Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Top fermentation An alcoholic fermentation during which the yeast cells are carried to the top of the fermening liquid. It proceeds with some violence and requires a temperature of 14- 30° C. (58-86° F.). It is used in the production of ale, porter, etc., and of wines high in alcohol, and in distilling.

Top out (Building) To top off; to finish by putting on a cap of top (uppermost) course (called a top`ping- out" course ).

Top rake (Mech.) The angle that the front edge of the point of a tool is set back from the normal to the surface being cut.

Top-armor noun (Nautical) A top railing supported by stanchions and equipped with netting.

Top-block noun (Nautical) A large ironbound block strapped with a hook, and, when used, hung to an eyebolt in the cap, -- used in swaying and lowering the topmast. Totten.

Top-boots noun plural High boots, having generally a band of some kind of light-colored leather around the upper part of the leg; riding boots.

Top-chain noun (Nautical) A chain for slinging the lower yards, in time of action, to prevent their falling, if the ropes by which they are hung are shot away.

Top-cloth noun (Nautical) A piece of canvas used to cover the hammocks which are lashed to the top in action to protect the topmen.

Top-drain transitive verb To drain the surface of, as land; as, to top-drain a field or farm.

Top-draining noun The act or practice of drining the surface of land.

Top-dress transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Top-dressed ; present participle & verbal noun Top-dressing .] To apply a surface dressing of manureto,as land.

Top-dressing noun The act of applying a dressing of manure to the surface of land; also, manure so applied.

Top-hamper noun (Nautical) The upper rigging, spars, etc., of a ship. [ Written also top hamper .]

All the ships of the fleet . . . were so encumbered with tophamper , so overweighted in proportion to their draught of water, that they could bear but little canvas, even with smooth seas and light and favorable winds.
Motley.

Top-heavy adjective Having the top or upper part too heavy for the lower part. Sir H. Wotton.

Top-light noun (Nautical) A lantern or light on the top of a vessel.

Toparch noun [ Latin toparcha , Greek ...; ... a place + ... to govern, to rule.] The ruler or principal man in a place or country; the governor of a toparchy.

The prince and toparch of that country.
Fuller.

Toparchy noun ; plural Toparchies . [ Latin toparchia , Greek .... See Toparch .] A small state, consisting of a few cities or towns; a petty country governed by a toparch; as, Judea was formerly divided into ten toparchies . Fuller.

Topau noun (Zoology) The rhinocerous bird (a) .

Topaz noun [ Middle English topas , French topaze , Latin topazos , or topazion , a kind of precious stone, Greek to`pazos , topa`zion ; possibly akin to Sanskrit tap to glow (cf. Tepid ). According to some, the name is from Topazos , a small island in the Red Sea, where the Romans obtained a stone which they called by this name, but which is the chrysolite of the moderns.]
1. (Min.) A mineral occurring in rhombic prisms, generally yellowish and pellucid, also colorless, and of greenesh, bluish, or brownish shades. It sometimes occurs massive and opaque. It is a fluosilicate of alumina, and is used as a gem.

2. (Zoology) Either one of two species of large, brilliantly colored humming birds of the Topaza , of South America and the West Indies.

» The two tail feathers next to the central ones are much longer that the rest, curved, and crossed. The Throat is metallic yellowish-green, with a tint like topaz in the center, the belly is bright crimson, the back bright red. Called also topaz hummer .

False topaz . (Min.) See the Note under Quartz .

Topazolite noun [ Topaz + - lite ; confer French topazolithe .] (Min.) A topaz-yellow variety of garnet.

Topcoat noun An outer coat; an overcoat.

Tope (tōp) noun [ Probably from Sanskrit stūpa a tope, a stupa, through Prakrit thūpo .] A moundlike Buddhist sepulcher, or memorial monument, often erected over a Buddhist relic.

Tope noun [ Tamil tōppu .] A grove or clump of trees; as, a toddy tope . [ India] Whitworth.

Tope noun
1. (Zoology) A small shark or dogfish ( Galeorhinus, or Galeus, galeus ), native of Europe, but found also on the coasts of California and Tasmania; -- called also toper , oil shark , miller's dog , and penny dog .

2. (Zoology) The wren. [ Prov. Eng.]

Tope intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Toped (tōpt); present participle & verbal noun Toping .] [ French tôper to cover a stake in playing at dice, to accept an offer, tôpe agreed!; -- perhaps imitative of the sound of striking hands on concluding a bargain. From being used in English as a drinking term, probably at first in accepting a toast.] To drink hard or frequently; to drink strong or spiritous liquors to excess.

If you tope in form, and treat.
Dryden.

Topek noun [ Eskimo tupek .] An ESkimo house made of material other than snow, esp. one having walls of turf, driftwood, rock, or skin, and a roof of skins of the walrus or seal. In Alaska it is often partially underground and covered with timber and turf. Topeks are also used by Indians of the lower Yukon region.

Toper (tō"pẽr) noun One who topes, or drinks frequently or to excess; a drunkard; a sot.

Topet noun [ French toupet tuft. See Touper .] (Zoology) The European crested titmouse. [ Prov. Eng.]

Topful adjective Full to the top, ore brim; brimfull. " Topful of direst cruelty." Shak.

[ He] was so topful of himself, that he let it spill on all the company.
I. Watts.

Topgallant adjective


1. (Nautical) Situated above the topmast and below the royal mast; designatb, or pertaining to, the third spars in order from the deck; as, the topgallant mast, yards, braces, and the like. See Illustration of Ship .

2. Fig.: Highest; elevated; splendid. "The consciences of topgallant sparks." L'Estrange.

Topgallant breeze , a breeze in which the topgallant sails may properly be carried.

Topgallant noun
1. (Nautical) A topgallant mast or sail.

2. Fig.: Anything elevated or splendid. Bacon.

Toph noun [ Latin tophus , tofus , tufa, or tuft. Confer Tufa , Tofus , Tophus .] (Min.) kind of sandstone.

Tophaceous adjective [ Latin tophaceus , tofaceus .] Gritty; sandy; rough; stony.

Tophet noun [ Hebrew tōphet , literally, a place to be spit upon, an abominable place, from tūph to spit out.] A place lying east or southeast of Jerusalem, in the valley of Hinnom. [ Written also Topheth .]

And he defiled Topheth , which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom.
2 Kings xxiii. 10.

» It seems to have been at first part of the royal garden, but it was afterwards defiled and polluted by the sacrifices of Baal and the fires of Moloch, and resounded with the cries of burning infants. At a later period, its altars and high places were thrown down, and all the filth of the city poured into it, until it became the abhorrence of Jerusalem, and, in symbol, the place where are wailing and gnashing of teeth.

The pleasant valley of Hinnom, Tophet thence
And black Gehenna called, the type of hell.
Milton.

Tophin noun (Min.) Same as Toph .

Tophus noun ; plural Tophi . [ New Latin : confer French tophus a mineral concretion in the joint. See Toph .] [ Written also tofus .]
1. (Medicine) One of the mineral concretions about the joints, and in other situations, occurring chiefly in gouty persons. They consist usually of urate of sodium; when occurring in the internal organs they are also composed of phosphate of calcium.

2. (Min.) Calcareous tufa.

Topi noun An antelope ( Damaliscus corrigum jimela ) having a glossy purplish brown coat. It is related to the blesbok and is native of British East Africa. Also, any of various related varieties of other districts south of the Sahara.

Topiarian adjective [ See Toplary .] Of or pertaining to the ornamental cutting and trimming of trees, hedges, etc.; practicing ornamental gardening. [ R.] "The topiarian artist." Sir W. Scott.

All the pedantries of the topiarian art.
C. Kingsley.

Topiary adjective [ Latin topiarius belonging to ornamental gardening, from topia (sc. opera ) ornamental gardening, from Greek ... a place.] Of or pertaining to ornamental gardening; produced by cutting, trimming, etc.; topiarian.

Topiary work , arbors, shrubbery, hedges, or the like, cut and trimmed into fanciful forms, as of animals, buildings, etc.

Topic noun [ French topiques , plural, Latin topica the title of a work of Aristotle, Greek topika` , from topiko`s of or for place, concerning to`poi , or commonplaces, from to`pos a place.] (a) One of the various general forms of argument employed in probable as distinguished from demonstrative reasoning, -- denominated by Aristotle to`poi (literally, places), as being the places or sources from which arguments may be derived, or to which they may be referred; also, a prepared form of argument, applicable to a great variety of cases, with a supply of which the ancient rhetoricians and orators provided themselves; a commonplace of argument or oratory. (b) plural A treatise on forms of argument; a system or scheme of forms or commonplaces of argument or oratory; as, the Topics of Aristotle.

These topics , or loci, were no other than general ideas applicable to a great many different subjects, which the orator was directed to consult.
Blair.

In this question by [ reason] I do not mean a distinct topic , but a transcendent that runs through all topics .
Jer. Taylor.

2. An argument or reason. [ Obsolete]

Contumacious persons, who are not to be fixed by any principles, whom no topics can work upon.
Bp. Wilkins.

3. The subject of any distinct portion of a discourse, or argument, or literary composition; also, the general or main subject of the whole; a matter treated of; a subject, as of conversation or of thought; a matter; a point; a head.

4. (Medicine) An external local application or remedy, as a plaster, a blister, etc. [ Obsoles.] Wiseman.

Topic adjective Topical. Drayton. Holland.

Topical adjective [ Confer French topique , Late Latin topicus , Greek .... See Topic , noun ]
1. Of or pertaining to a place; limited; logical application; as, a topical remedy; a topical claim or privilege.

2. (Rhet. & logic) Pertaining to, or consisting of, a topic or topics; according to topics.

3. Resembling a topic, or general maxim; hence, not demonstrative, but merely probable, as an argument.

Evidences of fact can be no more than topical and probable.
Sir M. Hale.

Topically adverb In a topical manner; with application to, or limitation of, a particular place or topic.

Topknot noun
1. A crest or knot of feathers upon the head or top, as of a bird; also, an orgamental knot worn on top of the head, as by women.

A great, stout servant girl, with cheeks as red as her topknot .
Sir W. Scott.

2. (Zoology) A small Europen flounder ( Rhoumbus punctatus ). The name is also applied to allied species.

Topless adjective Having no top, or no visble fop; hence, fig.: very lofty; supreme; unequaled. " The topless Apennines." " Topless fortunes." Beau. & Fl.

Topman noun ; plural Topmem
1. See Topsman , 2.

2. (Nautical) A man stationed in the top.

Topmast noun (Nautical) The second mast, or that which is next above the lower mast, and below the topgallant mast.

Topmost adjective Highest; uppermost; as, the topmost cliff; the topmost branch of a tree.

The nightngale may claim the topmost bough.
Cowper.

Topographer noun [ Confer French topographe , Cr. ... .] One who is skilled in the science of topography; one who describes a particular place, town, city, or tract of land.

Dante is the one authorized topographer of the mediæval hell.
Milman.

Topographic adjective Top`o*graph"ic*al [ Confer French topographique .] Of or pertaining to topography; descriptive of a place. -- Top`o*graph"ic*al*ly , adverb

Topographical map . See under Cadastral . -- Topographical surveying. See under Surveying .