Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Top-proud adjective Proud to the highest degree. [ R.] "This top-proud fellow." Shak.

Top-rope noun (Nautical) A rope used for hoisting and lowering a topmast, and for other purposes.

Top-shaped adjective Having the shape of a top; (Botany) cone-shaped, with the apex downward; turbinate.

Top-shell noun (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of marine top-shaped shells of the genus Trochus , or family Trochidæ .

Top-tackle noun (Nautical) A tackle used in hoisting and lowering the topmast.

Top-timbers noun (Nautical) The highest timbers on the side of a vessel, being those above the futtocks. R. H. Dana, Jr.

Top-tool (-tōl`) noun (Blacksmithing.) A tool applied to the top of the work, in distinction from a tool inserted in the anvil and on which the work is placed.

Topographist noun A topographer.

Topography noun [ French topographie , Greek ...; ... a place + ... to write.] The description of a particular place, town, manor, parish, or tract of land; especially, the exact and scientific delineation and description in minute detail of any place or region.

» Topography , as the description of particular places, is distinguished from chorography , the description of a region or a district, and for geography , the description of the earth or of countries. Brande & C.

Topology noun [ Greek ... place + - logy .] The art of, or method for, assisting the memory by associating the thing or subject to be remembered with some place. [ R.]

Toponomy noun [ Greek ... place + ... to distribute.] The designation of position and direction. B. G. Wilder.

Toponym noun A name of a place; more broadly, a name, as in the binomial name of a plant, based on, or derived from, a place name, or based on the location of the thing named.

Toponymy noun A system of toponyms; the use of toponyms. -- To*pon"y*mal , Top`o*nym"ic , Top`o*nym"ic*al adjective

Topophone noun [ Greek ... place + Greek ... sound.] A double ear trumpet for estimating the direction from which sounds proceed, esp. for the use of navigators.

Topper noun
1. One that tops, in any sense of the verb; specif.: (a) A cover of a top layer or part. [ Colloq.] (b) One that excels, surpasses, or is extraordinary of its kind. [ Slang] (c) Any device for cutting off tops; as, a turnip topper . (d) One who tops steel ingots. (e) A three-square float (file) used by comb makers.

2. A top hat. [ Slang or Colloq.]

3. Tobacco left in the bottom of a pipe bowl; -- so called from its being often taken out and placed on top of the newly filled bowl. Also, a cigar stump. [ Slang]

Toppiece noun A small wig for the top of the head; a toupee.

Topping adjective
1. Rising above; surpassing.

2. Hence, assuming superiority; proud.

The great and flourishing condition of some of the topping sinners of the world.
South.

3. Fine; gallant. [ Slang] Johnson.

Topping noun
1. The act of one who tops; the act of cutting off the top.

2. (Nautical) The act of raising one extremity of a spar higher than the other.

3. plural That which comes from hemp in the process of hatcheling.

Topping lift (Nautical) , a large, strong tackle employed to raise or top the end of a gaff, or of a boom.

Topping noun (Angling) The tail of an artificial fly.

Toppingly adverb In a topping or proud manner.

Toppingly adjective Same as Topping , adjective , 3. [ Obsolete] " Topping quests." Tusser.

Topple intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Toppled ; present participle & verbal noun Toppling .] [ From Top summit.] To fall forward; to pitch or tumble down.

Though castles topple on their warders' heads.
Shak.

Topple transitive verb To throw down; to overturn.

He topple crags from the precipice.
Longfellow.

Tops-and-bottoms noun plural Small rolls of dough, baked, cut in halves, and then browned in an oven, -- used as food for infants.

'T is said that her top-and-bottoms were gilt.
Hood.

Topsail noun (Nautical) In a square-rigged vessel, the sail next above the lowermost sail on a mast. This sail is the one most frequently reefed or furled in working the ship. In a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, the sail set upon and above the gaff. See Cutter , Schooner , Sail , and Ship .

Topsail schooner . (Nautical) See Schooner , and Illustration in Appendix.

Topsman noun ; plural Topsmen
1. The chief drover of those who drive a herd of cattle. P. Cyc.

2. The uppermost sawyer in a saw pit; a topman. Simmonds.

Topsoil noun The upper layer of soil; surface soil.

Topsoiling noun (Engineering) The act or art of taking off the top soil of land before an excavation or embankment is begun.

Topstone noun A stone that is placed on the top, or which forms the top.

Topsy-turvy adverb [ Earlier topside- turvey , topsy-tervy ; probably for top so turvy ; that is, the top as turvy, as it were turvy; where turvy probably means, overturned, from AS . torfian to throw.] In an inverted posture; with the top or head downward; upside down; as, to turn a carriage topsy-turvy .

Toque (tōk) noun [ French toque ; of Celtic origin; confer W. toc .]
1. A kind of cap worn in the 16th century, and copied in modern fashions; -- called also toquet .

His velvet toque stuck as airily as ever upon the side of his head.
Motley.

2. (Zoology) A variety of the bonnet monkey.

Toquet noun See Toque , 1.

Tor noun [ Anglo-Saxon torr ; confer Gael. torr . Confer Tower .]


1. A tower; a turret. [ R.] Ray.

2. High-pointed hill; a rocky pinnacle. [ Prov. Eng.]

A rolling range of dreary moors, unbroken by tor or tree.
C. Kingsley.

Torace, Torase transitive verb [ Prefix to- + OE . r...sen to rage.] To scratch to pieces. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Torah To"ra noun ; plural Toroth . [ Hebrew tōrāh .] (Jewish Lit.) (a) A law; a precept.

A considerable body of priestly Toroth .
S. R. Driver.

(b) Divine instruction; revelation.

Tora , . . . before the time of Malachi, is generally used of the revelations of God's will made through the prophets.
T. K. Cheyne.

(c) The Pentateuch or "Law of Moses."

The Hebrew Bible is divided into three parts: (1) The Torah , "Law," or Pentateuch. (2) The Prophets . . . (3) The Kethubim, or the "Writings," generally termed Hagiographa.
C. H. H. Wright.

Toran To"ra*na noun [ Sanskrit tōrana an arch, a gate.] (Indian Arch.) A gateway, commonly of wood, but sometimes of stone, consisting of two upright pillars carrying one to three transverse lintels. It is often minutely carved with symbolic sculpture, and serves as a monumental approach to a Buddhist temple.

Torbernite noun [ So named after Torber Bergmann, a Swedish chemist.] (Min.) A mineral occurring in emerald-green tabular crystals having a micaceous structure. It is a hydrous phosphate of uranium and copper. Called also copper uranite , and chalcolite .

Torc (tôrk) noun Same as Torque , 1.

Torch (tôrch) noun [ Middle English torche , French torche a torch, rag, wisp, pad; probably from a derivative of Latin torquere , tortum , to twist, because twisted like a rope; confer French torcher to rub, wipe, Italian topcia a torch, torciare to wrap, twist, Old French torse a torse. Confer Torture .] A light or luminary formed of some combustible substance, as of resinous wood; a large candle or flambeau, or a lamp giving a large, flaring flame.

They light the nuptial torch .
Milton.

Torch thistle . (Botany) See under Thistle .

Torch race A race by men carrying torches, as in ancient Greece.

Torchbearer noun One whose office it is to carry a torch.

Torcher noun One who gives light with a torch, or as if with a torch. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Torchlight noun The light of a torch, or of torches. Also adjectively; as, a torchlight procession.

Torchon lace [ French torchon a kind of coarse napkin.] a simple thread lace worked upon a pillow with coarse thread; also, a similar lace made by machinery.

Torchon paper [ French papier torchon .] Paper with a rough surface; esp., handmade paper of great hardness for the use of painters in water colors.

Torchwood noun (Botany) The inflammable wood of certain trees ( Amyris balsamifera , A. Floridana , etc.); also, the trees themselves.

Torchwort noun (Botany) The common mullein, the stalks of which, dipped in suet, anciently served for torches. Called also torch , and hig-taper .

Tore imperfect of Tear .

Tore noun [ Probably from the root of tear ; confer W. tór a break, cut, tóri to break, cut.] The dead grass that remains on mowing land in winter and spring. [ Prov. Eng.] Mortimer.

Tore noun [ See Torus .]
1. (Architecture) Same as Torus .

2. (Geom.) (a) The surface described by the circumference of a circle revolving about a straight line in its own plane. (b) The solid inclosed by such a surface; -- sometimes called an anchor ring .