Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Champerty noun [ French champart field rent, Latin campipars ; champ (L. campus ) field + part (L. pars ) share.]
1. Partnership in power; equal share of authority. [ Obsolete]

Beauté ne sleighte, strengthe ne hardyness,
Ne may with Venus holde champartye .
Chaucer.

2. (Law) The prosecution or defense of a suit, whether by furnishing money or personal services, by one who has no legitimate concern therein, in consideration of an agreement that he shall receive, in the event of success, a share of the matter in suit; maintenance with the addition of an agreement to divide the thing in suit. See Maintenance .

» By many authorities champerty is defined as an agreement of this nature. From early times the offence of champerty has been forbidden and punishable.

Champignon noun [ French, a mushroom, ultimately from Latin campus field. See Camp .] (Botany) An edible species of mushroom ( Agaricus campestris ).

Fairy ring champignon , the Marasmius oreades , which has a strong flavor but is edible.

Champion (chăm"pĭ*ŭn) noun [ French champion , from Late Latin campio , of German origin; confer Old High German chempho , chemphio , fighter, champf , German kampf , contest; perhaps influenced by Latin campus field, taken in the sense of "field of battle."]
1. One who engages in any contest; esp. one who in ancient times contended in single combat in behalf of another's honor or rights; or one who now acts or speaks in behalf of a person or a cause; a defender; an advocate; a hero.

A stouter champion never handled sword.
Shak.

Champions of law and liberty.
Fisher Ames.

2. One who by defeating all rivals, has obtained an acknowledged supremacy in any branch of athletics or game of skill, and is ready to contend with any rival; as, the champion of England.

» Champion is used attributively in the sense of surpassing all competitors ; overmastering ; as, champion pugilist; champion chess player.

Syn. -- Leader; chieftain; combatant; hero; warrior; defender; protector.

Champion transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Championed ; present participle & verbal noun Championing .] [ Obsolete] Shak.

2. To furnish with a champion; to attend or defend as champion; to support or maintain; to protect.

Championed or unchampioned, thou diest.
Sir W. Scott.

Championness noun A female champion. Fairfax.

Championship noun State of being champion; leadership; supremacy.

Champlain period (Geol.) A subdivision of the Quaternary age immediately following the Glacial period; -- so named from beds near Lake Champlain.

» The earlier deposits of this period are diluvial in character, as if formed in connection with floods attending the melting of the glaciers, while the later deposits are of finer material in more quiet waters, as the alluvium.

Champlevé adjective [ French, past participle of champlever to engrave. See 3d Champ , Camp , Lever a bar.] (Art) Having the ground engraved or cut out in the parts to be enameled; inlaid in depressions made in the ground; -- said of a kind of enamel work in which depressions made in the surface are filled with enamel pastes, which are afterward fired; also, designating the process of making such enamel work. -- noun A piece of champlevé enamel; also, the process or art of making such enamel work; champlevé work.

Chamsin noun [ French] See Kamsin .

Chance (chȧns) noun [ French chance , Old French cheance , from Late Latin cadentia a allusion to the falling of the dice), from Latin cadere to fall; akin to Sanskrit çad to fall, Latin cedere to yield, English cede . Confer Cadence .]
1. A supposed material or psychical agent or mode of activity other than a force, law, or purpose; fortune; fate; -- in this sense often personified.

It is strictly and philosophically true in nature and reason that there is no such thing as chance or accident; it being evident that these words do not signify anything really existing, anything that is truly an agent or the cause of any event; but they signify merely men's ignorance of the real and immediate cause.
Samuel Clark.

Any society into which chance might throw him.
Macaulay.

That power
Which erring men call Chance .
Milton.

2. The operation or activity of such agent.

By chance a priest came down that way.
Luke x. 31.

3. The supposed effect of such an agent; something that befalls, as the result of unknown or unconsidered forces; the issue of uncertain conditions; an event not calculated upon; an unexpected occurrence; a happening; accident; fortuity; casualty.

It was a chance that happened to us.
1 Sam. vi. 9.

The Knave of Diamonds tries his wily arts,
And wins (O shameful chance !) the Queen of Hearts.
Pope.

I spake of most disastrous chance .
Shak.

4. A possibility; a likelihood; an opportunity; -- with reference to a doubtful result; as, a chance to escape; a chance for life; the chances are all against him.

So weary with disasters, tugged with fortune.
That I would get my life on any chance ,
To mend it, or be rid on 't
Shak.

5. (Math.) Probability.

» The mathematical expression, of a chance is the ratio of frequency with which an event happens in the long run. If an event may happen in a ways and may fail in b ways, and each of these a + b ways is equally likely, the chance , or probability, that the event will happen is measured by the fraction a/ a + b , and the chance , or probability, that it will fail is measured by b/ a + b .

Chance comer , one who comes unexpectedly. -- The last chance , the sole remaining ground of hope. -- The main chance , the chief opportunity; that upon which reliance is had, esp. self-interest. -- Theory of chances , Doctrine of chances (Math.) , that branch of mathematics which treats of the probability of the occurrence of particular events, as the fall of dice in given positions. -- To mind one's chances , to take advantage of every circumstance; to seize every opportunity.

Chance intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Chanced ; present participle & verbal noun Chancing .] To happen, come, or arrive, without design or expectation. "Things that chance daily." Robynson (More's Utopia).

If a bird's nest chance to be before thee.
Deut. xxii. 6.

I chanced on this letter.
Shak.

Often used impersonally; as, how chances it?

How chance , thou art returned so soon?
Shak.

Chance transitive verb
1. To take the chances of; to venture upon; -- usually with it as object.

Come what will, I will chance it.
W. D. Howells.

2. To befall; to happen to. [ Obsolete] W. Lambarde.

Chance adjective Happening by chance; casual.

Chance adverb By chance; perchance. Gray.

Chance-medley noun [ Chance + medley .]
1. (Law) The killing of another in self-defense upon a sudden and unpremeditated encounter. See Chaud-Medley .

» The term has been sometimes applied to any kind of homicide by misadventure, or to any accidental killing of a person without premeditation or evil intent, but, in strictness, is applicable to such killing as happens in defending one's self against assault. Bouvier.

2. Luck; chance; accident. Milton. Cowper.

Chanceable adjective Fortuitous; casual. [ Obsolete]

Chanceably adverb By chance. [ Obsolete]

Chanceful adjective Hazardous. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Chancel noun [ Old French chancel , French chanceau , cancel , from Latin cancelli lattices, crossbars. (The chancel was formerly inclosed with lattices or crossbars) See Cancel , transitive verb ] (Architecture) (a) That part of a church, reserved for the use of the clergy, where the altar, or communion table, is placed. Hence, in modern use; (b) All that part of a cruciform church which is beyond the line of the transept farthest from the main front.

Chancel aisle (Architecture) , the aisle which passes on either side of or around the chancel. -- Chancel arch (Architecture) , the arch which spans the main opening, leading to the chancel. -- Chancel casement , the principal window in a chancel. Tennyson . -- Chancel table , the communion table.

Chancellery noun [ Confer Chancery .] Chancellorship. [ Obsolete] Gower.

Chancellor noun [ Middle English canceler , chaunceler , French chancelier , Late Latin cancellarius chancellor, a director of chancery, from Latin cancelli lattices, crossbars, which surrounded the seat of judgment. See Chancel .] A judicial court of chancery, which in England and in the United States is distinctively a court with equity jurisdiction.

» The chancellor was originally a chief scribe or secretary under the Roman emperors, but afterward was invested with judicial powers, and had superintendence over the other officers of the empire. From the Roman empire this office passed to the church, and every bishop has his chancellor, the principal judge of his consistory. In later times, in most countries of Europe, the chancellor was a high officer of state, keeper of the great seal of the kingdom, and having the supervision of all charters, and like public instruments of the crown, which were authenticated in the most solemn manner. In France a secretary is in some cases called a chancellor . In Scotland, the appellation is given to the foreman of a jury, or assize. In the present German empire, the chancellor is the president of the federal council and the head of the imperial administration. In the United States, the title is given to certain judges of courts of chancery or equity, established by the statutes of separate States. Blackstone. Wharton.

Chancellor of a bishop, or of a diocese (R. C. Ch. & ch. of Eng.) , a law officer appointed to hold the bishop's court in his diocese, and to assist him in matter of ecclesiastical law. -- Chancellor of a cathedral , one of the four chief dignitaries of the cathedrals of the old foundation, and an officer whose duties are chiefly educational, with special reference to the cultivation of theology. -- Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster , an officer before whom, or his deputy, the court of the duchy chamber of Lancaster is held. This is a special jurisdiction. -- Chancellor of a university , the chief officer of a collegiate body. In Oxford, he is elected for life; in Cambridge, for a term of years; and his office is honorary, the chief duties of it devolving on the vice chancellor. -- Chancellor of the exchequer , a member of the British cabinet upon whom devolves the charge of the public income and expenditure as the highest finance minister of the government. -- Chancellor of the order of the Garter (or other military orders), an officer who seals the commissions and mandates of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the register of their proceedings, and delivers their acts under the seal of their order. -- Lord high chancellor of England , the presiding judge in the court of chancery, the highest judicial officer of the crown, and the first lay person of the state after the blood royal. He is created chancellor by the delivery into his custody of the great seal, of which he becomes keeper. He is privy counselor by his office, and prolocutor of the House of Lords by prescription.

Chancellorship (chȧn"sĕl*lẽr*shĭp) noun The office of a chancellor; the time during which one is chancellor.

Chancery noun [ French chancellerie , Late Latin cancellaria , from Latin cancellarius . See Chancellor , and confer Chancellery .]
1. In England, formerly, the highest court of judicature next to the Parliament, exercising jurisdiction at law, but chiefly in equity; but under the jurisdiction act of 1873 it became the chancery division of the High Court of Justice, and now exercises jurisdiction only in equity.

2. In the Unites States, a court of equity; equity; proceeding in equity.

» A court of chancery, so far as it is a court of equity, in the English and American sense, may be generally, if not precisely, described as one having jurisdiction in cases of rights, recognized and protected by the municipal jurisprudence, where a plain, adequate, and complete remedy can not be had in the courts of common law. In some of the American States, jurisdiction at law and in equity centers in the same tribunal. The courts of the United States also have jurisdiction both at law and in equity, and in all such cases they exercise their jurisdiction, as courts of law, or as courts of equity, as the subject of adjudication may require. In others of the American States, the courts that administer equity are distinct tribunals, having their appropriate judicial officers, and it is to the latter that the appellation courts of chancery is usually applied; but, in American law, the terms equity and court of equity are more frequently employed than the corresponding terms chancery and court of chancery . Burrill.

Inns of chancery . See under Inn . -- To get ( or to hold) In chancery (Boxing) , to get the head of an antagonist under one's arm, so that one can pommel it with the other fist at will; hence, to have wholly in One's power. The allusion is to the condition of a person involved in the chancery court, where he was helpless, while the lawyers lived upon his estate.

Chancre noun [ French chancere . See Cancer .] (Medicine) A venereal sore or ulcer; specifically, the initial lesion of true syphilis, whether forming a distinct ulcer or not; -- called also hard chancre , indurated chancre , and Hunterian chancre .

Soft chancre . A chancroid. See Chancroid .

Chancroid noun [ Chancre + -oil .] (Medicine) A venereal sore, resembling a chancre in its seat and some external characters, but differing from it in being the starting point of a purely local process and never of a systemic disease; -- called also soft chancre .

Chancrous adjective [ Confer French chancreux .] (Medicine) Of the nature of a chancre; having chancre.

Chandelier noun [ French See Chandler .]
1. A candlestick, lamp, stand, gas fixture, or the like, having several branches; esp., one hanging from the ceiling.

2. (Fort.) A movable parapet, serving to support fascines to cover pioneers. [ Obsolete]

Chandler noun [ French chandelier a candlestick, a maker or seller of candles, Late Latin candelarius chandler, from Latin candela candle. See Candle , and confer Chandelier .]
1. A maker or seller of candles.

The chandler's basket, on his shoulder borne,
With tallow spots thy coat.
Gay.

2. A dealer in other commodities, which are indicated by a word prefixed; as, ship chandler , corn chandler .

Chandlerly adjective Like a chandler; in a petty way. [ Obsolete] Milton.

Chandlery noun Commodities sold by a chandler.

Chandoo noun An extract or preparation of opium, used in China and India for smoking. Balfour.

Chandry noun Chandlery. [ Obsolete] "Torches from the chandry ." B. Jonson.

Chanfrin noun [ French chanfrein . Confer Chamfron .] The fore part of a horse's head.

Change (chānj) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Changed (chānjd); present participle & verbal noun Changing .] [ French changer , from Late Latin cambiare , to exchange, barter, Latin cambire . Confer Cambial .]
1. To alter; to make different; to cause to pass from one state to another; as, to change the position, character, or appearance of a thing; to change the countenance.

Therefore will I change their glory into shame.
Hosea. iv. 7.

2. To alter by substituting something else for, or by giving up for something else; as, to change the clothes; to change one's occupation; to change one's intention.

They that do change old love for new,
Pray gods, they change for worse!
Peele.

3. To give and take reciprocally; to exchange; -- followed by with ; as, to change place, or hats, or money, with another.

Look upon those thousands with whom thou wouldst not, for any interest, change thy fortune and condition.
Jer. Taylor.

4. Specifically: To give, or receive, smaller denominations of money (technically called change ) for; as, to change a gold coin or a bank bill.

He pulled out a thirty-pound note and bid me change it.
Goldsmith.

To change a horse, or To change hand (Man.) , to turn or bear the horse's head from one hand to the other, from the left to right, or from the right to the left. -- To change hands , to change owners. -- To change one's tune , to become less confident or boastful. [ Colloq.] -- To change step , to take a break in the regular succession of steps, in marching or walking, as by bringing the hollow of one foot against the heel of the other, and then stepping off with the foot which is in advance.

Syn. -- To alter; vary; deviate; substitute; innovate; diversify; shift; veer; turn. See Alter .

Change intransitive verb
1. To be altered; to undergo variation; as, men sometimes change for the better.

For I am Lord, I change not.
Mal. iii. 6.

2. To pass from one phase to another; as, the moon changes to-morrow night.

Change noun [ French change , from changer . See Change . transitive verb ]
1. Any variation or alteration; a passing from one state or form to another; as, a change of countenance; a change of habits or principles.

Apprehensions of a change of dynasty.
Hallam.

All the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come.
Job xiv. 14.

2. A succesion or substitution of one thing in the place of another; a difference; novelty; variety; as, a change of seasons.

Our fathers did for change to France repair.
Dryden.

The ringing grooves of change .
Tennyson.

3. A passing from one phase to another; as, a change of the moon.

4. Alteration in the order of a series; permutation.

5. That which makes a variety, or may be substituted for another.

Thirty change (R.V. changes ) of garments.
Judg. xiv. 12.

6. Small money; the money by means of which the larger coins and bank bills are made available in small dealings; hence, the balance returned when payment is tendered by a coin or note exceeding the sum due.

7. [ See Exchange .] A place where merchants and others meet to transact business; a building appropriated for mercantile transactions. [ Colloq. for Exchange.]

8. A public house; an alehouse. [ Scot.]

They call an alehouse a change .
Burt.

9. (Mus.) Any order in which a number of bells are struck, other than that of the diatonic scale.

Four bells admit twenty-four changes in ringing.
Holder.

Change of life , the period in the life of a woman when menstruation and the capacity for conception cease, usually occurring between forty-five and fifty years of age. -- Change ringing , the continual production, without repetition, of changes on bells, See def. 9. above. -- Change wheel (Mech.) , one of a set of wheels of different sizes and number of teeth, that may be changed or substituted one for another in machinery, to produce a different but definite rate of angular velocity in an axis, as in cutting screws, gear, etc. -- To ring the changes on , to present the same facts or arguments in variety of ways.

Syn. -- Variety; variation; alteration; mutation; transition; vicissitude; innovation; novelty; transmutation; revolution; reverse.

Change gear (Machinery) A gear by means of which the speed of machinery or of a vehicle may be changed while that of the propelling engine or motor remains constant; -- called also change-speed gear .

Change key A key adapted to open only one of a set of locks; -- distinguished from a master key .

Changeability noun Changeableness.

Changeable adjective [ Confer French changeable .]
1. Capable of change; subject to alteration; mutable; variable; fickle; inconstant; as, a changeable humor.

2. Appearing different, as in color, in different lights, or under different circumstances; as, changeable silk.

Syn. -- Mutable; alterable; variable; inconstant; fitful; vacillating; capricious; fickle; unstable; unsteady; unsettled; wavering; erratic; giddy; volatile.

Changeableness noun The quality of being changeable; fickleness; inconstancy; mutability.

Changeably adverb In a changeable manner.

Changeful adjective Full of change; mutable; inconstant; fickle; uncertain. Pope.

His course had been changeful .
Motley.

-- Change"ful*ly , adverb -- Change"ful*ness , noun

Changeless adjective That can not be changed; constant; as, a changeless purpose.

-- Change"less*ness , noun

Changeling noun [ Change + -ling .]
1. One who, or that which, is left or taken in the place of another, as a child exchanged by fairies.

Such, men do changelings call, so changed by fairies' theft.
Spenser.

The changeling [ a substituted writing] never known.
Shak.

2. A simpleton; an idiot. Macaulay.

Changelings and fools of heaven, and thence shut out.

Wildly we roam in discontent about.
Dryden.

3. One apt to change; a waverer. "Fickle changelings ." Shak.

Changeling adjective
1. Taken or left in place of another; changed. "A little changeling boy." Shak.

2. Given to change; inconstant. [ Obsolete]

Some are so studiously changeling .
Boyle.

Changer noun
1. One who changes or alters the form of anything.

2. One who deals in or changes money. John ii. 14.

3. One apt to change; an inconstant person.

Chank (chănk) noun [ Sanskrit ça&ndot;kha . See Conch .] (Zoology) The East Indian name for the large spiral shell of several species of sea conch much used in making bangles, esp. Turbinella pyrum . Called also chank shell .

Channel (chăn"nĕl) noun [ Middle English chanel , canel , Old French chanel , French chenel , from Latin canalis . See Canal .]
1. The hollow bed where a stream of water runs or may run.

2. The deeper part of a river, harbor, strait, etc., where the main current flows, or which affords the best and safest passage for vessels.

3. (Geology) A strait, or narrow sea, between two portions of lands; as, the British Channel .

4. That through which anything passes; means of passing, conveying, or transmitting; as, the news was conveyed to us by different channels .

The veins are converging channels .
Dalton.

At best, he is but a channel to convey to the National assembly such matter as may import that body to know.
Burke.

5. A gutter; a groove, as in a fluted column.

6. plural [ Confer Chain wales .] (Nautical) Flat ledges of heavy plank bolted edgewise to the outside of a vessel, to increase the spread of the shrouds and carry them clear of the bulwarks.

Channel bar , Channel iron (Architecture) , an iron bar or beam having a section resembling a flat gutter or channel. -- Channel bill (Zoology) , a very large Australian cuckoo ( Scythrops Novæhollandiæ . -- Channel goose . (Zoology) See Gannet .

Channel transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Channeled , or Channelled ; present participle & verbal noun Channeling , or Channelling .]
1. To form a channel in; to cut or wear a channel or channels in; to groove.

No more shall trenching war channel her fields.
Shak.

2. To course through or over, as in a channel. Cowper.