Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Anglo-Saxon sealt
; akin to Old Saxon & OFries. salt
, Dutch zout
, German salz
, Icelandic , Swedish , & Danish salt
, Latin sal
, Greek ..., Russian sole
, Ir. & Gael. salann
, W. halen
, of unknown origin. Confer Sal
.] 1. The chloride of sodium, a substance used for seasoning food, for the preservation of meat, etc. It is found native in the earth, and is also produced, by evaporation and crystallization, from sea water and other water impregnated with saline particles. 2. Hence, flavor; taste; savor; smack; seasoning.
Though we are justices and doctors and churchmen . . . we have some salt of our youth in us. Shak. 3. Hence, also, piquancy; wit; sense; as, Attic salt . 4. A dish for salt at table; a saltcellar.
I out and bought some things; among others, a dozen of silver salts . Pepys. 5. A sailor; -- usually qualified by old .
Around the door are generally to be seen, laughing and gossiping, clusters of old salts . Hawthorne. 6. (Chemistry) The neutral compound formed by the union of an acid and a base; thus, sulphuric acid and iron form the salt sulphate of iron or green vitriol.
» Except in case of ammonium salts, accurately speaking, it is the acid radical which unites with the base or basic radical, with the elimination of hydrogen, of water, or of analogous compounds as side products. In the case of diacid and triacid bases, and of dibasic and tribasic acids, the mutual neutralization may vary in degree, producing respectively basic
, or acid
salts. See Phrases below. 7. Fig.: That which preserves from corruption or error; that which purifies; a corrective; an antiseptic; also, an allowance or deduction; as, his statements must be taken with a grain of salt .
Ye are the salt of the earth. Matt. v. 13. 8. plural Any mineral salt used as an aperient or cathartic, especially Epsom salts, Rochelle salt, or Glauber's salt. 9. plural Marshes flooded by the tide.
[ Prov. Eng.] Above the salt
, Below the salt
, phrases which have survived the old custom, in the houses of people of rank, of placing a large saltcellar near the middle of a long table, the places above which were assigned to the guests of distinction, and those below to dependents, inferiors, and poor relations. See Saltfoot .
His fashion is not to take knowledge of him that is beneath him in clothes. He never drinks below the salt . B. Jonson.
-- Acid salt (Chemistry) (a) A salt derived from an acid which has several replaceable hydrogen atoms which are only partially exchanged for metallic atoms or basic radicals; as, acid potassium sulphate is an acid salt . (b) A salt, whatever its constitution, which merely gives an acid reaction; thus, copper sulphate, which is composed of a strong acid united with a weak base, is an acid salt in this sense, though theoretically it is a neutral salt.
-- Alkaline salt (Chemistry)
, a salt which gives an alkaline reaction, as sodium carbonate.
-- Amphid salt (Old Chem.)
, a salt of the oxy type, formerly regarded as composed of two oxides, an acid and a basic oxide.
[ Obsolescent] -- Basic salt (Chemistry) (a) A salt which contains more of the basic constituent than is required to neutralize the acid
. (b) An alkaline salt.
-- Binary salt (Chemistry)
, a salt of the oxy type conveniently regarded as composed of two ingredients (analogously to a haloid salt), viz., a metal and an acid radical.
-- Double salt (Chemistry)
, a salt regarded as formed by the union of two distinct salts, as common alum, potassium aluminium sulphate. See under Double .
-- Epsom salts
. See in the Vocabulary.
-- Essential salt (Old Chem.)
, a salt obtained by crystallizing plant juices.
-- Ethereal salt
. (Chemistry) See under Ethereal .
-- Glauber's salt
. See in Vocabulary.
-- Haloid salt (Chemistry)
, a simple salt of a halogen acid, as sodium chloride.
-- Microcosmic salt
. See under Microcosmic .
-- Neutral salt
. (Chemistry) (a) A salt in which the acid and base (in theory) neutralize each other
. (b) A salt which gives a neutral reaction.
-- Oxy salt (Chemistry)
, a salt derived from an oxygen acid.
-- Per salt (Old Chem.)
, a salt supposed to be derived from a peroxide base or analogous compound.
[ Obsolete] -- Permanent salt
, a salt which undergoes no change on exposure to the air.
-- Proto salt (Chemistry)
, a salt derived from a protoxide base or analogous compound.
-- Rochelle salt
. See under Rochelle .
-- Salt of amber (Old Chem.)
, succinic acid.
-- Salt of colcothar (Old Chem.)
, green vitriol, or sulphate of iron.
-- Salt of hartshorn
. (Old Chem.) (a) Sal ammoniac, or ammonium chloride
. (b) Ammonium carbonate. Confer Spirit of hartshorn , under Hartshorn .
-- Salt of lemons
. (Chemistry) See Salt of sorrel , below.
-- Salt of Saturn (Old Chem.)
, sugar of lead; lead acetate; -- the alchemical name of lead being Saturn .
-- Salt of Seignette
. Same as Rochelle salt .
-- Salt of soda (Old Chem.)
, sodium carbonate.
-- Salt of sorrel (Old Chem.)
, acid potassium oxalate, or potassium quadroxalate, used as a solvent for ink stains; -- so called because found in the sorrel, or Oxalis. Also sometimes inaccurately called salt of lemon .
-- Salt of tartar (Old Chem.)
, potassium carbonate; -- so called because formerly made by heating cream of tartar, or potassium tartrate.
[ Obsolete] -- Salt of Venus (Old Chem.)
, blue vitriol; copper sulphate; -- the alchemical name of copper being Venus .
-- Salt of wisdom
. See Alembroth .
-- Sedative salt (Old Med. Chem.)
, boric acid.
-- Sesqui salt (Chemistry)
, a salt derived from a sesquioxide base or analogous compound.
-- Spirit of salt
. (Chemistry) See under Spirit .
-- Sulpho salt (Chemistry)
, a salt analogous to an oxy salt, but containing sulphur in place of oxygen.
[ Compar. Salter
; superl. Saltest
.] [ Anglo-Saxon sealt
. See Salt
] 1. Of or relating to salt; abounding in, or containing, salt; prepared or preserved with, or tasting of, salt; salted; as, salt beef; salt water.
tears." Chaucer. 2. Overflowed with, or growing in, salt water; as, a salt marsh; salt grass. 3. Fig.: Bitter; sharp; pungent.
I have a salt and sorry rheum offends me. Shak. 4. Fig.: Salacious; lecherous; lustful. Shak. Salt acid (Chemistry)
, hydrochloric acid.
-- Salt block
, an apparatus for evaporating brine; a salt factory. Knight.
-- Salt bottom
, a flat piece of ground covered with saline efflorescences.
[ Western U.S.] Bartlett.
-- Salt cake (Chemistry)
, the white caked mass, consisting of sodium sulphate, which is obtained as the product of the first stage in the manufacture of soda, according to Leblanc's process.
-- Salt fish
. (a) Salted fish, especially cod, haddock, and similar fishes that have been salted and dried for food. (b) A marine fish.
-- Salt garden
, an arrangement for the natural evaporation of sea water for the production of salt, employing large shallow basins excavated near the seashore.
-- Salt gauge
, an instrument used to test the strength of brine; a salimeter.
-- Salt horse
, salted beef.
[ Slang] -- Salt junk
, hard salt beef for use at sea.
[ Slang] -- Salt lick
. See Lick , noun
-- Salt marsh
, grass land subject to the overflow of salt water.
-- Salt-marsh caterpillar (Zoology)
, an American bombycid moth ( Spilosoma acræa which is very destructive to the salt-marsh grasses and to other crops. Called also woolly bear . See Illust. under Moth , Pupa , and Woolly bear , under Woolly .
-- Salt-marsh fleabane (Botany)
, a strong-scented composite herb ( Pluchea camphorata ) with rayless purplish heads, growing in salt marshes.
-- Salt-marsh hen (Zoology)
, the clapper rail. See under Rail .
-- Salt- marsh terrapin (Zoology)
, the diamond- back.
-- Salt mine
, a mine where rock salt is obtained.
-- Salt pan
. (a) A large pan used for making salt by evaporation; also, a shallow basin in the ground where salt water is evaporated by the heat of the sun. (b) plural Salt works.
-- Salt pit
, a pit where salt is obtained or made.
-- Salt rising
, a kind of yeast in which common salt is a principal ingredient.
[ U.S.] -- Salt raker
, one who collects salt in natural salt ponds, or inclosures from the sea.
-- Salt sedative (Chemistry)
, boracic acid.
[ Obsolete] -- Salt spring
, a spring of salt water.
-- Salt tree (Botany)
, a small leguminous tree ( Halimodendron argenteum ) growing in the salt plains of the Caspian region and in Siberia.
-- Salt water
, water impregnated with salt, as that of the ocean and of certain seas and lakes; sometimes, also, tears.
Mine eyes are full of tears, I can not see; Shak.
And yet salt water blinds them not so much
But they can see a sort of traitors here.
-- Salt-water sailor
, an ocean mariner.
-- Salt-water tailor
. (Zoology) See Bluefish .
Salt transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Salted
; present participle & verbal noun Salting
.] 1. To sprinkle, impregnate, or season with salt; to preserve with salt or in brine; to supply with salt; as, to salt fish, beef, or pork; to salt cattle. 2. To fill with salt between the timbers and planks, as a ship, for the preservation of the timber. To salt a mine
, to artfully deposit minerals in a mine in order to deceive purchasers regarding its value.
[ Cant] -- To salt away
, To salt down
, to prepare with, or pack in, salt for preserving, as meat, eggs, etc.; hence, colloquially, to save, lay up, or invest sagely, as money.
Salt intransitive verb To deposit salt as a saline solution; as, the brine begins to salt .
Salt noun [ Latin saltus , from salire to leap.] The act of leaping or jumping; a leap. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.
Salt rheum (Medicine) A popular name, esp. in the United States, for various cutaneous eruptions, particularly for those of eczema. See Eczema .
Salt-green adjective Sea-green in color. Shak.
[ Latin saltans
, present participle of saltare
to dance, v. intens. from salire
to leap: confer French sautant
. See Sally
] 1. Leaping; jumping; dancing. 2. (Her.) In a leaping position; springing forward; -- applied especially to the squirrel, weasel, and rat, also to the cat, greyhound, monkey, etc.
[ Italian , from Latin saltare
to jump.] A popular Italian dance in quick 3-4 or 6-8 time, running mostly in triplets, but with a hop step at the beginning of each measure. See Tarantella .
Saltate intransitive verb
[ See Saltant
.] To leap or dance.
[ Latin saltatio
: confer French saltation
.] 1. A leaping or jumping.
Continued his saltation without pause. Sir W. Scott. 2. Beating or palpitation; as, the saltation of the great artery. 3. (Biol.) An abrupt and marked variation in the condition or appearance of a species; a sudden modification which may give rise to new races.
We greatly suspect that nature does make considerable jumps in the way of variation now and then, and that these saltations give rise to some of the gaps which appear to exist in the series of known forms. Huxley.
Saltatoria noun plural [ New Latin ] (Zoology) A division of Orthoptera including grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets.
Saltatorial adjective 1. Relating to leaping; saltatory; as, saltatorial exercises. 2. (Zoology) (a) Same as Saltatorious . (b) Of or pertaining to the Saltatoria.
Saltatorious adjective Capable of leaping; formed for leaping; saltatory; as, a saltatorious insect or leg.
[ Latin saltatorius
. See Saltant
, and confer Saltire
.] Leaping or dancing; having the power of, or used in, leaping or dancing. Saltatory evolution (Biol.)
, a theory of evolution which holds that the transmutation of species is not always gradual, but that there may come sudden and marked variations. See Saltation .
-- Saltatory spasm (Medicine)
, an affection in which pressure of the foot on a floor causes the patient to spring into the air, so as to make repeated involuntary motions of hopping and jumping. J. Ross.
Saltbush noun (Botany) An Australian plant ( Atriplex nummularia ) of the Goosefoot family.
Saltcat noun A mixture of salt, coarse meal, lime, etc., attractive to pigeons.
[ Middle English saltsaler
+ French salière
saltcellar, from Latin sal
salt. See Salt
, and confer Salary
.] Formerly a large vessel, now a small vessel of glass or other material, used for holding salt on the table.
Salter noun One who makes, sells, or applies salt; one who salts meat or fish.
Saltern noun A building or place where salt is made by boiling or by evaporation; salt works.
Saltfoot noun A large saltcellar formerly placed near the center of the table. The superior guests were seated above the saltfoot.
Saltie noun (Zoology) The European dab.
Saltigrade adjective [ Latin saltus a leap + gradi to walk, go: confer French saltigrade .] (Zoology) Having feet or legs formed for leaping.
Saltigrade noun (Zoology) One of the Saltigradæ , a tribe of spiders which leap to seize their prey.
Saltigradæ noun plural
[ New Latin See Saltigrade
.] (Zoology) A tribe of spiders including those which lie in wait and leap upon their prey; the leaping spiders.
[ Italian , literally, one who leaps or mounts upon a bench; saltare
to leap + in
in, upon + banco
a bench.] A mountebank; a quack.
[ Obsolete] [ Written also santinbanco
Saltimbancos , quacksalvers, and charlatans. Sir T. Browne.
1. The act of sprinkling, impregnating, or furnishing, with salt. 2. A salt marsh.
[ French sautoir
, from Late Latin saltatorium
a sort of stirrup, from Latin saltatorius
saltatory. See Saltatory
] (Her.) A St. Andrew's cross, or cross in the form of an X , -- one of the honorable ordinaries.
Saltirewise adverb (Her.) In the manner of a saltire; -- said especially of the blazoning of a shield divided by two lines drawn in the direction of a bend and a bend sinister, and crossing at the center.
Saltish adjective Somewhat salt. -- Salt"ish*ly , adverb -- Salt"ish*ness , noun
Saltless adjective Destitute of salt; insipid.
Saltly adverb With taste of salt; in a salt manner.
Saltmouth noun A wide-mouthed bottle with glass stopper for holding chemicals, especially crystallized salts.
Saltness noun The quality or state of being salt, or state of being salt, or impregnated with salt; salt taste; as, the saltness of sea water.
Saltpeter, Saltpetre noun
[ French salpêtre
, New Latin sal petrae
, literally, rock salt, or stone salt; so called because it exudes from rocks or walls. See Salt
, and Petrify
.] (Chemistry) Potassium nitrate; niter; a white crystalline substance, KNO 3 , having a cooling saline taste, obtained by leaching from certain soils in which it is produced by the process of nitrification (see Nitrification , 2). It is a strong oxidizer, is the chief constituent of gunpowder, and is also used as an antiseptic in curing meat, and in medicine as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and refrigerant. Chili salpeter (Chemistry)
, sodium nitrate (distinguished from potassium nitrate, or true salpeter), a white crystalline substance, NaNO 3 , having a cooling, saline, slightly bitter taste. It is obtained by leaching the soil of the rainless districts of Chili and Peru. It is deliquescent and cannot be used in gunpowder, but is employed in the production of nitric acid. Called also cubic niter .
-- Saltpeter acid (Chemistry)
, nitric acid; -- sometimes so called because made from saltpeter.
Saltpetrous adjective [ Confer French salpêtreux .] Pertaining to saltpeter, or partaking of its qualities; impregnated with saltpeter. [ Obsolete]
Saltwort noun (Botany) A name given to several plants which grow on the seashore, as the Batis maritima , and the glasswort. See Glasswort . Black saltwort
, the sea milkwort.
Salty adjective Somewhat salt; saltish.
[ Latin salubris
, or saluber
, from salus
health; akin to salvus
safe, sound, well. See Safe
.] Favorable to health; healthful; promoting health; as, salubrious air, water, or climate. Syn.
-- Healthful; wholesome; healthy; salutary. -- Sa-lu"bri*ous*ly
[ Latin salubritas
: confer French salubrité
.] The quality of being salubrious; favorableness to the preservation of health; salubriousness; wholesomeness; healthfulness; as, the salubrity of the air, of a country, or a climate.
"A sweet, dry smell of salubrity
." G. W. Cable.
Salue transitive verb
[ French saluer
. See Salute
.] To salute.
There was no "good day" and no saluyng . Chaucer.
[ Latin salutaris
, from salus
, health, safety: confer French salutaire
. See Salubrious
.] 1. Wholesome; healthful; promoting health; as, salutary exercise. 2. Promotive of, or contributing to, some beneficial purpose; beneficial; advantageous; as, a salutary design. Syn.
-- Wholesome; healthful; salubrious; beneficial; useful; advantageous; profitable. -- Sal"u*ta*ri*ly adverb
[ Latin salutatio
: confer French salutation
. See Salute
.] The act of saluting, or paying respect or reverence, by the customary words or actions; the act of greeting, or expressing good will or courtesy; also, that which is uttered or done in saluting or greeting.
In all public meetings or private addresses, use those forms of salutation , reverence, and decency usual amongst the most sober persons. Jer. Taylor. Syn.
-- Greeting; salute; address. -- Salutation
is the general word for all manner of expressions of recognition, agreeable or otherwise, made when persons meet or communicate with each other. A greeting
may be hearty and loving, chilling and offensive, or merely formal, as in the opening sentence of legal documents. Salutation
more definitely implies a wishing well, and is used of expressions at parting as well as at meeting. It is used especially of uttered expressions of good will. Salute
, while formerly and sometimes still in the sense of either greeting
, is now used specifically to denote a conventional demonstration not expressed in words. The guests received a greeting
which relieved their embarrassment, offered their salutations
in well-chosen terms, and when they retired, as when they entered, made a deferential salute
Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye love the uppermost seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets. Luke xi. 43.
When Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb. Luke i. 41.
I shall not trouble my reader with the first salutes of our three friends. Addison.
Salutatorian noun The student who pronounces the salutatory oration at the annual Commencement or like exercises of a college, -- an honor commonly assigned to that member of the graduating class who ranks second in scholarship. [ U.S.]
Salutatorily adverb By way of salutation.
[ Latin salutatorius
. See Salute
.] Containing or expressing salutations; speaking a welcome; greeting; -- applied especially to the oration which introduces the exercises of the Commencements, or similar public exhibitions, in American colleges.
1. A place for saluting or greeting; a vestibule; a porch. [ Obsolete] Milton. 2. (American Colleges) The salutatory oration.
Salute transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Saluted
; present participle & verbal noun Saluting
.] [ Latin salutare
, from salus
, health, safety. See Salubrious
.] 1. To address, as with expressions of kind wishes and courtesy; to greet; to hail.
I salute you with this kingly title. Shak. 2. Hence, to give a sign of good will; to compliment by an act or ceremony, as a kiss, a bow, etc.
You have the prettiest tip of a finger . . . I must take the freedom to salute it. Addison. 3. (Mil. & Naval) To honor, as some day, person, or nation, by a discharge of cannon or small arms, by dipping colors, by cheers, etc. 4. To promote the welfare and safety of; to benefit; to gratify.
[ Obsolete] "If this salute
my blood a jot." Shak.
[ Confer French salut
. See Salute
] 1. The act of saluting, or expressing kind wishes or respect; salutation; greeting. 2. A sign, token, or ceremony, expressing good will, compliment, or respect, as a kiss, a bow, etc. Tennyson. 3. (Mil. & Naval) A token of respect or honor for some distinguished or official personage, for a foreign vessel or flag, or for some festival or event, as by presenting arms, by a discharge of cannon, volleys of small arms, dipping the colors or the topsails, etc.
Saluter noun One who salutes.