Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Samoan adjective Of or pertaining to the Samoan Islands (formerly called Navigators' Islands) in the South Pacific Ocean, or their inhabitants. -- noun An inhabitant of the Samoan Islands.

Samovar noun [ Russian samovar' .] A metal urn used in Russia for making tea. It is filled with water, which is heated by charcoal placed in a pipe, with chimney attached, which passes through the urn.

Samoyedes noun plural ; sing. Samoyede (Ethnol.) An ignorant and degraded Turanian tribe which occupies a portion of Northern Russia and a part of Siberia.

Samp noun [ From American Indian sāpac , saupac , made soft, or thinned.] An article of food consisting of maize broken or bruised, which is cooked by boiling, and usually eaten with milk; coarse hominy.

Samp noun [ Massachusetts Indian nasàump unparched meal porridge.] An article of food consisting of maize broken or bruised, which is cooked by boiling, and usually eaten with milk; coarse hominy. [ U. S.]

Sampan noun (Nautical) A Chinese boat from twelve to fifteen feet long, covered with a house, and sometimes used as a permanent habitation on the inland waters. [ Written also sanpan .]

Samphire noun [ French l'herbe de Saint Pierre . See Saint , and Petrel .] (Botany) (a) A fleshy, suffrutescent, umbelliferous European plant ( Crithmum maritimum ). It grows among rocks and on cliffs along the seacoast, and is used for pickles.

Hangs one that gathers samphire , dreadful trade!
Shak.

(b) The species of glasswort ( Salicornia herbacea ); -- called in England marsh samphire . (c) A seashore shrub ( Borrichia arborescens ) of the West Indies.

Golden samphire . See under Golden .

Sample noun [ Middle English sample , asaumple , Old French essample , example , from Latin exemplum . See Example , and confer Ensample , Sampler .]
1. Example; pattern. [ Obsolete] Spenser. "A sample to the youngest." Shak.

Thus he concludes, and every hardy knight
His sample followed.
Fairfax.

2. A part of anything presented for inspection, or shown as evidence of the quality of the whole; a specimen; as, goods are often purchased by samples .

I design this but for a sample of what I hope more fully to discuss.
Woodward.

Syn. -- Specimen; example. See Specimen .

Sample transitive verb
1. To make or show something similar to; to match. Bp. Hall.

2. To take or to test a sample or samples of; as, to sample sugar, teas, wools, cloths.

Sampler noun [ See Exampler , Exemplar .]
1. One who makes up samples for inspection; one who examines samples, or by samples; as, a wool sampler .

2. A pattern; a specimen; especially, a collection of needlework patterns, as letters, borders, etc., to be used as samples, or to display the skill of the worker.

Susie dear, bring your sampler and Mrs. Schumann will show you how to make that W you bothered over.
E. E. Hale.

Samshoo, Samshu noun [ Chinese san-shao thrice fired.] A spirituous liquor distilled by the Chinese from the yeasty liquor in which boiled rice has fermented under pressure. S. W. Williams.

Samson noun An Israelite of Bible record (see Judges xiii. ), distinguished for his great strength; hence, a man of extraordinary physical strength.

Samson post . (a) (Nautical) A strong post resting on the keelson, and supporting a beam of the deck; also, a temporary or movable pillar carrying a leading block or pulley for various purposes. Brande & C. (b) In deep-well boring, the post which supports the walking beam of the apparatus.

Samurai noun plural & sing. [ Jap.] In the former feudal system of Japan, the class or a member of the class, of military retainers of the daimios, constituting the gentry or lesser nobility. They possessed power of life and death over the commoners, and wore two swords as their distinguishing mark. Their special rights and privileges were abolished with the fall of feudalism in 1871.

San José scale A very destructive scale insect ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) that infests the apple, pear, and other fruit trees. So called because first introduced into the United States at San José , California.

Sanability noun The quality or state of being sanable; sanableness; curableness.

Sanable adjective [ Latin sanabilis , from sanare to heal, from sanus sound, healthy. See Sane .] Capable of being healed or cured; susceptible of remedy.

Syn. -- Remediable; curable; healable.

Sanableness noun The quality of being sanable.

Sanation noun [ Latin sanatio . See Sanable .] The act of healing or curing. [ Obsolete] Wiseman.

Sanative adjective [ Late Latin sanativus .] Having the power to cure or heal; healing; tending to heal; sanatory. -- San"a*tive*ness , noun

Sanatorium noun [ New Latin See Sanatory .] An establishment for the treatment of the sick; a resort for invalids. See Sanitarium .

Sanatory adjective [ Late Latin sanatorius , from Latin sanare to heal. See Sanable .] Conducive to health; tending to cure; healing; curative; sanative.

Sanatory ordinances for the protection of public health, such as quarantine, fever hospitals, draining, etc.
De Quincey.

» Sanatory and sanitary should not be confounded. Sanatory signifies conducive to health , while sanitary has the more general meaning of pertaining to health .

Sanbenito noun [ Spanish & Portuguese sambenito , contr. from Latin saccus sack + benedictus blessed.]
1. Anciently, a sackcloth coat worn by penitents on being reconciled to the church.

2. A garnment or cap, or sometimes both, painted with flames, figures, etc., and worn by persons who had been examined by the Inquisition and were brought forth for punishment at the auto-da-fé.

Sance-bell, Sancte bell noun See Sanctus bell , under Sanctus .

Sancho noun [ Spanish , a proper name.] (Card Playing) The nine of trumps in sancho pedro.

Sancho pedro [ Spanish Pedro Peter.] (Card Playing) A variety of auction pitch in which the nine ( sancho ) and five ( pedro ) of trumps are added as counting cards at their pip value, and the ten of trumps counts game.

Sanctificate transitive verb [ Latin sanctificatus , past participle of sanctificare .] To sanctify. [ Obsolete] Barrow.

Sanctification noun [ Latin sanctificatio : confer French sanctification .]
1. The act of sanctifying or making holy; the state of being sanctified or made holy; esp. (Theol.) , the act of God's grace by which the affections of men are purified, or alienated from sin and the world, and exalted to a supreme love to God; also, the state of being thus purified or sanctified.

God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth.
2 Thess. ii. 13.

2. The act of consecrating, or of setting apart for a sacred purpose; consecration. Bp. Burnet.

Sanctified adjective Made holy; also, made to have the air of sanctity; sanctimonious.

Sanctifier noun One who sanctifies, or makes holy; specifically, the Holy Spirit.

Sanctify transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Sanctified ; present participle & verbal noun Sanctifying .] [ French sanctifier , Latin sanctificare ; sanctus holy + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Saint , and -fy .]
1. To make sacred or holy; to set apart to a holy or religious use; to consecrate by appropriate rites; to hallow.

God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it.
Gen. ii. 3.

Moses . . . sanctified Aaron and his garments.
Lev. viii. 30.

2. To make free from sin; to cleanse from moral corruption and pollution; to purify.

Sanctify them through thy truth.
John xvii. 17.

3. To make efficient as the means of holiness; to render productive of holiness or piety.

A means which his mercy hath sanctified so to me as to make me repent of that unjust act.
Eikon Basilike.

4. To impart or impute sacredness, venerableness, inviolability, title to reverence and respect, or the like, to; to secure from violation; to give sanction to.

The holy man, amazed at what he saw,
Made haste to sanctify the bliss by law.
Dryden.

Truth guards the poet, sanctifies the line.
Pope.

Sanctifyingly adverb In a manner or degree tending to sanctify or make holy.

Sanctiloquent adjective [ Latin sanctus holy + loquens , present participle of loqui to speak.] Discoursing on heavenly or holy things, or in a holy manner.

Sanctimonial adjective [ Confer Late Latin sanctimonialis . ] Sanctimonious. [ Obsolete]

Sanctimonious adjective [ See Sanctimony .]
1. Possessing sanctimony; holy; sacred; saintly. Shak.

2. Making a show of sanctity; affecting saintliness; hypocritically devout or pious. "Like the sanctimonious pirate." Shak.

-- Sanc`ti*mo"ni*ous*ly , adverb -- Sanc`ti*mo"ni*ous*ness , noun

Sanctimony noun [ Latin sanctimonia , from sanctus holy: confer Old French sanctimonie . See Saint .] Holiness; devoutness; scrupulous austerity; sanctity; especially, outward or artificial saintliness; assumed or pretended holiness; hypocritical devoutness.

Her pretense is a pilgrimage; . . . which holy undertaking with most austere sanctimony she accomplished.
Shak.

Sanction noun [ Latin sanctio , from sancire , sanctum to render sacred or inviolable, to fix unalterably: confer French sanction . See Saint .]
1. Solemn or ceremonious ratification; an official act of a superior by which he ratifies and gives validity to the act of some other person or body; establishment or furtherance of anything by giving authority to it; confirmation; approbation.

The strictest professors of reason have added the sanction of their testimony.
I. Watts.

2. Anything done or said to enforce the will, law, or authority of another; as, legal sanctions .

Syn. -- Ratification; authorization; authority; countenance; support.

Sanction transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Sanctioned ; present participle & verbal noun Sanctioning .] To give sanction to; to ratify; to confirm; to approve.

Would have counseled, or even sanctioned , such perilous experiments.
De Quincey.

Syn. -- To ratify; confirm; authorize; countenance.

Sanctionary adjective Of, pertaining to, or giving, sanction.

Sanctitude noun [ Latin sanctitudo .] Holiness; sacredness; sanctity. [ R.] Milton.

Sanctity noun ; plural Sanctities . [ Latin sanctitas , from sanctus holy. See Saint .]
1. The state or quality of being sacred or holy; holiness; saintliness; moral purity; godliness.

To sanctity she made no pretense, and, indeed, narrowly escaped the imputation of irreligion.
Macaulay.

2. Sacredness; solemnity; inviolability; religious binding force; as, the sanctity of an oath.

3. A saint or holy being. [ R.]

About him all the sanctities of heaven.
Milton.

Syn. -- Holiness; godliness; piety; devotion; goodness; purity; religiousness; sacredness; solemnity. See the Note under Religion .

Sanctuarize transitive verb To shelter by means of a sanctuary or sacred privileges. [ Obsolete] Shak.

Sanctuary noun ; plural Sanctuaries . [ Middle English seintuarie , Old French saintuaire , French sanctuaire , from Latin sanctuarium , from sanctus sacred, holy. See Saint .] A sacred place; a consecrated spot; a holy and inviolable site. Hence, specifically: (a) The most retired part of the temple at Jerusalem, called the Holy of Holies , in which was kept the ark of the covenant, and into which no person was permitted to enter except the high priest, and he only once a year, to intercede for the people; also, the most sacred part of the tabernacle; also, the temple at Jerusalem. (b) (Architecture) The most sacred part of any religious building, esp. that part of a Christian church in which the altar is placed. (c) A house consecrated to the worship of God; a place where divine service is performed; a church, temple, or other place of worship. (d) A sacred and inviolable asylum; a place of refuge and protection; shelter; refuge; protection.

These laws, whoever made them, bestowed on temples the privilege of sanctuary.
Milton.

The admirable works of painting were made fuel for the fire; but some relics of it took sanctuary under ground, and escaped the common destiny.
Dryden.

Sanctum noun [ Latin , past participle of sancire to consecrate.] A sacred place; hence, a place of retreat; a room reserved for personal use; as, an editor's sanctum .

Sanctus noun [ Latin sanctus , past participle of sancire .]
1. (Eccl.) A part of the Mass, or, in Protestant churches, a part of the communion service, of which the first words in Latin are Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus [ Holy, holy, holy]; -- called also Tersanctus .

2. (Mus.) An anthem composed for these words.

Sanctus bell , a small bell usually suspended in a bell cot at the apex of the nave roof, over the chancel arch, in mediæval churches, but a hand bell is now often used; -- so called because rung at the singing of the sanctus , at the conclusion of the ordinary of the Mass, and again at the elevation of the host. Called also Mass bell , sacring bell , saints' bell , sance-bell , sancte bell .

Sand noun [ Anglo-Saxon sand ; akin to Dutch zand , German sand , Old High German sant , Icelandic sandr , Dan. & Swedish sand , Greek ....]
1. Fine particles of stone, esp. of siliceous stone, but not reduced to dust; comminuted stone in the form of loose grains, which are not coherent when wet.

That finer matter, called sand , is no other than very small pebbles.
Woodward.

2. A single particle of such stone. [ R.] Shak.

3. The sand in the hourglass; hence, a moment or interval of time; the term or extent of one's life.

The sands are numbered that make up my life.
Shak.

4. plural Tracts of land consisting of sand, like the deserts of Arabia and Africa; also, extensive tracts of sand exposed by the ebb of the tide. "The Libyan sands ." Milton. "The sands o' Dee." C. Kingsley.

5. Courage; pluck; grit. [ Slang]

Sand badger (Zoology) , the Japanese badger ( Meles ankuma ). -- Sand bag . (a) A bag filled with sand or earth, used for various purposes, as in fortification, for ballast, etc. (b) A long bag filled with sand, used as a club by assassins. -- Sand ball , soap mixed with sand, made into a ball for use at the toilet. -- Sand bath . (a) (Chemistry) A vessel of hot sand in a laboratory, in which vessels that are to be heated are partially immersed . (b) A bath in which the body is immersed in hot sand. -- Sand bed , a thick layer of sand, whether deposited naturally or artificially; specifically, a thick layer of sand into which molten metal is run in casting, or from a reducing furnace. -- Sand birds (Zoology) , a collective name for numerous species of limicoline birds, such as the sandpipers, plovers, tattlers, and many others; -- called also shore birds . -- Sand blast , a process of engraving and cutting glass and other hard substances by driving sand against them by a steam jet or otherwise; also, the apparatus used in the process. -- Sand box . (a) A box with a perforated top or cover, for sprinkling paper with sand . (b) A box carried on locomotives, from which sand runs on the rails in front of the driving wheel, to prevent slipping. -- Sand-box tree (Botany) , a tropical American tree ( Hura crepitans ). Its fruit is a depressed many-celled woody capsule which, when completely dry, bursts with a loud report and scatters the seeds. See Illust. of Regma . -- Sand bug (Zoology) , an American anomuran crustacean ( Hippa talpoidea ) which burrows in sandy seabeaches. It is often used as bait by fishermen. See Illust. under Anomura . -- Sand canal (Zoology) , a tubular vessel having a calcareous coating, and connecting the oral ambulacral ring with the madreporic tubercle. It appears to be excretory in function. -- Sand cock (Zoology) , the redshank. [ Prov. Eng.] -- Sand collar . (Zoology) Same as Sand saucer , below. -- Sand crab . (Zoology) (a) The lady crab. (b) A land crab, or ocypodian. -- Sand crack (Far.) , a crack extending downward from the coronet, in the wall of a horse's hoof, which often causes lameness. -- Sand cricket (Zoology) , any one of several species of large terrestrial crickets of the genus Stenophelmatus and allied genera, native of the sandy plains of the Western United States. -- Sand cusk (Zoology) , any ophidioid fish. See Illust. under Ophidioid . -- Sand dab (Zoology) , a small American flounder ( Limanda ferruginea ); -- called also rusty dab . The name is also applied locally to other allied species. -- Sand darter (Zoology) , a small etheostomoid fish of the Ohio valley ( Ammocrypta pellucida ). -- Sand dollar (Zoology) , any one of several species of small flat circular sea urchins, which live on sandy bottoms, especially Echinarachnius parma of the American coast. -- Sand drift , drifting sand; also, a mound or bank of drifted sand. -- Sand eel . (Zoology) (a) A lant, or launce . (b) A slender Pacific Ocean fish of the genus Gonorhynchus , having barbels about the mouth. -- Sand flag , sandstone which splits up into flagstones. -- Sand flea . (Zoology) (a) Any species of flea which inhabits, or breeds in, sandy places, especially the common dog flea. (b) The chigoe . (c) Any leaping amphipod crustacean; a beach flea, or orchestian. See Beach flea , under Beach . -- Sand flood , a vast body of sand borne along by the wind. James Bruce. -- Sand fluke . (Zoology) (a) The sandnecker . (b) The European smooth dab ( Pleuronectes microcephalus ); -- called also kitt , marysole , smear dab , town dab . -- Sand fly (Zoology) , any one of several species of small dipterous flies of the genus Simulium , abounding on sandy shores, especially Simulium nocivum of the United States. They are very troublesome on account of their biting habits. Called also no-see-um , punky , and midge . -- Sand gall . (Geol.) See Sand pipe , below. -- Sand grass (Botany) , any species of grass which grows in sand; especially, a tufted grass ( Triplasis purpurea ) with numerous bearded joints, and acid awl-shaped leaves, growing on the Atlantic coast. -- Sand grouse (Zoology) , any one of many species of Old World birds belonging to the suborder Pterocletes, and resembling both grouse and pigeons. Called also rock grouse , rock pigeon , and ganga . They mostly belong to the genus Pterocles , as the common Indian species ( P. exustus ). The large sand grouse ( P. arenarius ), the painted sand grouse ( P. fasciatus ), and the pintail sand grouse ( P. alchata ) are also found in India. See Illust. under Pterocletes . -- Sand hill , a hill of sand; a dune. -- Sand-hill crane (Zoology) , the American brown crane ( Grus Mexicana ). -- Sand hopper (Zoology) , a beach flea; an orchestian. -- Sand hornet (Zoology) , a sand wasp. -- Sand lark . (Zoology) (a) A small lark ( Alaudala raytal ), native of India . (b) A small sandpiper, or plover, as the ringneck, the sanderling, and the common European sandpiper . (c) The Australian red- capped dotterel ( Ægialophilus ruficapillus ); -- called also red-necked plover . -- Sand launce (Zoology) , a lant, or launce. -- Sand lizard (Zoology) , a common European lizard ( Lacerta agilis ). -- Sand martin (Zoology) , the bank swallow. -- Sand mole (Zoology) , the coast rat. -- Sand monitor (Zoology) , a large Egyptian lizard ( Monitor arenarius ) which inhabits dry localities. -- Sand mouse (Zoology) , the dunlin. [ Prov. Eng.] -- Sand myrtle . (Botany) See under Myrtle . -- Sand partridge (Zoology) , either of two small Asiatic partridges of the genus Ammoperdix . The wings are long and the tarsus is spurless. One species ( A. Heeji ) inhabits Palestine and Arabia. The other species ( A. Bonhami ), inhabiting Central Asia, is called also seesee partridge , and teehoo . -- Sand picture , a picture made by putting sand of different colors on an adhesive surface. -- Sand pike . (Zoology) (a) The sauger . (b) The lizard fish. -- Sand pillar , a sand storm which takes the form of a whirling pillar in its progress in desert tracts like those of the Sahara and Mongolia. -- Sand pipe (Geol.) , a tubular cavity, from a few inches to several feet in depth, occurring especially in calcareous rocks, and often filled with gravel, sand, etc.; -- called also sand gall . -- Sand pride (Zoology) , a small British lamprey now considered to be the young of larger species; -- called also sand prey . -- Sand pump , in artesian well boring, a long, slender bucket with a valve at the bottom for raising sand from the well. -- Sand rat (Zoology) , the pocket gopher. -- Sand rock , a rock made of cemented sand. -- Sand runner (Zoology) , the turnstone. -- Sand saucer (Zoology) , the mass of egg capsules, or oöthecæ, of any mollusk of the genus Natica and allied genera. It has the shape of a bottomless saucer, and is coated with fine sand; -- called also sand collar . -- Sand screw (Zoology) , an amphipod crustacean ( Lepidactylis arenarius ), which burrows in the sandy seabeaches of Europe and America. -- Sand shark (Zoology) , an American shark ( Odontaspis littoralis ) found on the sandy coasts of the Eastern United States; -- called also gray shark , and dogfish shark . See Illust. under Remora . -- Sand skink (Zoology) , any one of several species of Old World lizards belonging to the genus Seps ; as, the ocellated sand skink ( Seps ocellatus ) of Southern Europe. -- Sand skipper (Zoology) , a beach flea, or orchestian. -- Sand smelt (Zoology) , a silverside. -- Sand snake . (Zoology) (a) Any one of several species of harmless burrowing snakes of the genus Eryx , native of Southern Europe, Africa, and Asia, especially E. jaculus of India and E. Johnii , used by snake charmers. (b) Any innocuous South African snake of the genus Psammophis , especially P. sibilans . -- Sand snipe (Zoology) , the sandpiper. -- Sand star (Zoology) , an ophiurioid starfish living on sandy sea bottoms; a brittle star. -- Sand storm , a cloud of sand driven violently by the wind. -- Sand sucker , the sandnecker. -- Sand swallow (Zoology) , the bank swallow. See under Bank . -- Sand tube , a tube made of sand. Especially: (a) A tube of vitrified sand, produced by a stroke of lightning; a fulgurite . (b) (Zoology) Any tube made of cemented sand. (c) (Zoology) In starfishes, a tube having calcareous particles in its wall, which connects the oral water tube with the madreporic plate. -- Sand viper . (Zoology) See Hognose snake . -- Sand wasp (Zoology) , any one of numerous species of hymenopterous insects belonging to the families Pompilidæ and Spheridæ , which dig burrows in sand. The female provisions the nest with insects or spiders which she paralyzes by stinging, and which serve as food for her young.

Sand transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Sanded ; present participle & verbal noun Sanding .]
1. To sprinkle or cover with sand.

2. To drive upon the sand. [ Obsolete] Burton.

3. To bury (oysters) beneath drifting sand or mud.

4. To mix with sand for purposes of fraud; as, to sand sugar. [ Colloq.]

Sandal noun Same as Sendal .

Sails of silk and ropes of sandal .
Longfellow.

Sandal noun Sandalwood. "Fans of sandal ." Tennyson.

Sandal noun [ French sandale , Latin sandalium , Greek ..., dim. of ..., probably from Persian sandal .] (a) A kind of shoe consisting of a sole strapped to the foot; a protection for the foot, covering its lower surface, but not its upper. (b) A kind of slipper. (c) An overshoe with parallel openings across the instep.

Sandaled adjective
1. Wearing sandals.

The measured footfalls of his sandaled feet.
Longfellow.

2. Made like a sandal.