Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Scaffolding noun
1. A scaffold; a supporting framework; as, the scaffolding of the body. Pope.

2. Materials for building scaffolds.

Scaglia noun [ Italian scaglia a scale, a shell, a chip of marble.] A reddish variety of limestone.

Scagliola noun [ Italian scagliuola , dim. of scaglia . See Scaglia .] An imitation of any veined and ornamental stone, as marble, formed by a substratum of finely ground gypsum mixed with glue, the surface of which, while soft, is variegated with splinters of marble, spar, granite, etc., and subsequently colored and polished.

Scala noun ; plural Scalæ . [ Latin , a ladder.]
1. (Surg.) A machine formerly employed for reducing dislocations of the humerus.

2. (Anat.) A term applied to any one of the three canals of the cochlea.

Scalable adjective Capable of being scaled.

Scalade, Scalado noun (Mil.) See Escalade . Fairfax.

Scalar noun (Math.) In the quaternion analysis, a quantity that has magnitude, but not direction; -- distinguished from a vector , which has both magnitude and direction.

Scalaria noun [ Latin , flight of steps.] (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of marine gastropods of the genus Scalaria , or family Scalaridæ , having elongated spiral turreted shells, with rounded whorls, usually crossed by ribs or varices. The color is generally white or pale. Called also ladder shell , and wentletrap . See Ptenoglossa , and Wentletrap .

Scalariform adjective [ Latin scalare , scalaria , staircase, ladder + -form : confer French scalariforme .]
1. Resembling a ladder in form or appearance; having transverse bars or markings like the rounds of a ladder; as, the scalariform cells and scalariform pits in some plants.

2. (Zoology) Like or pertaining to a scalaria.

Scalary adjective [ Latin scalaris , from scalae , plural scala , staircase, ladder.] Resembling a ladder; formed with steps. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.

Scalawag noun A scamp; a scapegrace. [ Spelt also scallawag .] [ Slang, U.S.] Bartlett.

Scald transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Scalded ; present participle & verbal noun Scalding .] [ Old French eschalder , eschauder , escauder , French échauder , from Latin excaldare ; ex + caldus , calidus , warm, hot. See Ex , and Caldron .]
1. To burn with hot liquid or steam; to pain or injure by contact with, or immersion in, any hot fluid; as, to scald the hand.

Mine own tears
Do scald like molten lead.

Here the blue flames of scalding brimstone fall.

2. To expose to a boiling or violent heat over a fire, or in hot water or other liquor; as, to scald milk or meat.

Scald noun A burn, or injury to the skin or flesh, by some hot liquid, or by steam.

Scald adjective [ For scalled . See Scall .]
1. Affected with the scab; scabby. Shak.

2. Scurvy; paltry; as, scald rhymers. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Scald crow (Zoology) , the hooded crow. [ Ireland] -- Scald head (Medicine) , a name popularly given to several diseases of the scalp characterized by pustules (the dried discharge of which forms scales) and by falling out of the hair.

Scald noun Scurf on the head. See Scall . Spenser.

Scald (skăld or skald; 277) noun [ Icelandic skāld .] One of the ancient Scandinavian poets and historiographers; a reciter and singer of heroic poems, eulogies, etc., among the Norsemen; more rarely, a bard of any of the ancient Teutonic tribes. [ Written also skald .]

A war song such as was of yore chanted on the field of battle by the scalds of the yet heathen Saxons.
Sir W. Scott.

Scalder noun A Scandinavian poet; a scald.

Scaldfish noun [ Scald , adjective + fish .] (Zoology) A European flounder ( Arnoglossus laterna , or Psetta arnoglossa ); -- called also megrim , and smooth sole .

Scaldic adjective Of or pertaining to the scalds of the Norsemen; as, scaldic poetry.

Scale (skāl) noun [ Anglo-Saxon scāle ; perhaps influenced by the kindred Icelandic skāl balance, dish, akin also to Dutch schaal a scale, bowl, shell, German schale , Old High German scāla , Danish skaal drinking cup, bowl, dish, and perhaps to English scale of a fish. Confer Scale of a fish, Skull the brain case.]
1. The dish of a balance; hence, the balance itself; an instrument or machine for weighing; as, to turn the scale ; -- chiefly used in the plural when applied to the whole instrument or apparatus for weighing. Also used figuratively.

Long time in even scale
The battle hung.

The scales are turned; her kindness weighs no more
Now than my vows.

2. plural (Astron.) The sign or constellation Libra.

Platform scale . See under Platform .

Scale transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Scaled ; present participle & verbal noun Scaling .] To weigh or measure according to a scale; to measure; also, to grade or vary according to a scale or system.

Scaling his present bearing with his past.

To scale, or scale down , a debt, wages, etc. , to reduce a debt, etc., according to a fixed ratio or scale. [ U.S.]

Scale noun [ Confer Anglo-Saxon scealu , scalu , a shell, parings; akin to Dutch schaal , German schale , Old High German scala , Dan. & Swedish skal a shell, Danish skiæl a fish scale, Goth. skalja tile, and English shale , shell , and perhaps also to scale of a balance; but perhaps rather from Old French escale , escaile , French écaille scale of a fish, and écale shell of beans, pease, eggs, nuts, of German origin, and akin to Goth. skalja , German schale . See Shale .]
1. (Anat.) One of the small, thin, membranous, bony or horny pieces which form the covering of many fishes and reptiles, and some mammals, belonging to the dermal part of the skeleton, or dermoskeleton. See Cycloid , Ctenoid , and Ganoid .

Fish that, with their fins and shining scales ,
Glide under the green wave.

2. Hence, any layer or leaf of metal or other material, resembling in size and thinness the scale of a fish; as, a scale of iron, of bone, etc.

3. (Zoology) One of the small scalelike structures covering parts of some invertebrates, as those on the wings of Lepidoptera and on the body of Thysanura; the elytra of certain annelids. See Lepidoptera .

4. (Zoology) A scale insect. (See below.)

5. (Botany) A small appendage like a rudimentary leaf, resembling the scales of a fish in form, and often in arrangement; as, the scale of a bud, of a pine cone, and the like. The name is also given to the chaff on the stems of ferns.

6. The thin metallic side plate of the handle of a pocketknife. See Illust. of Pocketknife .

7. An incrustation deposit on the inside of a vessel in which water is heated, as a steam boiler.

8. (Metal.) The thin oxide which forms on the surface of iron forgings. It consists essentially of the magnetic oxide, Fe 3 O 4 . Also, a similar coating upon other metals.

Covering scale (Zoology) , a hydrophyllium. -- Ganoid scale . (Zoology) See under Ganoid . -- Scale armor (Mil.) , armor made of small metallic scales overlapping, and fastened upon leather or cloth. -- Scale beetle (Zoology) , the tiger beetle. -- Scale carp (Zoology) , a carp having normal scales. -- Scale insect (Zoology) , any one of numerous species of small hemipterous insects belonging to the family Coccidæ , in which the females, when adult, become more or less scalelike in form. They are found upon the leaves and twigs of various trees and shrubs, and often do great damage to fruit trees. See Orange scale ,under Orange . -- Scale moss (Botany) , any leafy-stemmed moss of the order Hepaticæ ; -- so called from the small imbricated scalelike leaves of most of the species. See Hepatica , 2, and Jungermannia .

Scale transitive verb
1. To strip or clear of scale or scales; as, to scale a fish; to scale the inside of a boiler.

2. To take off in thin layers or scales, as tartar from the teeth; to pare off, as a surface. "If all the mountains were scaled , and the earth made even." T. Burnet.

3. To scatter; to spread. [ Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

4. (Gun.) To clean, as the inside of a cannon, by the explosion of a small quantity of powder. Totten.

Scale intransitive verb
1. To separate and come off in thin layers or laminæ; as, some sandstone scales by exposure.

Those that cast their shell are the lobster and crab; the old skins are found, but the old shells never; so it is likely that they scale off.

2. To separate; to scatter. [ Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

Scale noun [ Latin scalae , plural, scala staircase, ladder; akin to scandere to climb. See Scan ; confer Escalade .]
1. A ladder; a series of steps; a means of ascending. [ Obsolete]

2. Hence, anything graduated, especially when employed as a measure or rule, or marked by lines at regular intervals. Specifically: (a) A mathematical instrument, consisting of a slip of wood, ivory, or metal, with one or more sets of spaces graduated and numbered on its surface, for measuring or laying off distances, etc., as in drawing, plotting, and the like. See Gunter's scale . (b) A series of spaces marked by lines, and representing proportionately larger distances; as, a scale of miles, yards, feet, etc., for a map or plan. (c) A basis for a numeral system; as, the decimal scale ; the binary scale , etc. (d) (Mus.) The graduated series of all the tones, ascending or descending, from the keynote to its octave; -- called also the gamut . It may be repeated through any number of octaves. See Chromatic scale , Diatonic scale , Major scale , and Minor scale , under Chromatic , Diatonic , Major , and Minor .

3. Gradation; succession of ascending and descending steps and degrees; progressive series; scheme of comparative rank or order; as, a scale of being.

There is a certain scale of duties . . . which for want of studying in right order, all the world is in confusion.

4. Relative dimensions, without difference in proportion of parts; size or degree of the parts or components in any complex thing, compared with other like things; especially, the relative proportion of the linear dimensions of the parts of a drawing, map, model, etc., to the dimensions of the corresponding parts of the object that is represented; as, a map on a scale of an inch to a mile.

Scale of chords , a graduated scale on which are given the lengths of the chords of arcs from 0° to 90° in a circle of given radius, -- used in measuring given angles and in plotting angles of given numbers of degrees.

Scale transitive verb [ Confer Italian scalare , from Latin scalae , scala . See Scale a ladder.] To climb by a ladder, or as if by a ladder; to ascend by steps or by climbing; to clamber up; as, to scale the wall of a fort.

Oft have I scaled the craggy oak.

Scale intransitive verb To lead up by steps; to ascend. [ Obsolete]

Satan from hence, now on the lower stair,
That scaled by steps of gold to heaven-gate,
Looks down with wonder.

Scale-winged adjective (Zoology) Having the wings covered with small scalelike structures, as the Lepidoptera; scaly-winged.

Scaleback noun (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of marine annelids of the family Polynoidæ , and allies, which have two rows of scales, or elytra, along the back. See Illust. under Chætopoda .

Scalebeam noun
1. The lever or beam of a balance; the lever of a platform scale, to which the poise for weighing is applied.

2. A weighing apparatus with a sliding weight, resembling a steelyard.

Scaleboard noun [ 3d scale + board .]
1. (Print.) A thin slip of wood used to justify a page. [ Obsolete] Crabb.

2. A thin veneer of leaf of wood used for covering the surface of articles of furniture, and the like.

Scaleboard plane , a plane for cutting from a board a wide shaving forming a scaleboard.

Scaled adjective
1. Covered with scales, or scalelike structures; -- said of a fish, a reptile, a moth, etc.

2. Without scales, or with the scales removed; as, scaled herring.

3. (Zoology) Having feathers which in form, color, or arrangement somewhat resemble scales; as, the scaled dove.

Scaled dove (Zoology) , any American dove of the genus Scardafella . Its colored feather tips resemble scales.

Scaleless adjective Destitute of scales.

Scalene adjective [ Latin scalenus , Greek ...: confer French scalène .]
1. (Geom.) (a) Having the sides and angles unequal; -- said of a triangle. (b) Having the axis inclined to the base, as a cone.

2. (Anat.) (a) Designating several triangular muscles called scalene muscles . (b) Of or pertaining to the scalene muscles.

Scalene muscles (Anat.) , a group of muscles, usually three on each side in man, extending from the cervical vertebræ to the first and second ribs.

Scalene noun (Geom.) A triangle having its sides and angles unequal.

Scalenohedral (skȧ*lē`no*hē"dr a l) adjective (Crystallog.) Of or pertaining to a scalenohedron.

Scalenohedron (-drŏn) noun [ Greek skalhno`s uneven + "e`dra seat, base.] (Crystallog.) A pyramidal form under the rhombohedral system, inclosed by twelve faces, each a scalene triangle.

Scaler noun One who, or that which, scales; specifically, a dentist's instrument for removing tartar from the teeth.

Scaliness noun The state of being scaly; roughness.

Scaling (skāl"ĭng) adjective
1. Adapted for removing scales, as from a fish; as, a scaling knife; adapted for removing scale, as from the interior of a steam boiler; as, a scaling hammer, bar, etc.

2. Serving as an aid in clambering; as, a scaling ladder, used in assaulting a fortified place.

Scaliola noun Same as Scagliola .

Scall noun [ Icelandic skalli a bald head. Confer Scald , adjective ] A scurf or scabby disease, especially of the scalp.

It is a dry scall , even a leprosy upon the head.
Lev. xiii. 30.

Scall adjective Scabby; scurfy. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Scalled adjective Scabby; scurfy; scall. [ Obsolete] "With scalled brows black." Chaucer.

Scalled head . (Medicine) See Scald head , under Scald , adjective

Scallion noun [ Old French escalone , eschaloingne , Latin caepa Ascalonia onion of Ascalon; caepa onion + Ascalonius of Ascalon, from Ascalo Ascalon, a town in Palestine. Confer Shallot .]
1. (Botany) A kind of small onion ( Allium Ascalonicum ), native of Palestine; the eschalot, or shallot.

2. Any onion which does not "bottom out," but remains with a thick stem like a leek. Amer. Cyc.

Scallop noun [ Old French escalope a shell, probably of German or Dutch origin, and akin to English scale of a fish ; confer Dutch schelp shell. See Scale of a fish, and confer Escalop .] [ Written also scollop .]
1. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of marine bivalve mollusks of the genus Pecten and allied genera of the family Pectinidæ . The shell is usually radially ribbed, and the edge is therefore often undulated in a characteristic manner. The large adductor muscle of some the species is much used as food. One species ( Vola Jacobæus ) occurs on the coast of Palestine, and its shell was formerly worn by pilgrims as a mark that they had been to the Holy Land. Called also fan shell . See Pecten , 2.

» The common edible scallop of the Eastern United States is Pecten irradians ; the large sea scallop, also used as food, is P. Clintonius, or tenuicostatus .

2. One of series of segments of circles joined at their extremities, forming a border like the edge or surface of a scallop shell.

3. One of the shells of a scallop; also, a dish resembling a scallop shell.

Scallop transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Scalloped ; present participle & verbal noun Scalloping .]
1. To mark or cut the edge or border of into segments of circles, like the edge or surface of a scallop shell. See Scallop , noun , 2.

2. (Cookery) To bake in scallop shells or dishes; to prepare with crumbs of bread or cracker, and bake. See Scalloped oysters , below.

Scalloped adjective
1. Furnished with a scallop; made or done with or in a scallop.

2. Having the edge or border cut or marked with segments of circles. See Scallop , noun , 2.

3. (Cookery) Baked in a scallop; cooked with crumbs.

Scalloped oysters (Cookery) , opened oysters baked in a deep dish with alternate layers of bread or cracker crumbs, seasoned with pepper, nutmeg, and butter. This was at first done in scallop shells.

Scalloper noun One who fishes for scallops.

Scalloping noun Fishing for scallops.