Webster's Dictionary, 1913
l) }, adjective
[ Latin graphicus
, Greek grafiko`s
, from gra`fein
to write; confer French graphique
. See Graft
.] 1. Of or pertaining to the arts of painting and drawing. 2. Of or pertaining to the art of writing. 3. Written or engraved; formed of letters or lines.
The finger of God hath left an inscription upon all his works, not graphical, or composed of letters. Sir T. Browne. 4. Well delineated; clearly and vividly described. 5. Having the faculty of, or characterized by, clear and impressive description; vivid; as, a graphic writer. Graphic algebra , a branch of algebra in which, the properties of equations are treated by the use of curves and straight lines.
-- Graphic arts
, a name given to those fine arts which pertain to the representation on a flat surface of natural objects; as distinguished from music, etc., and also from sculpture.
-- Graphic formula
. (Chemistry) See under Formula .
-- Graphic granite
. See under Granite .
-- Graphic method
, the method of scientific analysis or investigation, in which the relations or laws involved in tabular numbers are represented to the eye by means of curves or other figures; as the daily changes of weather by means of curves, the abscissas of which represent the hours of the day, and the ordinates the corresponding degrees of temperature.
-- Graphical statics (Math.)
, a branch of statics, in which the magnitude, direction, and position of forces are represented by straight lines -- Graphic tellurium . See Sylvanite .
Graphically adverb In a graphic manner; vividly.
Graphicness, Graphicalness noun The quality or state of being graphic.
Graphics noun The art or the science of drawing; esp. of drawing according to mathematical rules, as in perspective, projection, and the like.
[ Greek gra`fein
to write: confer French graphite
. See Graphic
.] (Min.) Native carbon in hexagonal crystals, also foliated or granular massive, of black color and metallic luster, and so soft as to leave a trace on paper. It is used for pencils (improperly called lead pencils ), for crucibles, and as a lubricator, etc. Often called plumbago or black lead . Graphite battery (Electricity)
, a voltaic battery consisting of zinc and carbon in sulphuric acid, or other exciting liquid.
Graphitic adjective Pertaining to, containing, derived from, or resembling, graphite. Graphitic acid (Chemistry) , an organic acid, so called because obtained by the oxidation of graphite; -- usually called mellitic acid . -- Graphitic carbon , in iron or steel, that portion of the carbon which is present as graphite. Raymond.
Graphitoid, Graphitoidal adjective Resembling graphite or plumbago.
Grapholite noun [ Greek gra`fein to write + -lite : confer French grapholithe .] Any species of slate suitable to be written on.
Graphology (grȧ*fŏl"o*jȳ) noun [ Greek gra`fein to write + - logy : confer French graphologie .] The art of judging of a person's character, disposition, and aptitude from his handwriting.
Graphology (Math.) The system or notation used in dealing with graphs.
Graphophone noun [ Greek ... to write + -phone , as in telephone .] A kind of photograph.
Graphoscope noun [ Greek gra`fein to write + -scope .] An optical instrument for magnifying engravings, photographs, etc., usually having one large lens and two smaller ones.
Graphotype noun [ Greek gra`fein to write + -type .] (Engraving) A process for producing a design upon a surface in relief so that it can be printed from. Prepared chalk or oxide of zinc is pressed upon a smooth plate by a hydraulic press, and the design is drawn upon this in a peculiar ink which hardens the surface wherever it is applied. The surface is then carefully rubbed or brushed, leaving the lines in relief.
[ Middle English grapenel
, dim. from French grappin t
he grapple of a ship; of German origin. See Grape
.] (Nautical) A small anchor, with four or five flukes or claws, used to hold boats or small vessels; hence, any instrument designed to grapple or hold; a grappling iron; a grab; -- written also grapline , and crapnel .
Grapple transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Grappled
; present participle & verbal noun Grappling
.] [ French grappiller
, Old French graypil
the grapple of a ship, from graper
to pluck, prop., to seize, clutch; of German origin. See Grape
.] 1. To seize; to lay fast hold of; to attack at close quarters: as, to grapple an antagonist. 2. To fasten, as with a grapple; to fix; to join indissolubly.
The gallies were grappled to the Centurion. Hakluyt.
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel. Shak.
Grapple intransitive verb To use a grapple; to contend in close fight; to attach one's self as if by a grapple, as in wrestling; to close; to seize one another. To grapple with
, to enter into contest with, resolutely and courageously.
And in my standard bear the arms of York, Shak.
To grapple with the house of Lancaster.
[ See Grapple, transitive verb
, and confer Crapple.] 1. A seizing or seizure; close hug in contest; the wrestler's hold. Milton. 2. (a) An instrument, usually with hinged claws, for seizing and holding fast to an object; a grab. (b) (Nautical) A grappling iron.
The iron hooks and grapples keen. Spenser. Grapple plant (Botany)
, a South African herb ( Herpagophytum leptocarpum ) having the woody fruits armed with long hooked or barbed thorns by which they adhere to cattle, causing intense annoyance.
-- Grapple shot (Life-saving Service)
, a projectile, to which are attached hinged claws to catch in a ship's rigging or to hold in the ground; - - called also anchor shot .
Grapplement noun A grappling; close fight or embrace. [ Obsolete] Spenser.
Grappling noun Grappling iron , a hooked iron used for grappling and holding fast a vessel or other object. -- Grappling tongs , broad-mouthed tongs for gathering oysters.
1. A laying fast ho1d of; also, that by which anything is seized and held, a grapnel. 2. A grapple; a struggle. A match for yards in fight, in grappling for the bear. Dryden.
[ New Latin Grapsus + - oid
.] (Zoology) Pertaining to the genus Grapsus or the family Grapsidæ .
-- noun A grapsoid crab.
Graptolite noun [ NL, Graptolithus, from Greek ... is engraved, written ( gra`fein to write) + ... stone.] (Paleon.) One of numerous species of slender and delicate fossils, of the genus Graptolites and allied genera, found in the Silurian rocks. They belong to an extinct group ( Graptolithina ) supposed to be hydroids.
Graptolitic adjective Of or pertaining to graptolites; containing graptolites; as, a graptolitic slate.
Grapy adjective Composed of, or resembling, grapes.
The grapy clusters. Addison.
Grasp transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Grasper
; present participle & verbal noun Qraspine
.] [ Middle English graspen
; probably akin to LG. grupsen, or to E. grope. Confer Grab
.] 1. To seize and hold by clasping or embracing with the fingers or arms; to catch to take possession of.
Thy hand is made to grasp a palmer's staff. Shak. 2. To lay hold of with the mind; to become thoroughly acquainted or conversant with; to comprehend.
Grasp intransitive verb To effect a grasp; to make the motion of grasping; to clutch; to struggle; to strive.
As one that grasped And tugged for life and was by strength subdued. Shak. To grasp at
, to catch at; to try to seize; as, Alexander grasped at universal empire,
Grasp noun 1. A gripe or seizure of the hand; a seizure by embrace, or infolding in the arms.
"The grasps of love." Shak. 2. Reach of the arms; hence, the power of seizing and holding; as, it was beyond his grasp. 3. Forcible possession; hold.
The whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp . Shak. 4. Wide-reaching power of intellect to comprehend subjects and hold them under survey.
The foremost minds of the next . . . era were not, in power of grasp , equal to their predecessors. Z. Taylor. 5. The handle of a sword or of an oar.
Graspable adjective Capable of being grasped.
Grasper noun One who grasps or seizes; one who catches or holds.
1. Seizing; embracing; catching. 2. Avaricious; greedy of gain; covetous; close; miserly; as, he is a grasping man. -- Grasp"ing*ly , adverb -- Grasp"ing*ness , noun
Graspless adjective Without a grasp; relaxed.
From my graspless hand Drop friendship's precious pearls. Coleridge.
[ Middle English gras
, AS, græs
; akin to OFries. gres
, Old Saxon , D., G., Icelandic , & Goth. gras
, Danish græs
, Swedish gräs
, and probably to English green
. Confer Graze
.] 1. Popularly: Herbage; the plants which constitute the food of cattle and other beasts; pasture. 2. (Botany) An endogenous plant having simple leaves, a stem generally jointed and tubular, the husks or glumes in pairs, and the seed single.
» This definition includes wheat, rye, oats, barley, etc., and excludes clover and some other plants which are commonly called by the name of grass
. The grasses form a numerous family of plants. 3. The season of fresh grass; spring.
Two years old next grass . Latham. 4. Metaphorically used for what is transitory.
Surely the people is grass . Is. xl. 7.
» The following list includes most of the grasses of the United States of special interest, except cereals. Many of these terms will be found with definitions in the Vocabulary. See Illustrations in Appendix. Barnyard grass, for hay. South. Panicum Grus- galli .
Bent, pasture and hay. Agrostis , several species.
Bermuda grass, pasture. South. Cynodon Dactylon .
Black bent. Same as Switch grass (below).
Blue bent, hay. North and West. Andropogon provincialis .
Blue grass, pasture. Poa compressa .
Blue joint, hay. Northwest. Aqropyrum glaucum .
Buffalo grass, grazing. Rocky Mts., etc. (a) Buchloë dectyloides
. (b) Same as Grama grass (below).
Bunch grass, grazing. Far West. Eriocoma , Festuca , Stips , etc.
Chess, or Cheat, a weed. Bromus secalinus , etc.
Couch grass. Same as Quick grass (below).
Crab grass, (a) Hay, in South. A weed, in North. Panicum sanguinale . (b) Pasture and hay. South. Eleusine Indica .
Darnel (a) Bearded, a noxious weed. Lolium temulentum . (b) Common. Same as Rye grass (below).
Drop seed, fair for forage and hay. Muhlenbergia , several species.
English grass. Same as Redtop (below).
Fowl meadow grass. (a) Pasture and hay. Poa serotina . (b) Hay, on moist land. Gryceria nervata .
Gama grass, cut fodder. South. Tripsacum dactyloides .
Grama grass, grazing. West and Pacific slope. Bouteloua oligostachya , etc.
Great bunch grass, pasture and hay. Far West. Festuca scabrella .
Guinea grass, hay. South. Panicum jumentorum .
Herd's grass, in New England Timothy , in Pennsylvania and South Redtop .
Indian grass. Same as Wood grass (below).
Italian rye grass, forage and hay. Lolium Italicum .
Johnson grass, grazing and hay. South and Southwest. Sorghum Halepense .
Kentucky blue grass, pasture. Poa pratensis .
Lyme grass, coarse hay. South. Elymus , several species.
Manna grass, pasture and hay. Glyceria , several species.
Meadow fescue, pasture and hay. Festuca elatior .
Meadow foxtail, pasture, hay, lawn. North. Alopecurus pratensis .
Meadow grass, pasture, hay, lawn. Poa , several species.
Mesquite, or Muskit grass. Same as Grama grass (above).
Nimble Will, a kind of drop seed. Muhlenbergia diffsa .
Orchard grass, pasture and hay. Dactylis glomerata .
Porcupine grass, troublesome to sheep. Northwest. Stipa spartea .
Quaking grass, ornamental. Briza media and maxima .
Quitch, or Quick, grass, etc., a weed. Agropyrum repens .
Ray grass. Same as Rye grass (below).
Redtop, pasture and hay. Agrostis vulgaris .
Red-topped buffalo grass, forage. Northwest. Poa tenuifolia .
Reed canary grass, of slight value. Phalaris arundinacea .
Reed meadow grass, hay. North. Glyceria aquatica .
Ribbon grass, a striped leaved form of Reed canary grass .
Rye grass, pasture, hay. Lolium perenne , var.
Seneca grass, fragrant basket work, etc. North. Hierochloa borealis .
Sesame grass. Same as Gama grass (above).
Sheep's fescue, sheep pasture, native in Northern Europe and Asia. Festuca ovina .
Small reed grass, meadow pasture and hay. North. Deyeuxia Canadensis .
Spear grass, Same as Meadow grass (above).
Squirrel-tail grass, troublesome to animals. Seacoast and Northwest. Hordeum jubatum .
Switch grass, hay, cut young. Panicum virgatum .
Timothy, cut young, the best of hay. North. Phleum pratense .
Velvet grass, hay on poor soil. South. Holcus lanatus .
Vernal grass, pasture, hay, lawn. Anthoxanthum odoratum .
Wire grass, valuable in pastures. Poa compressa .
Wood grass, Indian grass, hay. Chrysopogon nutans .
» Many plants are popularly called grasses which are not true grasses botanically considered, such as black grass
, goose grass
, star grass
, etc. Black grass
, a kind of small rush ( Juncus Gerardi ), growing in salt marshes, used for making salt hay.
-- Grass of the Andes
, an oat grass, the Arrhenatherum avenaceum of Europe.
-- Grass of Parnassus
, a plant of the genus Parnassia growing in wet ground. The European species is P. palustris ; in the United States there are several species.
-- Grass bass (Zoology)
, the calico bass.
-- Grass bird
, the dunlin.
-- Grass cloth
, a cloth woven from the tough fibers of the grass-cloth plant.
-- Grass-cloth plant
, a perennial herb of the Nettle family ( Bœhmeria nivea or Urtica nivea ), which grows in Sumatra, China, and Assam, whose inner bark has fine and strong fibers suited for textile purposes.
-- Grass finch
. (Zoology) (a) A common American sparrow ( Poöcætes gramineus ); -- called also vesper sparrow and bay-winged bunting . (b) Any Australian finch, of the genus Poëphila , of which several species are known.
-- Grass lamb
, a lamb suckled by a dam running on pasture land and giving rich milk.
-- Grass land
, land kept in grass and not tilled.
-- Grass moth (Zoology)
, one of many small moths of the genus Crambus , found in grass.
-- Grass oil
, a fragrant essential volatile oil, obtained in India from grasses of the genus Andropogon , etc.; -- used in perfumery under the name of citronella , ginger grass oil , lemon grass oil , essence of verbena etc.
-- Grass owl (Zoology)
, a South African owl ( Strix Capensis ).
-- Grass parrakeet (Zoology)
, a ny of several species of Australian parrots, of the genus Euphemia ; -- also applied to the zebra parrakeet.
-- Grass plover (Zoology)
, t he upland or field plover.
-- Grass poly (Botany)
, a species of willowwort ( Lythrum Hyssopifolia ). Johnson.
-- Crass quit (Zoology)
, one of several tropical American finches of the genus Euetheia . The males have most of the head and chest black and often marked with yellow.
-- Grass snake
. (Zoology) (a) The common English, or ringed, snake ( Tropidonotus natrix ). (b) The common green snake of the Northern United States. See Green snake , under Green .
-- Grass snipe (Zoology)
, the pectoral sandpiper ( Tringa maculata ); -- called also jacksnipe in America.
-- Grass spider (Zoology)
, a common spider ( Agelena nævia ), which spins flat webs on grass, conspicuous when covered with dew.
-- Grass sponge (Zoology)
, an inferior kind of commercial sponge from Florida and the Bahamas.
-- Grass table
. (Architecture) See Earth table , under Earth .
-- Grass vetch (Botany)
, a vetch ( Lathyrus Nissolia ), with narrow grasslike leaves.
-- Grass widow
. [ Confer Prov. R. an unmarried mother, German strohwittwe
a mock widow, Swedish gräsenka
a grass widow.] (a) An unmarried woman who is a mother.
[ Obsolete] (b) A woman separated from her husband by abandonment or prolonged absence; a woman living apart from her husband.
[ Slang.] -- Grass wrack (Botany) eelgrass.
-- To bring to grass (Mining.)
, to raise, as ore, to the surface of the ground.
-- To put to grass
, To put out to grass
, to put out to graze a season, as cattle.
Grass transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Grassed
; present participle & verbal noun Grassing
.] 1. To cover with grass or with turf. 2. To expose, as flax, on the grass for bleaching, etc. 3. To bring to the grass or ground; to land; as, to grass a fish.
Grass intransitive verb To produce grass. [ R.] Tusser.
Grass tree (Botany) (a) An Australian plant of the genus Xanthorrhœa , having a thick trunk crowned with a dense tuft of pendulous, grasslike leaves, from the center of which arises a long stem, bearing at its summit a dense flower spike looking somewhat like a large cat-tail. These plants are often called "blackboys" from the large trunks denuded and blackened by fire. They yield two kinds of fragrant resin, called Botany-bay gum , and Gum Acaroides . (b) A similar Australian plant ( Kingia australis ).
1. Green with grass. 2. Of the color of grass; clear and vivid green.
Grass-grown adjective Overgrown with grass; as, a grass-grown road.
Grassation noun [ Latin grassatio , from grassari to go about.] A wandering about with evil intentions; a rioting. [ Obsolete & R.] Feltham.
Grasshopper noun 1. (Zoology) Any jumping, orthopterous insect, of the families Acrididæ and Locustidæ . The species and genera are very numerous. The former family includes the Western grasshopper or locust ( Caloptenus spretus ), noted for the great extent of its ravages in the region beyond the Mississippi. In the Eastern United States the red-legged ( Caloptenus femurrubrum and C. atlanis ) are closely related species, but their ravages are less important. They are closely related to the migratory locusts of the Old World. See Locust .
» The meadow or green grasshoppers belong to the Locustidæ
. They have long antennæ, large ovipositors, and stridulating organs at the base of the wings in the male. The European great green grasshopper ( Locusta viridissima
) belongs to this family. The common American green species mostly belong to Xiphidium
, and Conocephalus
. 2. In ordinary square or upright pianos of London make, the escapement lever or jack, so made that it can be taken out and replaced with the key; -- called also the hopper. Grove. Grasshopper engine
, a steam engine having a working beam with its fulcrum at one end, the steam cylinder at the other end, and the connecting rod at an intermediate point.
-- Grasshopper lobster (Zoology) a young lobster.
[ Local, U. S.] -- Grasshopper warbler (Zoology)
, cricket bird.
Grassiness noun [ From Grassy.] The state of abounding with grass; a grassy state.
Grassless adjective Destitute of grass.
Grassplot noun A plot or space covered with grass; a lawn. "Here on this grassplot." Shak.
1. Covered with grass; abounding with grass; as, a grassy lawn. Spenser. 2. Resembling grass; green.
Grate adjective [ Latin gratus agreeable, grateful: confer Italian & Spanish grato. See Grace, and confer Agree.] Serving to gratify; agreeable. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Herbert.
Grate noun [ Late Latin grata, from Latin crates hurdle; or Italian grata, of the same origin. Sae Crate, Hurdle.] Grate surface (Steam, Boiler) the area of the surface of the grate upon which the fuel lies in the furnace.
1. A structure or frame containing parallel or crosed bars, with interstices; a kind of latticework, such as is used ia the windows of prisons and cloisters. "A secret grate of iron bars." Shak. 2. A frame or bed, or kind of basket, of iron bars, for holding fuel while burning.
Grate transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Grated
; present participle &. verbal noun Grating
.] To furnish with grates; to protect with a grating or crossbars; as, to grate a window.
Grate transitive verb
[ OF grater
to scrape, scratch, French gratter
, Late Latin gratare
; of German origin; confer Old High German chrazzōn
, Dutch krassen
, Swedish Kratta
, and perhaps English scratch.
] 1. To rub roughly or harshly, as one body against another, causing a harsh sound; as, to grate the teeth; to produce (a harsh sound) by rubbing.
On their hinges grate Milton. 2. To reduce to small particles by rubbing with anything rough or indented; as, to grate a nutmeg. 3. To fret; to irritate; to offend.
News, my good lord Rome . . . grates me. Shak.
Grate intransitive verb 1. To make a harsh sound by friction.
I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned, Shak. 2. To produce the effect of rubbing with a hard rough material; to cause wearing, tearing, or bruising. Hence; To produce exasperation, soreness, or grief; to offend by oppression or importunity.
Or a dry wheel grate on the exletree.
This grated harder upon the hearts of men. South.