Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Graham bread [ From Sylvester Graham , a lecturer on dietetics.] Bread made of unbolted wheat flour. [ U. S.] Bartlett.

Grahamite noun [ See Graham bread .] One who follows the dietetic system of Graham. [ U. S.]

Grail noun [ Old French greel , Late Latin gradale. See Gradual , noun ] A book of offices in the Roman Catholic Church; a gradual. [ Obsolete] T. Warton.

Such as antiphonals, missals, grails , processionals, etc.
Strype.

Grail noun [ Old French graal , greal , greet, French graal , gréal , Late Latin gradalis , gradale , probably derived from Latin crater bowl, mixing vessel, Greek krath`r . See Crater. ] A broad, open dish; a chalice; -- only used of the Holy Grail .

»The Holy Grail , according to some legends of the Middle Ages, was the cup used by our Savior in dispensing the wine at the last supper; and according to others, the platter on which the paschal lamb was served at the last Passover observed by our Lord. This cup, according to the legend, if appoached by any but a perfectly pure and holy person, would be borne away and vanish from the sight. The quest of the Holy Grail was to be undertaken only by a knight who was perfectly chaste in thought, word, and act.

Grail noun [ French grêle hail, from grÉs grit, Old High German griex , grioz , German gries , gravel, grit. See Grit. ] Small particles of earth; gravel. [ Obsolete]

Lying down upon the sandy grail.
Spenser.

Grail (gr&mac;l) noun [ Confer Old French graite slender, French grête .] One of the small feathers of a hawk.

Graille (gr&mac;l) noun [ Confer French grêle a sort of file.] A halfround single-cut file or fioat, having one curved face and one straight face, -- used by comb makers. Knight.

Grain v. & noun See Groan. [ Obsolete]

Grain (gr&mac;n) noun [ French grain , Latin granum , grain, seed, small kernel, small particle. See Corn , and confer Garner , noun , Garnet , Gram the chick-pea, Granule , Kernel. ]


1. A single small hard seed; a kernel, especially of those plants, like wheat, whose seeds are used for food.

2. The fruit of certain grasses which furnish the chief food of man, as corn, wheat, rye, oats, etc., or the plants themselves; -- used collectively.

Storehouses crammed with grain.
Shak.

3. Any small, hard particle, as of sand, sugar, salt, etc.; hence, any minute portion or particle; as, a grain of gunpowder, of pollen, of starch, of sense, of wit, etc.

I . . . with a grain of manhood well resolved.
Milton.

4. The unit of the English system of weights; -- so called because considered equal to the average of grains taken from the middle of the ears of wheat. 7,000 grains constitute the pound avoirdupois, and 5,760 grains the pound troy. A grain is equal to .0648 gram. See Gram.

5. A reddish dye made from the coccus insect, or kermes; hence, a red color of any tint or hue, as crimson, scarlet, etc.; sometimes used by the poets as equivalent to Tyrian purple .

All in a robe of darkest grain.
Milton.

Doing as the dyers do, who, having first dipped their silks in colors of less value, then give' them the last tincture of crimson in grain.
Quoted by Coleridge, preface to Aids to Reflection.

6. The composite particles of any substance; that arrangement of the particles of any body which determines its comparative roughness or hardness; texture; as, marble, sugar, sandstone, etc., of fine grain .

Hard box, and linden of a softer grain .
Dryden.

7. The direction, arrangement, or appearance of the fibers in wood, or of the strata in stone, slate, etc.

Knots, by the conflux of meeting sap,
Infect the sound pine and divert his grain
Tortive and errant from his course of growth.
Shak.

8. The fiber which forms the substance of wood or of any fibrous material.

9. The hair side of a piece of leather, or the marking on that side. Knight.

10. plural The remains of grain, etc., after brewing or distillation; hence, any residuum. Also called draff .

11. (Botany) A rounded prominence on the back of a sepal, as in the common dock. See Grained , adjective , 4.

12. Temper; natural disposition; inclination. [ Obsolete]

Brothers . . . not united in grain.
Hayward.

13. A sort of spice, the grain of paradise. [ Obsolete]

He cheweth grain and licorice,
To smellen sweet.
Chaucer.

Against the grain , against or across the direction of the fibers; hence, against one's wishes or tastes; unwillingly; unpleasantly; reluctantly; with difficulty. Swift. Saintsbury. -- A grain of allowance , a slight indulgence or latitude a small allowance. -- Grain binder , an attachment to a harvester for binding the grain into sheaves. -- Grain colors , dyes made from the coccus or kermes insect. -- Grain leather . (a) Dressed horse hides. (b) Goat, seal, and other skins blacked on the grain side for women's shoes, etc. -- Grain moth (Zoology) , one of several small moths, of the family Tineidæ (as Tinea granella and Butalis cerealella ), whose larvæ devour grain in storehouses. -- Grain side (Leather) , the side of a skin or hide from which the hair has been removed; -- opposed to flesh side. -- Grains of paradise , the seeds of a species of amomum. -- grain tin , crystalline tin ore metallic tin smelted with charcoal. -- Grain weevil (Zoology) , a small red weevil ( Sitophilus granarius ), which destroys stored wheat and other grain, by eating out the interior. -- Grain worm (Zoology) , the larva of the grain moth. See grain moth , above. -- In grain , of a fast color; deeply seated; fixed; innate; genuine. "Anguish in grain." Herbert. -- To dye in grain , to dye of a fast color by means of the coccus or kermes grain [ see Grain , noun , 5]; hence, to dye firmly; also, to dye in the wool, or in the raw material. See under Dye.

The red roses flush up in her cheeks . . .
Likce crimson dyed in grain.
Spenser.

-- To go against the grain of (a person), to be repugnant to; to vex, irritate, mortify, or trouble.

Grain transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Grained (grānd); present participle & verbal noun Graining. ]
1. To paint in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.

2. To form (powder, sugar, etc.) into grains.

3. To take the hair off (skins); to soften and raise the grain of (leather, etc.).

Grain intransitive verb [ French grainer , grener. See Grain , noun ]
1. To yield fruit. [ Obsolete] Gower.

2. To form grains, or to assume a granular form, as the result of crystallization; to granulate.

Grain (grān) noun [ See Groin a part of the body.]


1. A branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant. [ Obsolete] G. Douglas.

2. A tine, prong, or fork. Specifically: (a) One the branches of a valley or of a river. (b) plural An iron fish spear or harpoon, having four or more barbed points.

3. A blade of a sword, knife, etc.

4. (Founding) A thin piece of metal, used in a mold to steady a core.

Grained (grānd) adjective
1. Having a grain; divided into small particles or grains; showing the grain; hence, rough.

2. Dyed in grain; ingrained.

Persons lightly dipped, not grained , in generous honesty, are but pale in goodness.
Sir T. Browne.

3. Painted or stained in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.

4. (Botany) Having tubercles or grainlike processes, as the petals or sepals of some flowers.

Grainer (grān"ẽr) noun
1. An infusion of pigeon's dung used by tanners to neutralize the effects of lime and give flexibility to skins; -- called also grains and bate.

2. A knife for taking the hair off skins.

3. One who paints in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.; also, the brush or tool used in graining.

Grainfield (-fēld`) noun A field where grain is grown.

Graining noun
1. Indentation; roughening; milling, as on edges of coins. Locke.

2. A process in dressing leather, by which the skin is softened and the grain raised.

3. Painting or staining, in imitation of the grain of wood, stone, etc.

4. (Soap Making) The process of separating soap from spent lye, as with salt.

Graining noun (Zoology) A small European fresh-water fish ( Leuciscus vulgaris ); - - called also dobule , and dace .

Grains (grānz) noun plural
1. See 5th Grain , noun , 2 (b) .

2. Pigeon's dung used in tanning. See Grainer. noun , 1.

Grainy (grān"ȳ) adjective Resembling grains; granular.

Graip (grāp) noun [ Perh. akin to grope, gripe.] A dungfork. [ Scot.] Burns.

Graith (grāth) transitive verb [ Obsolete] See Greith. Chaucer.

Graith noun Furniture; apparatus or accouterments for work, traveling, war, etc. [ Scot.] Jamieson.

Grakle (grăk"'l) noun (Zoology) See Grackle.

Grallatores noun plural [ New Latin from Latin grallator one who runs on stilts.] (Zo\94l.) See Grallæ .

Grallatorial, Grallatory adjective (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Grallatores, or waders.

Grallic adjective (Zoology) Pertaining to the Grallæ.

Gralline (līn) adjective (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Grallæ.

Gralloch noun Offal of a deer. -- transitive verb To remove the offal from (a deer).

Grallæ noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin grallae stilts, for gradulae , from gradus. See Grade. ] (Zoology) An order of birds which formerly included all the waders. By later writers it is usually restricted to the sandpipers, plovers, and allied forms; -- called also Grallatores.

Gram adjective [ Anglo-Saxon gram; akin to E. grim. √35.] Angry. [ Obsolete] Havelok, the Dane.

Gram noun [ Portuguese gr?o grain. See Grain. ] (Botany) The East Indian name of the chick- pea ( Cicer arietinum ) and its seeds; also, other similar seeds there used for food.

Gram, Gramme noun [ French gramme , from Greek ? that which is written, a letter, a small weight, from ? to write. See Graphic. ] The unit of weight in the metric system. It was intended to be exactly, and is very nearly, equivalent to the weight in a vacuum of one cubic centimeter of pure water at its maximum density. It is equal to 15.432 grains. See Grain , noun , 4.

Gram degree , or Gramme degree (Physics) , a unit of heat, being the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water one degree centigrade. -- Gram equivalent (Electrolysis) , that quantity of the metal which will replace one gram of hydrogen.

Grama grass [ Spanish grama a sort of grass.] (Botany) The name of several kinds of pasture grasses found in the Western United States, esp. the Bouteloua oligostachya .

Gramarye noun [ Middle English gramer , grameri , gramori , grammar, magic, Old French gramaire , French grammaire. See Grammar. ] Necromancy; magic. Sir W. Scott.

Gramashes noun plural [ See Gamashes. ] Gaiters reaching to the knee; leggings.

Strong gramashes, or leggings of thick gray cloth.
Sir W. Scott.

Grame noun [ See Gram , adjective ]
1. Anger; wrath; scorn. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. Sorrow; grief; misery. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Gramercy interj. [ French grand- merci . See Grand , and Mercy. ] A word formerly used to express thankfulness, with surprise; many thanks.

Gramercy, Mammon, said the gentle knight.
Spenser.

Graminaceous adjective [ Latin gramen , graminis , grass.] Pertaining to, or resembling, the grasses; gramineous; as, graminaceous plants.

Gramineal adjective Gramineous.

Gramineous adjective [ Latin gramineus , from gramen , graminis , grass.] (Botany) Like, Or pertaining to, grass. See Grass , noun , 2.

Graminifolious adjective [ Latin gramen , graminis , grass + folium leaf.] (Botany) Bearing leaves resembling those of grass.

Graminivorous adjective [ Latin gramen , graminis , grass + vorare to eat greedily.] Feeding or subsisting on grass, and the like food; -- said of horses, cattle, and other animals.

Grammalogue (grăm"mȧ*lŏg) noun [ Greek gra`mma letter + lo`gos word. Confer Logogram .] (Phonography) Literally, a letter word ; a word represented by a logogram; as, it , represented by
Grammar noun [ Middle English gramere , Old French gramaire , French grammaire Prob. from Latin gramatica Gr ..., fem. of ... skilled in grammar, from ... letter. See Gramme , Graphic , and confer Grammatical , Gramarye .]
1. The science which treats of the principles of language; the study of forms of speech, and their relations to one another; the art concerned with the right use and application of the rules of a language, in speaking or writing.

» The whole fabric of grammar rests upon the classifying of words according to their function in the sentence. Bain.

2. The art of speaking or writing with correctness or according to established usage; speech considered with regard to the rules of a grammar.

The original bad grammar and bad spelling.
Macaulay.

3. A treatise on the principles of language; a book containing the principles and rules for correctness in speaking or writing.

4. treatise on the elements or principles of any science; as, a grammar of geography.

Comparative grammar , the science which determines the relations of kindred languages by examining and comparing their grammatical forms. -- Grammar school . (a) A school, usually endowed, in which Latin and Greek grammar are taught, as also other studies preparatory to colleges or universities; as, the famous Rugby Grammar School . This use of the word is more common in England than in the United States.

When any town shall increase to the number of a hundred
families or householders, they shall set up a grammar school, the master thereof being able to instruct youth so far as they may be fitted for the University.
Mass. Records (1647).

(b) In the American system of graded common schools an intermediate grade between the primary school and the high school, in which the principles of English grammar are taught.

Grammar intransitive verb To discourse according to the rules of grammar; to use grammar. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.

Grammarian noun [ Confer French grammairien .]
1. One versed in grammar, or the construction of languages; a philologist.

» "The term was used by the classic ancients as a term of honorable distinction for all who were considered learned in any art or faculty whatever." Brande & C.

2. One who writes on, or teaches, grammar.

Grammarianism noun The principles, practices, or peculiarities of grammarians. [ R.]

Grammarless adjective Without grammar.

Grammates noun plural [ From Greek ... letters, written rules.] Rudiments; first principles, as of grammar. [ Obsolete] Ford.

Grammatic adjective Grammatical.