Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Caloyer noun [ French, from NGr. ........................... a monk; kalo`s beautiful, good + ..............., equiv. to Greek ............... an old man.] A monk of the Greek Church; a cenobite, anchoret, or recluse of the rule of St. Basil, especially, one on or near Mt. Athos.

Calque transitive verb See 2d Calk , transitive verb

Caltrop, Caltrap noun [ Middle English calketrappe , calletrappe , caltor (in both senses), from Anglo-Saxon collræppe , calcetreppe , sort of thistle; confer French chaussetrape star thistle, trap, Italian calcatreppo , calcatreppolo , star thistle. Perh. from Latin calx heel + the same word as English trap . See 1st Trap .]
1. (Botany) A genus of herbaceous plants ( Tribulus ) of the order Zygophylleæ , having a hard several- celled fruit, armed with stout spines, and resembling the military instrument of the same name. The species grow in warm countries, and are often very annoying to cattle.

2. (Mil.) An instrument with four iron points, so disposed that, any three of them being on the ground, the other projects upward. They are scattered on the ground where an enemy's cavalry are to pass, to impede their progress by endangering the horses' feet.

Calumba noun [ from kalumb , its native name in Mozambique.] (Medicine) The root of a plant ( Jateorrhiza Calumba , and probably Cocculus palmatus ), indigenous in Mozambique. It has an unpleasantly bitter taste, and is used as a tonic and antiseptic. [ Written also colombo , columbo , and calombo .]

American calumba , the Frasera Carolinensis , also called American gentian . Its root has been used in medicine as bitter tonic in place of calumba .

Calumbin noun (Chemistry) A bitter principle extracted as a white crystalline substance from the calumba root. [ Written also colombin , and columbin ]

Calumet noun [ French calumet , from Latin calamus reed. See Halm , and confer Shawm .] A kind of pipe, used by the North American Indians for smoking tobacco. The bowl is usually made of soft red stone, and the tube is a long reed often ornamented with feathers.

Smoked the calumet , the Peace pipe,
As a signal to the nations.
Lowgfellow.

» The calumet is used as a symbol of peace. To accept the calumet is to agree to terms of peace, and to refuse it is to reject them. The calumet of peace is used to seal or ratify contracts and alliances, and as an evidence to strangers that they are welcome.

Calumniate intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Calumniated ; present participle & verbal noun calumniating .] [ Latin calumniatus , past participle of calumniari . See Calumny , and confer Challenge , transitive verb ] To accuse falsely and maliciously of a crime or offense, or of something disreputable; to slander; to libel.

Hatred unto the truth did always falsely report and calumniate all godly men's doings.
Strype.

Syn . -- To asperse; slander; defame; vilify; traduce; belie; bespatter; blacken; libel. See Asperse .

Calumniate intransitive verb To propagate evil reports with a design to injure the reputation of another; to make purposely false charges of some offense or crime.

Calumniation (kȧ*lŭm`nĭ*ā"shŭn) noun False accusation of crime or offense, or a malicious and false representation of the words or actions of another, with a view to injure his good name.

The calumniation of her principal counselors.
Bacon.

Calumniator noun [ Latin ] One who calumniates.

Syn. -- Slanderer; defamer; libeler; traducer.

Calumniatory adjective Containing calumny; slanderous. Montagu.

Calumnious adjective [ Latin calumniosus .] Containing or implying calumny; false, malicious, and injurious to reputation; slanderous; as, calumnious reports.

Virtue itself 'scapes not calumnious strokes.
Shak.

. Slanderous; defamatory; scurrilous; opprobrious; derogatory; libelous; abusive.

-- Ca*lum"ni*ous*ly , adverb -- Ca*lum"ni*ous*ness , noun

Calumny noun ; plural Calumnies . [ Latin calumnia , from calvi to devise tricks, deceive; confer French calomnie . Confer Challenge , noun ] False accusation of a crime or offense, maliciously made or reported, to the injury of another; malicious misrepresentation; slander; detraction. "Infamous calumnies ." Motley.

Be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny .
Shak.

Calvaria (kăl*vā"rĭ*ȧ) noun [ Latin See Calvary .] (Anat.) The bones of the cranium; more especially, the bones of the domelike upper portion.

Calvary (kăl"vȧ*rȳ) noun [ Latin calvaria a bare skull, from calva the scalp without hair. from calvus bald; confer French calvaire .]
1. The place where Christ was crucified, on a small hill outside of Jerusalem. Luke xxiii. 33.

» The Latin calvaria is a translation of the Greek krani`on of the Evangelists, which is an interpretation of the Hebrew Golgotha . Dr. W. Smith.

2. A representation of the crucifixion, consisting of three crosses with the figures of Christ and the thieves, often as large as life, and sometimes surrounded by figures of other personages who were present at the crucifixion.

3. (Her.) A cross, set upon three steps; -- more properly called cross calvary .

Calve (käv) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Calved 3; present participle & verbal noun Calving .] [ Anglo-Saxon cealfian . See Calf .]
1. To bring forth a calf. "Their cow calveth ." Job xxi. 10.

2. To bring forth young; to produce offspring.

Canst thou mark when the hinds do calve ?
Job xxxix. 1.

The grassy clods now calved .
Molton.

Calve intransitive verb (Physics Geology) To throw off fragments which become icebergs; -- said of a glacier.

Calver (kăl"vẽr) intransitive verb
1. To cut in slices and pickle, as salmon. [ Obsolete]

For a change, leave calvered salmon and eat sprats.
Massinger.

2. To crimp; as, calvered salmon. Nares.

Calver intransitive verb To bear, or be susceptible of, being calvered; as, grayling's flesh will calver . Catton.

Calvessnout noun (Botany) Snapdragon.

Calvinism noun [ Confer French Calvinisme .] The theological tenets or doctrines of John Calvin (a French theologian and reformer of the 16th century) and his followers, or of the so-called calvinistic churches.

» The distinguishing doctrines of this system, usually termed the five points of Calvinism , are original sin or total depravity, election or predestination, particular redemption, effectual calling, and the perseverance of the saints. It has been subject to many variations and modifications in different churches and at various times.

Calvinist noun [ Confer French Calviniste .] A follower of Calvin; a believer in Calvinism.

Calvinistic, Calvinistical adjective Of or pertaining to Calvin, or Calvinism; following Calvin; accepting or Teaching Calvinism. " Calvinistic training." Lowell.

Calvinize transitive verb To convert to Calvinism.

Calvish adjective Like a calf; stupid. Sheldon.

Calx noun ; plural English Calxes , Latin Calces . [ Latin Calx , calcis . limestone; confer Greek ... gravel. ..., ..., pebble, Sanskrit ... gravel, Ir. carraic rock Gael. carraig , W. careg , stone. Confer Chalk .]


1. (Chemistry) (a) Quicklime. [ Obsolete] (b) The substance which remains when a metal or mineral has been subjected to calcination or combustion by heat, and which is, or may be, reduced to a fine powder.

» Metallic calxes are now called oxides .

2. Broken and refuse glass, returned to the post.

Calycifloral, callyciflorous adjective [ Latin calyx , -ycis , calyx + flos , floris , flower.] (Botany) Having the petals and stamens adnate to the calyx; -- applied to a subclass of dicotyledonous plants in the system of the French botanist Candolle.

Calyciform adjective [ Latin calyx , calycis , calyx + -form .] (Botany) Having the form or appearance of a calyx.

Calycinal, Calycine adjective (Botany) Pertaining to a calyx; having the nature of a calyx.

Calycle noun [ Latin calyculus small flower bud, calyx, dim. of calyx . See Calyx , and confer Calicle .] (Botany) A row of small bracts, at the base of the calyx, on the outside.

Calycled adjective (Botany) Calyculate.

Calycozoa noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek ..., ..., cup or calyx a flower + ... animal.] (Zoology) A group of acalephs of which Lucernaria is the type. The body is cup-shaped with eight marginal lobes bearing clavate tentacles. An aboral sucker serves for attachment. The interior is divided into four large compartments. See Lucernarida .

Calycular adjective (Botany) Pertaining to, or resembling, the bracts of a calycle.

Calyculate, Calyculated adjective (Botany) Having a set of bracts resembling a calyx.

Calymene noun [ Greek concealed, past participle of ... to conceal.] (Zoology) A genus of trilobites characteristic of the Silurian age.

Calyon noun Flint or pebble stone, used in building walls, etc. Haliwell.

Calypso (kȧ*lĭp"so) noun [ The Latinized Greek name of a beautiful nymph.] (Botany) A small and beautiful species of orchid, having a flower variegated with purple, pink, and yellow. It grows in cold and wet localities in the northern part of the United States. The Calypso borealis is the only orchid which reaches 68° N.

Calyptra (kȧ*lĭp"trȧ) noun [ New Latin , from Greek kaly`ptra a covering for the head, from kaly`ptein to cover.] (Botany) A little hood or veil, resembling an extinguisher in form and position, covering each of the small flasklike capsules which contain the spores of mosses; also, any similar covering body.

Calyptriform adjective [ Calyptra + -form .] Having the form a calyptra, or extinguisher.

Calyx (kā"lĭks; 277) noun ; plural English Calyxes , Latin Calyces (kăl"ĭ*sēz). [ Latin calyx , -ycis , from Greek ka`lyx husk, shell, calyx, from the root of kaly`ptein to cover, conceal. Confer Chalice Helmet .]
1. (Botany) The covering of a flower. See Flower .

» The calyx is usually green and foliaceous, but becomes delicate and petaloid in such flowers as the anemone and the four-o'clock. Each leaf of the calyx is called a sepal .

2. (Anat.) A cuplike division of the pelvis of the kidney, which surrounds one or more of the renal papillæ.

Calzoons (kăl*zōnz") noun plural [ French caleçons (cf. Italian calzoni breeches), from Latin calceus shoe.] Drawers. [ Obsolete]

Cam (kăm) noun [ Danish kam comb, ridge; or confer W., Gael., and Ir., cam bent. See 1st Comb .]
1. (Medicine) (a) A turning or sliding piece which, by the shape of its periphery or face, or a groove in its surface, imparts variable or intermittent motion to, or receives such motion from, a rod, lever, or block brought into sliding or rolling contact with it. (b) A curved wedge, movable about an axis, used for forcing or clamping two pieces together. (c) A projecting part of a wheel or other moving piece so shaped as to give alternate or variable motion to another piece against which it acts.

» Cams are much used in machinery involving complicated, and irregular movements, as in the sewing machine, pin machine, etc.

2. A ridge or mound of earth. [ Prow. Eng.] Wright.

Cam wheel (Machinery) , a wheel with one or more projections (cams) or depressions upon its periphery or upon its face; one which is set or shaped eccentrically, so that its revolutions impart a varied, reciprocating, or intermittent motion.

Cam adjective [ See Kam .] Crooked. [ Obsolete]

Camaieu noun [ F.; of unknown origin. Confer Cameo .]
1. A cameo. [ Obsolete] Crabb.

2. (Fine Arts) Painting in shades of one color; monochrome. Mollett.

Camail noun [ French camail (cf. Italian camaglio ), from Latin caput head + source of English mail .]
1. (Ancient Armor) A neck guard of chain mall, hanging from the bascinet or other headpiece.

2. A hood of other material than mail; esp. (Eccl.) , a hood worn in church services, -- the amice, or the like.

Camara noun [ Portuguese ] Chamber; house; -- used in Ca"ma*ra dos Pa"res and Ca"ma*ra dos De`pu*ta"dos See Legislature .

Camaraderie noun [ French See Comrade .] Comradeship and loyalty.

The spirit of camaraderie is strong among these riders of the plains.
W. A. Fraser.

Camarasaurus noun [ New Latin from Greek ... a vaulted chamber + ... lizard.] (Paleon.) A genus of gigantic American Jurassic dinosaurs, having large cavities in the bodies of the dorsal vertebræ.

Camarilla noun [ Spanish , a small room.]


1. The private audience chamber of a king.

2. A company of secret and irresponsible advisers, as of a king; a cabal or clique.