Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Chalkstone noun
1. A mass of chalk.

As chalkstones . . . beaten in sunder.
Isa. xxvii. 9.

2. (Medicine) A chalklike concretion, consisting mainly of urate of sodium, found in and about the small joints, in the external ear, and in other situations, in those affected with gout; a tophus.

Chalky adjective Consisting of, or resembling, chalk; containing chalk; as, a chalky cliff; a chalky taste.

Challenge noun [ Middle English chalenge claim, accusation, challenge, Old French chalenge , chalonge , claim, accusation, contest, from Latin calumnia false accusation, chicanery. See Calumny .]
1. An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any kind; a defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel; also, the letter or message conveying the summons.

A challenge to controversy.
Goldsmith.

2. The act of a sentry in halting any one who appears at his post, and demanding the countersign.

3. A claim or demand. [ Obsolete]

There must be no challenge of superiority.
Collier.

4. (Hunting) The opening and crying of hounds at first finding the scent of their game.

5. (Law) An exception to a juror or to a member of a court martial, coupled with a demand that he should be held incompetent to act; the claim of a party that a certain person or persons shall not sit in trial upon him or his cause. Blackstone

6. An exception to a person as not legally qualified to vote. The challenge must be made when the ballot is offered. [ U. S.]

Challenge to the array (Law) , an exception to the whole panel. -- Challenge to the favor , the alleging a special cause, the sufficiency of which is to be left to those whose duty and office it is to decide upon it. -- Challenge to the polls , an exception taken to any one or more of the individual jurors returned. -- Peremptory challenge , a privilege sometimes allowed to defendants, of challenging a certain number of jurors (fixed by statute in different States) without assigning any cause. -- Principal challenge , that which the law allows to be sufficient if found to be true.

Challenge transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Challenged ; present participle & verbal noun Challenging .] [ Middle English chalengen to accuse, claim, Old French chalengier , chalongier , to claim, accuse, dispute, from Latin calumniar to attack with false accusations. See Challenge , noun , and confer Calumniate .]
1. To call to a contest of any kind; to call to answer; to defy.

I challenge any man to make any pretense to power by right of fatherhood.
Locke.

2. To call, invite, or summon to answer for an offense by personal combat.

By this I challenge him to single fight.
Shak.

3. To claim as due; to demand as a right.

Challenge better terms.
Addison.

4. To censure; to blame. [ Obsolete]

He complained of the emperors . . . and challenged them for that he had no greater revenues . . . from them.
Holland.

5. (Mil.) To question or demand the countersign from (one who attempts to pass the lines); as, the sentinel challenged us, with "Who comes there?"

6. To take exception to; question; as, to challenge the accuracy of a statement or of a quotation.

7. (Law) To object to or take exception to, as to a juror, or member of a court.

8. To object to the reception of the vote of, as on the ground that the person in not qualified as a voter. [ U. S.]

To challenge to the array, favor, polls . See under Challenge , noun

Challenge intransitive verb To assert a right; to claim a place.

Where nature doth with merit challenge .
Shak.

Challengeable adjective That may be challenged.

Challenger noun One who challenges.

Challis noun [ French chaly , challis , a stuff made of goat's hair.] A soft and delicate woolen, or woolen and silk, fabric, for ladies' dresses. [ Written also chally .]

Chalon noun A bed blanket. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Chalybean adjective [ Latin chalybeïus , from chalybs steel, Greek ....]
1. Of or pertaining to the Chalybes, an ancient people of Pontus in Asia Minor, celebrated for working in iron and steel.

2. Of superior quality and temper; -- applied to steel. [ Obsolete] Milton.

Chalybeate adjective [ New Latin chalybeatus , from chalubeïus . See Chalubean .] Impregnated with salts of iron; having a taste like iron; as, chalybeate springs.

Chalybeate noun Any water, liquid, or medicine, into which iron enters as an ingredient.

Chalybeous adjective (Zoology) Steel blue; of the color of tempered steel.

Chalybite noun (Min.) Native iron carbonate; -- usually called siderite .

Cham transitive verb [ See Chap .] To chew. [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.] Sir T. More.

Cham noun [ See Khan .] The sovereign prince of Tartary; -- now usually written khan . Shak.

Chamade noun [ French chamade , from Portuguese chamada , from chamar to call, from Latin clamare .] (Mil.) A signal made for a parley by beat of a drum.

They beat the chamade , and sent us carte blanche.
Addison.

Chamal noun [ Native name.] (Zoology) The Angora goat. See Angora goat , under Angora .

Chamber noun [ French chambre , from Latin camera vault, arched roof, in Late Latin chamber, from Greek ... anything with a vaulted roof or arched covering; confer Sanskrit kmar to be crooked. Confer Camber , Camera , Comrade .]


1. A retired room, esp. an upper room used for sleeping; a bedroom; as, the house had four chambers .

2. plural Apartments in a lodging house. "A bachelor's life in chambers ." Thackeray.

3. A hall, as where a king gives audience, or a deliberative body or assembly meets; as, presence chamber ; senate chamber .

4. A legislative or judicial body; an assembly; a society or association; as, the Chamber of Deputies; the Chamber of Commerce.

5. A compartment or cell; an inclosed space or cavity; as, the chamber of a canal lock; the chamber of a furnace; the chamber of the eye.

6. plural (Law.) A room or rooms where a lawyer transacts business; a room or rooms where a judge transacts such official business as may be done out of court.

7. A chamber pot. [ Colloq.]

8. (Mil.) (a) That part of the bore of a piece of ordnance which holds the charge, esp. when of different diameter from the rest of the bore; -- formerly, in guns, made smaller than the bore, but now larger, esp. in breech-loading guns. (b) A cavity in a mine, usually of a cubical form, to contain the powder. (c) A short piece of ordnance or cannon, which stood on its breech, without any carriage, formerly used chiefly for rejoicings and theatrical cannonades.

Air chamber . See Air chamber , in the Vocabulary. -- Chamber of commerce , a board or association to protect the interests of commerce, chosen from among the merchants and traders of a city. -- Chamber council , a secret council. Shak. -- Chamber counsel or counselor , a counselor who gives his opinion in private, or at his chambers, but does not advocate causes in court. -- Chamber fellow , a chamber companion; a roommate; a chum. -- Chamber hangings , tapestry or hangings for a chamber. -- Chamber lye , urine. Shak. -- Chamber music , vocal or instrumental music adapted to performance in a chamber or small apartment or audience room, instead of a theater, concert hall, or church. -- Chamber practice (Law.) , the practice of counselors at law, who give their opinions in private, but do not appear in court. -- To sit at chambers , to do business in chambers, as a judge.

Chamber intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Chambered ; present participle & verbal noun Chambering .]
1. To reside in or occupy a chamber or chambers.

2. To be lascivious. [ Obsolete]

Chamber transitive verb
1. To shut up, as in a chamber. Shak.

2. To furnish with a chamber; as, to chamber a gun.

Chambered adjective Having a chamber or chambers; as, a chambered shell; a chambered gun.

Chamberer noun
1. One who attends in a chamber; a chambermaid. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. A civilian; a carpetmonger. [ Obsolete]

Chambering noun Lewdness. [ Obsolete] Rom. xiii. 13.

Chamberlain noun [ Old French chamberlain , chambrelencF . chambellon , Old High German chamerling , chamarlinc , German kämmerling , kammer chamber (fr. Latin camera ) + -ling . See Chamber , and -ling .] [ Formerly written chamberlin .]
1. An officer or servant who has charge of a chamber or chambers.

2. An upper servant of an inn. [ Obsolete]

3. An officer having the direction and management of the private chambers of a nobleman or monarch; hence, in Europe, one of the high officers of a court.

4. A treasurer or receiver of public money; as, the chamberlain of London, of North Wales, etc.

The lord chamberlain of England , an officer of the crown, who waits upon the sovereign on the day of coronation, and provides requisites for the palace of Westminster, and for the House of Lords during the session of Parliament. Under him are the gentleman of the black rod and other officers. His office is distinct from that of the lord chamberlain of the Household , whose functions relate to the royal housekeeping.

Chamberlainship noun Office of a chamberlain.

Chambermaid noun
1. A maidservant who has the care of chambers, making the beds, sweeping, cleaning the rooms, etc.

2. A lady's maid. [ Obsolete] Johnson.

Chambertin noun A red wine from Chambertin near Dijon, in Burgundy.

Chambranle noun [ French] (Architecture) An ornamental bordering or framelike decoration around the sides and top of a door, window, or fireplace. The top piece is called the traverse and the side pieces the ascendants .

Chambray noun [ From Cambrai , France. Confer Cambric .] A gingham woven in plain colors with linen finish.

Chambrel noun Same as Gambrel .

Chameck noun [ Native Brazilian name.] (Zoology) A kind of spider monkey ( Ateles chameck ), having the thumbs rudimentary and without a nail.

Chameleon (kȧ*mē"le*ŭn) noun [ Latin Chamaeleon , Greek chamaile`wn , lit., "ground lion;" chamai` on the ground + le`wn lion. See Humble , and Lion .] (Zoology) A lizardlike reptile of the genus Chamæleo , of several species, found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. The skin is covered with fine granulations; the tail is prehensile, and the body is much compressed laterally, giving it a high back.

» Its color changes more or less with the color of the objects about it, or with its temper when disturbed. In a cool, dark place it is nearly white, or grayish; on admitting the light, it changes to brown, bottle-green, or blood red, of various shades, and more or less mottled in arrangment. The American chameleons belong to Anolis and allied genera of the family Iguanidæ . They are more slender in form than the true chameleons, but have the same power of changing their colors.

Chameleon mineral (Chemistry) , the compound called potassium permanganate , a dark violet, crystalline substance, KMnO 4 , which in formation passes through a peculiar succession of color from green to blue, purple, red, etc. See Potassium permanganate , under Potassium .

Chameleonize transitive verb To change into various colors. [ R.]

Chamfer noun [ See Chamfron .] The surface formed by cutting away the arris, or angle, formed by two faces of a piece of timber, stone, etc.

Chamfer transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Chamfered ; present participle & verbal noun Chamfering . ]


1. (Carp.) To cut a furrow in, as in a column; to groove; to channel; to flute.

2. To make a chamfer on.

Chamfret noun [ See Chamfron .]
1. (Carp.) A small gutter; a furrow; a groove.

2. A chamfer.

Chamfron noun [ French chanfrein .] (Anc. Armor) The frontlet, or head armor, of a horse. [ Written also champfrain and chamfrain .]

Chamisal noun [ Amer. Spanish , from Spanish chamiza a kind of wild cane.]
1. (Botany) A California rosaceous shrub ( Adenostoma fasciculatum ) which often forms an impenetrable chaparral.

2. A chaparral formed by dense growths of this shrub.

Chamlet noun See Camlet . [ Obsolete]

Chamois (shăm"mȳ or shȧ*moi"; 277) noun [ French chamois , probably from OG. gamz , German gemse .]


1. (Zoology) A small species of antelope ( Rupicapra tragus ), living on the loftiest mountain ridges of Europe, as the Alps, Pyrenees, etc. It possesses remarkable agility, and is a favorite object of chase.

2. A soft leather made from the skin of the chamois, or from sheepskin, etc.; -- called also chamois leather , and chammy or shammy leather . See Shammy .

Chamomile noun (Botany) See Camomile .

Champ (chămp) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Champed (chămt); present participle & verbal noun Champing .] [ Prob, of Scand. orgin; confer dial. Swedish kämsa to chew with difficulty, champ; but confer also Old French champier , champeyer , champoyer , to graze in fields, from French champ field, from Latin campus . Confer Camp .]
1. To bite with repeated action of the teeth so as to be heard.

Foamed and champed the golden bit.
Dryden.

2. To bite into small pieces; to crunch. Steele.

Champ intransitive verb To bite or chew impatiently.

They began . . . irefully to champ upon the bit.
Hooker.

Champ, Champe noun [ French champ , Latin campus field.] (Architecture) The field or ground on which carving appears in relief.

Champagne noun [ French See Champaign .] A light wine, of several kinds, originally made in the province of Champagne, in France.

» Champagne properly includes several kinds not only of sparkling but of still wines; but in America the term is usually restricted to wines which effervesce.

Champaign noun [ Old French champaigne ; same word as campagne .] A flat, open country.

Fair champaign , with less rivers interveined.
Milton.

Through Apline vale or champaign wide.
Wordsworth.

Champaign adjective Flat; open; level.

A wide, champaign country, filled with herds.
Addison.

Champer noun One who champs, or bites.

Champertor noun [ French champarteur a divider of fields or field rent. See Champerty .] (Law) One guilty of champerty; one who purchases a suit, or the right of suing, and carries it on at his own expense, in order to obtain a share of the gain.