Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Chagreen noun See Shagreen .

Chagres fever (Medicine) A form of malarial fever occurring along the Chagres River, Panama.

Chagrin noun [ French, from chagrin shagreen, a particular kind of rough and grained leather; also a rough fishskin used for graters and files; hence ( Fig .), a gnawing, corroding grief. See Shagreen .] Vexation; mortification.

I must own that I felt rather vexation and chagrin than hope and satisfaction.
Richard Porson.

Hear me, and touch Belinda with chagrin .
Pope.

Syn. -- Vexation; mortification; peevishness; fretfulness; disgust; disquiet. Chagrin , Vexation , Mortification . These words agree in the general sense of pain produced by untoward circumstances. Vexation is a feeling of disquietude or irritating uneasiness from numerous causes, such as losses, disappointments, etc. Mortification is a stronger word, and denotes that keen sense of pain which results from wounded pride or humiliating occurrences. Chagrin is literally the cutting pain produced by the friction of Shagreen leather; in its figurative sense, it varies in meaning, denoting in its lower degrees simply a state of vexation, and its higher degrees the keenest sense of mortification.

Vexation arises chiefly from our wishes and views being crossed: mortification , from our self-importance being hurt; chagrin , from a mixture of the two. Crabb.

Chagrin transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Chagrined ; present participle & verbal noun Chargrining .] [ Confer French chagriner See Chagrin , noun ] To excite ill-humor in; to vex; to mortify; as, he was not a little chagrined .

Chagrin intransitive verb To be vexed or annoyed. Fielding.

Chagrin adjective Chagrined. Dryden.

Chain noun [ French chaîne , from Latin catena . Confer Catenate .]
1. A series of links or rings, usually of metal, connected, or fitted into one another, used for various purposes, as of support, of restraint, of ornament, of the exertion and transmission of mechanical power, etc.

[ They] put a chain of gold about his neck.
Dan. v. 29.

2. That which confines, fetters, or secures, as a chain; a bond; as, the chains of habit.

Driven down
To chains of darkness and the undying worm.
Milton.

3. A series of things linked together; or a series of things connected and following each other in succession; as, a chain of mountains; a chain of events or ideas.

4. (Surv.) An instrument which consists of links and is used in measuring land.

» One commonly in use is Gunter's chain , which consists of one hundred links, each link being seven inches and ninety-two one hundredths in length; making up the total length of rods, or sixty-six, feet; hence, a measure of that length; hence, also, a unit for land measure equal to four rods square, or one tenth of an acre.

5. plural (Nautical) Iron links bolted to the side of a vessel to bold the dead-eyes connected with the shrouds; also, the channels.

6. (Weaving) The warp threads of a web. Knight.

Chain belt (Machinery) , a belt made of a chain; -- used for transmitting power. -- Chain boat , a boat fitted up for recovering lost cables, anchors, etc. -- Chain bolt (a) (Nautical) The bolt at the lower end of the chain plate, which fastens it to the vessel's side. (b) A bolt with a chain attached for drawing it out of position. -- Chain bond . See Chain timber . -- Chain bridge , a bridge supported by chain cables; a suspension bridge. -- Chain cable , a cable made of iron links. -- Chain coral (Zoology) , a fossil coral of the genus Halysites , common in the middle and upper Silurian rocks. The tubular corallites are united side by side in groups, looking in an end view like links of a chain. When perfect, the calicles show twelve septa. -- Chain coupling . (a) A shackle for uniting lengths of chain, or connecting a chain with an object. (b) (Railroad) Supplementary coupling together of cars with a chain. -- Chain gang , a gang of convicts chained together. -- Chain hook (Nautical) , a hook, used for dragging cables about the deck. -- Chain mail , flexible, defensive armor of hammered metal links wrought into the form of a garment. -- Chain molding (Architecture) , a form of molding in imitation of a chain, used in the Normal style. - - Chain pier , a pier suspended by chain. -- Chain pipe (Nautical) , an opening in the deck, lined with iron, through which the cable is passed into the lockers or tiers. -- Chain plate (Shipbuilding) , one of the iron plates or bands, on a vessel's side, to which the standing rigging is fastened. -- Chain pulley , a pulley with depressions in the periphery of its wheel, or projections from it, made to fit the links of a chain. -- Chain pumps . See in the Vocabulary. -- Chain rule (Arith.) , a theorem for solving numerical problems by composition of ratios, or compound proportion, by which, when several ratios of equality are given, the consequent of each being the same as the antecedent of the next, the relation between the first antecedent and the last consequent is discovered. -- Chain shot (Mil.) , two cannon balls united by a shot chain, formerly used in naval warfare on account of their destructive effect on a ship's rigging. -- Chain stitch . See in the Vocabulary. -- Chain timber . (Architecture) See Bond timber , under Bond . -- Chain wales . (Nautical) Same as Channels . -- Chain wheel . See in the Vocabulary. -- Closed chain , Open chain (Chemistry) , terms applied to the chemical structure of compounds whose rational formulæ are written respectively in the form of a closed ring (see Benzene nucleus , under Benzene ), or in an open extended form. -- Endless chain , a chain whose ends have been united by a link.

Chain transitive verb [ impast participle p. Chained (chānd); present participle & verbal noun Chaining .]
1. To fasten, bind, or connect with a chain; to fasten or bind securely, as with a chain; as, to chain a bulldog.

Chained behind the hostile car.
Prior.

2. To keep in slavery; to enslave.

And which more blest? who chained his country, say
Or he whose virtue sighed to lose a day?
Pope.

3. To unite closely and strongly.

And in this vow do chain my soul to thine.
Shak.

4. (Surveying) To measure with the chain.

5. To protect by drawing a chain across, as a harbor.

Chain pump A pump consisting of an endless chain, running over a drum or wheel by which it is moved, and dipping below the water to be raised. The chain has at intervals disks or lifts which fit the tube through which the ascending part passes and carry the water to the point of discharge.

Chain stitch
1. An ornamental stitch like the links of a chain; -- used in crocheting, sewing, and embroidery.

2. (Machine Sewing) A stitch in which the looping of the thread or threads forms a chain on the under side of the work; the loop stitch, as distinguished from the lock stitch. See Stitch .

Chain tie (Architecture) A tie consisting of a series of connected iron bars or rods.

Chain wheel
1. A chain pulley, or sprocket wheel.

2. An inversion of the chain pump, by which it becomes a motor driven by water.

Chainless adjective Having no chain; not restrained or fettered. "The chainless mind." Byron.

Chainlet noun A small chain. Sir W. Scott.

Chainwork noun Work looped or linked after the manner of a chain; chain stitch work.

Chair noun [ Middle English chaiere , chaere , Old French chaiere , chaere , French chaire pulpit, from Latin cathedra chair, armchair, a teacher's or professor's chair, Greek ... down + ... seat, ... to sit, akin to English sit . See Sit , and confer Cathedral , chaise .]


1. A movable single seat with a back.

2. An official seat, as of a chief magistrate or a judge, but esp. that of a professor; hence, the office itself.

The chair of a philosophical school.
Whewell.

A chair of philology.
M. Arnold.

3. The presiding officer of an assembly; a chairman; as, to address the chair .

4. A vehicle for one person; either a sedan borne upon poles, or two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse; a gig. Shak.

Think what an equipage thou hast in air,
And view with scorn two pages and a chair .
Pope.

5. An iron block used on railways to support the rails and secure them to the sleepers.

Chair days , days of repose and age. -- To put into the chair , to elect as president, or as chairman of a meeting. Macaulay . -- To take the chair , to assume the position of president, or of chairman of a meeting.

Chair transitive verb [ imperfect & present participle Chaired ; present participle & verbal noun Chairing .]
1. To place in a chair.

2. To carry publicly in a chair in triumph. [ Eng.]

Chairman noun ; plural Chairmen
1. The presiding officer of a committee, or of a public or private meeting, or of any organized body.

2. One whose business it is to cary a chair or sedan.

Breaks watchmen's heads and chairmen's glasses.
Prior.

Chairmanship noun The office of a chairman of a meeting or organized body.

Chaise (shāz) noun [ French chaise seat, or chair, chaise or carriage, for chaire , from a peculiar Parisian pronunciation. See Chair .]
1. A two-wheeled carriage for two persons, with a calash top, and the body hung on leather straps, or thorough-braces. It is usually drawn by one horse.

2. Loosely, a carriage in general. Cowper.

Chaja noun [ Native name.] (Zoology) The crested screamer of Brazil ( Palamedea, or Chauna, chavaria ), so called in imitation of its notes; -- called also chauna , and faithful kamichi . It is often domesticated and is useful in guarding other poultry. See Kamichi .

Chalaza noun ; plural English Chalazas , Latin Chalazæ . [ New Latin , from Greek ... hail, pimple.]
1. (Botany) The place on an ovule, or seed, where its outer coats cohere with each other and the nucleus.

2. (Biol.) A spiral band of thickened albuminous substance which exists in the white of the bird's egg, and serves to maintain the yolk in its position; the treadle.

Chalazal adjective Of or pertaining to the chalaza.

Chalaze noun Same as Chalaza .

Chalaziferous adjective [ Chalaza + -ferous .] Having or bearing chalazas.

Chalazion noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... dim. of ... hail, pimple.] (Medicine) A small circumscribed tumor of the eyelid caused by retention of secretion, and by inflammation of the Melbomian glands.

Chalazogamy noun [ Chalaza + -gamy , as in polygamy .] (Botany) A process of fecundation in which the pollen tube penetrates to the embryosac through the tissue of the chalaza, instead of entering through the micropyle. It was originally discovered by Treub in Casuarina , and has since been found to occur regularly in the families Betulaceæ and Juglandaceæ . Partial chalazogamy is found in Ulmus , the tube here penetrating the nucleus midway between the chalaza and micropyle. -- Chal`a*zo*gam"ic adjective

Chalcanthite noun [ Latin chalcanthum a solution of blue vitriol, Greek ....] (Min.) Native blue vitriol. See Blue vitriol , under Blue .

Chalcedonic adjective Of or pertaining to chalcedony.

Chalcedony (kăl*sĕd"o*nȳ or kăl"se*do*nȳ; 277) noun ; plural Chalcedonies (-nĭz). [ Latin chalcedonius , from Greek CHalkhdw`n Chalcedon, a town in Asia Minor, opposite to Byzantium: confer calcédoine , Middle English calcidoine , casidoyne . Confer Cassidony .] (Min.) A cryptocrystalline, translucent variety of quartz, having usually a whitish color, and a luster nearly like wax. [ Written also calcedony .]

» When chalcedony is variegated with with spots or figures, or arranged in differently colored layers, it is called agate ; and if by reason of the thickness, color, and arrangement of the layers it is suitable for being carved into cameos, it is called onyx . Chrysoprase is green chalcedony; carnelian , a flesh red, and sard , a brownish red variety.

Chalchihuitl (chȧl`che*wetl") noun (Min.) The Mexican name for turquoise. See Turquoise .

Chalcid fly [ From Greek chalko`s copper; in allusion to its metallic colors.] (Zoology) One of a numerous family of hymenopterous insects ( Chalcididæ . Many are gallflies, others are parasitic on insects.

Chalcidian noun [ Latin chalcis a lizard, Greek chalki`s .] (Zoology) One of a tropical family of snakelike lizards ( Chalcidæ ), having four small or rudimentary legs.

Chalcocite noun [ Greek chalko`s brass.] (Min.) Native copper sulphide, called also copper glance , and vitreous copper ; a mineral of a black color and metallic luster. [ Formerly written chalcosine .]

Chalcographer, Chalcographist noun An engraver on copper or brass; hence, an engraver of copper plates for printing upon paper.

Chalcography noun [ Greek chalko`s copper, brass + -graphy .] The act or art of engraving on copper or brass, especially of engraving for printing.

Chalcopyrite noun [ Greek chalko`s brass + English pyrite . So named from its color.] (Min.) Copper pyrites, or yellow copper ore; a common ore of copper, containing copper, iron, and sulphur. It occurs massive and in tetragonal crystals of a bright brass yellow color.

Chaldaic adjective [ Latin Chaldaicus .] Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- noun The language or dialect of the Chaldeans; Chaldee.

Chaldaism noun An idiom or peculiarity in the Chaldee dialect.

Chaldean adjective [ Latin Chaldaeus .] Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- noun (a) A native or inhabitant of Chaldea. (b) A learned man, esp. an astrologer; -- so called among the Eastern nations, because astrology and the kindred arts were much cultivated by the Chaldeans. (c) Nestorian.

Chaldee adjective Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- noun The language or dialect of the Chaldeans; eastern Aramaic, or the Aramaic used in Chaldea.

Chaldee Paraphrase , A targum written in Aramaic.

Chaldrich, Chalder noun [ Icelandic tjaldr .] (Zoology) A kind of bird; the oyster catcher.

Chaldron noun [ Old French chaldron , French chaudron kettle. The same word as caldron .] An English dry measure, being, at London, 36 bushels heaped up, or its equivalent weight, and more than twice as much at Newcastle. Now used exclusively for coal and coke.

» In the United States the chaldron is ordinarily 2,940 lbs, but at New York it is 2,500 lbs. De Colange.

Chalet noun [ French]
1. A herdsman's hut in the mountains of Switzerland.

Chalets are summer huts for the Swiss herdsmen.
Wordsworth.

2. A summer cottage or country house in the Swiss mountains; any country house built in the style of the Swiss cottages.

Chalice noun [ OR. chalis , calice , Old French chalice , calice , French calice , from Latin calix , akin to Greek ... and English helmet . Confer Calice , Calyx .] A cup or bowl; especially, the cup used in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.

Chaliced adjective Having a calyx or cup; cup-shaped. " Chaliced flowers." Shak.

Chalk noun [ Anglo-Saxon cealc lime, from Latin calx limestone. See Calz , and Cawk .]
1. (Min.) A soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish white color, consisting of calcium carbonate, and having the same composition as common limestone.

2. (Fine Arts) Finely prepared chalk, used as a drawing implement; also, by extension, a compound, as of clay and black lead, or the like, used in the same manner. See Crayon .

Black chalk , a mineral of a bluish color, of a slaty texture, and soiling the fingers when handled; a variety of argillaceous slate. -- By a long chalk , by a long way; by many degrees. [ Slang] Lowell. -- Chalk drawing (Fine Arts) , a drawing made with crayons. See Crayon . -- Chalk formation . See Cretaceous formation , under Cretaceous . -- Chalk line , a cord rubbed with chalk, used for making straight lines on boards or other material, as a guide in cutting or in arranging work. -- Chalk mixture , a preparation of chalk, cinnamon, and sugar in gum water, much used in diarrheal affection, esp. of infants. -- Chalk period . (Geol.) See Cretaceous period , under Cretaceous . - - Chalk pit , a pit in which chalk is dug. -- Drawing chalk . See Crayon , noun , 1. -- French chalk , steatite or soapstone, a soft magnesian mineral. -- Red chalk , an indurated clayey ocher containing iron, and used by painters and artificers; reddle.

Chalk transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Chalked ; present participle & verbal noun Chalking .]
1. To rub or mark with chalk.

2. To manure with chalk, as land. Morimer.

3. To make white, as with chalk; to make pale; to bleach. Tennyson.

Let a bleak paleness chalk the door.
Herbert.

To chalk out , to sketch with, or as with, chalk; to outline; to indicate; to plan. [ Colloq.] "I shall pursue the plan I have chalked out ." Burke.

Chalkcutter noun A man who digs chalk.

Chalkiness noun The state of being chalky.