formerly used for this purpose.

Grave adjective [ Compar. Graver (grāv"ẽr); superl. Gravest. ] [ French, from Latin gravis heavy; confer Italian & Spanish grave heavy, grave. See Grief. ]
1. Of great weight; heavy; ponderous. [ Obsolete]

His shield grave and great.
Chapman.

2. Of importance; momentous; weighty; influential; sedate; serious; -- said of character, relations, etc.; as, grave deportment, character, influence, etc.

Most potent, grave , and reverend seigniors.
Shak.

A grave and prudent law, full of moral equity.
Milton.

3. Not light or gay; solemn; sober; plain; as, a grave color; a grave face.

4. (Mus.) (a) Not acute or sharp; low; deep; -- said of sound; as, a grave note or key.

The thicker the cord or string, the more grave is the note or tone.
Moore (Encyc. of Music).

(b) Slow and solemn in movement.

Grave accent . (Pron.) See the Note under Accent , noun , 2.

Syn. -- Solemn; sober; serious; sage; staid; demure; thoughtful; sedate; weighty; momentous; important. -- Grave , Sober , Serious , Solemn. Sober supposes the absence of all exhilaration of spirits, and is opposed to gay or flighty; as, sober thought. Serious implies considerateness or reflection, and is opposed to jocose or sportive; as, serious and important concerns. Grave denotes a state of mind, appearance, etc., which results from the pressure of weighty interests, and is opposed to hilarity of feeling or vivacity of manner; as, a qrave remark; qrave attire. Solemn is applied to a case in which gravity is carried to its highest point; as, a solemn admonition; a solemn promise.

Grave transitive verb [ imperfect Graved (grāvd); past participle Graven (grāv"'n) or Graved ; present participle & verbal noun Graving .] [ Anglo-Saxon grafan to dig, grave, engrave; akin to OFries. greva , Dutch graven , German graben , Old High German & Goth. graban , Dan. grabe , Swedish gräfva , Icelandic grafa , but probably not to Greek gra`fein to write, English graphic. Confer Grave , noun , Grove , noun ]


1. To dig. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

He hath graven and digged up a pit.
Ps. vii. 16 (Book of Common Prayer).

2. To carve or cut, as letters or figures, on some hard substance; to engrave.

Thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel.
Ex. xxviii. 9.

3. To carve out or give shape to, by cutting with a chisel; to sculpture; as, to grave an image.

With gold men may the hearte grave .
Chaucer.

4. To impress deeply (on the mind); to fix indelibly.

O! may they graven in thy heart remain.
Prior.

5. To entomb; to bury. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Lie full low, graved in the hollow ground.
Shak.

Grave intransitive verb To write or delineate on hard substances, by means of incised lines; to practice engraving.

Grave noun [ Anglo-Saxon gr?f , from grafan to dig; akin to D. & Old Saxon graf , German grab , Icelandic gröf , Russian grob' grave, coffin. See Grave to carve.] An excavation in the earth as a place of burial; also, any place of interment; a tomb; a sepulcher. Hence: Death; destruction.

He bad lain in the grave four days.
John xi. 17.

Grave wax , adipocere .

Graveclothes noun plural The clothes or dress in which the dead are interred.

Gravedigger noun
1. A digger of graves.

2. (Zoology) See Burying beetle , under Bury , transitive verb

Gravel noun [ Old French gravele , akin to French gr?ve a sandy shore, strand; of Celtic origin; confer Armor. grouan gravel, W. gro coarse gravel, pebbles, and Sanskrit grāvan stone.]
1. Small stones, or fragments of stone; very small pebbles, often intermixed with particles of sand.

2. (Medicine) A deposit of small calculous concretions in the kidneys and the urinary or gall bladder; also, the disease of which they are a symptom.

Gravel powder , a coarse gunpowder; pebble powder.

Gravel transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Graveled or Gravelled ; present participle & verbal noun Graveling or Gravelling .]


1. To cover with gravel; as, to gravel a walk.

2. To run (as a ship) upon the gravel or beach; to run aground; to cause to stick fast in gravel or sand.

When we were fallen into a place between two seas, they graveled the ship.
Acts xxvii. 41 (Rhemish version).

Willam the Conqueror . . . chanced as his arrival to be graveled ; and one of his feet stuck so fast in the sand that he fell to the ground.
Camden.

3. To check or stop; to embarrass; to perplex. [ Colloq.]

When you were graveled for lack of matter.
Shak.

The physician was so graveled and amazed withal, that he had not a word more to say.
Sir T. North.

4. To hurt or lame (a horse) by gravel lodged between the shoe and foot.

Gravel-stone noun A pebble, or small fragment of stone; a calculus.

Graveless adjective Without a grave; unburied.

Graveling, Gravelling noun
1. The act of covering with gravel.

2. A layer or coating of gravel (on a path, etc.).

Graveling, Gravelling noun (Zoology) A salmon one or two years old, before it has gone to sea.

Gravelliness noun State of being gravelly.

Gravelly adjective Abounding with gravel; consisting of gravel; as, a gravelly soil.

Gravely adverb In a grave manner.

Graven past participle of Grave , transitive verb Carved.

Graven image , an idol; an object of worship carved from wood, stone, etc. "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image ." Ex. xx. 4.

Graveness noun The quality of being grave.

His sables and his weeds,
Importing health and graveness .
Shak.

Gravenstein noun [ So called because it came from Gravenstein, a place in Schleswig. Downing.] A kind of fall apple, marked with streaks of deep red and orange, and of excellent flavor and quality.

Graveolence noun [ Latin graveolentia : confer French gravéolence. See Graveolent. ] A strong and offensive smell; rancidity. [ R.] Bailey.

Graveolent adjective [ Latin graveolens ; gravis heavy + olere to smell.] Having a rank smell. [ R.] Boyle.

Graver noun
1. One who graves; an engraver or a sculptor; one whose occupation is te cut letters or figures in stone or other hard material.

2. An ergraving or cutting tool; a burin.

Gravery noun The act, process, or art, of graving or carving; engraving.

Either of picture or gravery and embossing.
Holland.