Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Present adjective [ French présent , Latin praesens , -entis , that is before one, in sight or at hand, past participle of praeesse to be before; prae before + esse to be. See Essence .]


1. Being at hand, within reach or call, within certain contemplated limits; -- opposed to absent .

These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you.
John xiv. 25.

2. Now existing, or in process; begun but not ended; now in view, or under consideration; being at this time; not past or future; as, the present session of Congress; the present state of affairs; the present instance.

I'll bring thee to the present business
Shak.

3. Not delayed; immediate; instant; coincident. "A present recompense." "A present pardon." Shak.

An ambassador . . . desires a present audience.
Massinger.

4. Ready; quick in emergency; as a present wit. [ R.]

5. Favorably attentive; propitious. [ Archaic]

To find a god so present to my prayer.
Dryden.

Present tense (Gram.) , the tense or form of a verb which expresses action or being in the present time; as, I am writing , I write , or I do write .

Present noun [ Confer French présent . See Present , adjective ]
1. Present time; the time being; time in progress now, or at the moment contemplated; as, at this present .

Past and present , wound in one.
Tennyson.

2. plural (Law) Present letters or instrument, as a deed of conveyance, a lease, letter of attorney, or other writing; as in the phrase, " Know all men by these presents ," that is, by the writing itself, " per has literas praesentes ; " -- in this sense, rarely used in the singular.

3. (Gram.) A present tense, or the form of the verb denoting the present tense.

At present , at the present time; now. -- For the present , for the tine being; temporarily. -- In present , at once, without delay. [ Obsolete] "With them, in present , half his kingdom; the rest to follow at his death." Milton.

Present transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Presented ; present participle & verbal noun Presenting .] [ French présenter , Latin praesentare , from praesens , adjective See Present , adjective ]
1. To bring or introduce into the presence of some one, especially of a superior; to introduce formally; to offer for acquaintance; as, to present an envoy to the king; (with the reciprocal pronoun) to come into the presence of a superior.

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the lord.
Job i. 6

2. To exhibit or offer to view or notice; to lay before one's perception or cognizance; to set forth; to present a fine appearance.

Lectorides's memory is ever . . . presenting him with the thoughts of other persons.
I. Watts.

3. To pass over, esp. in a ceremonious manner; to give in charge or possession; to deliver; to make over.

So ladies in romance assist their knight,
Present the spear, and arm him for the fight.
Pope.

4. To make a gift of; to bestow; to give, generally in a formal or ceremonious manner; to grant; to confer.

My last, least offering, I present thee now.
Cowper.

5. Hence: To endow; to bestow a gift upon; to favor, as with a donation; also, to court by gifts.

Octavia presented the poet for him admirable elegy on her son Marcellus.
Dryden.

6. To present; to personate. [ Obsolete] Shak.

7. In specific uses; (a) To nominate to an ecclesiastical benefice; to offer to the bishop or ordinary as a candidate for institution.

The patron of a church may present his clerk to a parsonage or vicarage; that is, may offer him to the bishop of the diocese to be instituted.
Blackstone.

(b) To nominate for support at a public school or other institution . Lamb. (c) To lay before a public body, or an official, for consideration, as before a legislature, a court of judicature, a corporation, etc.; as, to present a memorial, petition, remonstrance, or indictment. (d) To lay before a court as an object of inquiry; to give notice officially of, as a crime of offence; to find or represent judicially; as, a grand jury present certain offenses or nuisances, or whatever they think to be public injuries. (e) To bring an indictment against . [ U.S] (f) To aim, point, or direct, as a weapon; as, to present a pistol or the point of a sword to the breast of another.

Pesent arms (Mil.) , the command in response to which the gun is carried perpendicularly in front of the center of the body, and held there with the left hand grasping it at the lower band, and the right hand grasping the small of the stock, in token of respect, as in saluting a superior officer; also, the position taken at such a command.

Present intransitive verb (Medicine) To appear at the mouth of the uterus so as to be perceptible to the finger in vaginal examination; -- said of a part of an infant during labor.

Present noun [ French présent .] Anything presented or given; a gift; a donative; as, a Christmas present .

Syn. -- Gift; donation; donative; benefaction. See Gift .

Present noun (Mil.) The position of a soldier in presenting arms; as, to stand at present .

Present value, worth (of money payable at a future date). The principal which, drawing interest at a given rate, will amount to the given sum at the date on which this is to be paid; thus, interest being at 6%, the present value of $106 due one year hence is $100.

Presentable adjective [ Confer French présentable .]
1. Capable or admitting of being presented; suitable to be exhibited, represented, or offered; fit to be brought forward or set forth; hence, fitted to be introduced to another, or to go into society; as, ideas that are presentable in simple language; she is not presentable in such a gown.

2. Admitting of the presentation of a clergiman; as, a church presentable . [ R.] Ayliffe.

Presentaneous adjective [ Latin praesentaneus . See Present , adjective ] Ready; quick; immediate in effect; as, presentaneous poison. [ Obsolete] Harvey.

Presentation noun [ Latin praesentatio a showing, representation: confer French présentation .]
1. The act of presenting, or the state of being presented; a setting forth; an offering; bestowal.

Prayers are sometimes a presentation of mere desires.
Hooker.

2. Hence, exhibition; representation; display; appearance; semblance; show.

Under the presentation of the shoots his wit.
Shak.

3. That which is presented or given; a present; a gift, as, the picture was a presentation . [ R.]

4. (Eccl.) The act of offering a clergyman to the bishop or ordinary for institution in a benefice; the right of presenting a clergyman.

If the bishop admits the patron's presentation , the clerk so admitted is next to be instituted by him.
Blackstone.

5. (Medicine) The particular position of the child during labor relatively to the passage though which it is to be brought forth; -- specifically designated by the part which first appears at the mouth of the uterus; as, a breech presentation .

Presentation copy , a copy of a book, engraving, etc., presented to some one by the author or artist, as a token of regard.

Presentative adjective
1. (Eccl.) Having the right of presentation, or offering a clergyman to the bishop for institution; as, advowsons are presentative , collative, or donative. Blackstone.

2. Admitting the presentation of a clergyman; as, a presentative parsonage. Spelman.

3. (Metaph.) Capable of being directly known by, or presented to, the mind; intuitive; directly apprehensible, as objects; capable of apprehending, as faculties.

The latter term, presentative faculty, I use . . . in contrast and correlation to a "representative faculty."
Sir W. Hamilton.

Presentee noun [ French présenté , past participle See Present , transitive verb ] One to whom something is presented; also, one who is presented; specifically (Eccl.) , one presented to benefice. Ayliffe.

Presenter noun One who presents.

Presential adjective [ Late Latin praesentialis .] Implying actual presence; present, immediate. [ Obsolete]

God's mercy is made presential to us.
Jer. Taylor.

-- Pre*sen"tial*ly , adverb [ Obsolete]

Presentiality noun State of being actually present. [ Obsolete] South.

Presentiate transitive verb To make present. [ Obsolete]

Presentient adjective [ Latin praesentiens , present participle of praesentire to perceive beforehand; prae before + sentire to feel.] Feeling or perceiving beforehand.

Presentific adjective [ Latin praesens , -entis , present + facere to make.] Making present. [ Obsolete]

-- Pres`en*tif"ic*ly , adverb [ Obsolete] Dr. H. More.

Presentifical adjective Presentific. [ Obsolete]

Presentiment noun [ Prefix pre- + sentiment : confer French pressentiment . See Presentient .] Previous sentiment, conception, or opinion; previous apprehension; especially, an antecedent impression or conviction of something unpleasant, distressing, or calamitous, about to happen; anticipation of evil; foreboding.

Presentimental adjective Of nature of a presentiment; foreboding. [ R.] Coleridge.

Presention noun See Presension . [ Obsolete]

Presentive adjective (Philol.) Bringing a conception or notion directly before the mind; presenting an object to the memory of imagination; -- distinguished from symbolic .

How greatly the word "will" is felt to have lost presentive power in the last three centuries.
Earle.

-- Pre*sent"ive*ly , adverb -- Pre*sent"ive*ness , noun

Presently adverb
1. At present; at this time; now. [ Obsolete]

The towns and forts you presently have.
Sir P. Sidney.

2. At once; without delay; forthwith; also, less definitely, soon; shortly; before long; after a little while; by and by. Shak.

And presently the fig tree withered away.
Matt. xxi. 19.

3. With actual presence; actually . [ Obsolete]

His precious body and blood presently three .
Bp. Gardiner.

Presentment noun
1. The act of presenting, or the state of being presented; presentation. " Upon the heels of my presentment ." Shak.

2. Setting forth to view; delineation; appearance; representation; exhibition.

Power to cheat the eye with blear illusion,
And give it false presentment .
Milton.

3. (Law) (a) The notice taken by a grand jury of any offence from their own knowledge or observation, without any bill of indictment laid before them, as, the presentment of a nuisance, a libel, or the like; also, an inquisition of office and indictment by a grand jury; an official accusation presented to a tribunal by the grand jury in an indictment, or the act of offering an indictment; also, the indictment itself. (b) The official notice (formerly required to be given in court) of the surrender of a copyhold estate. Blackstone.

Presentment of a bill of exchange , the offering of a bill to the drawee for acceptance, or to the acceptor for payment. See Bill of exchange , under Bill .

Mozley & W.

Presentness noun The quality or state of being present; presence. [ Obsolete] " Presentness of mind in danger." Clarendon.

Presentoir noun [ Formed after analogy of French.] An ornamental tray, dish, or the like, used as a salver.

Preservable adjective Capable of being preserved; admitting of preservation.

Preservation noun [ Confer French préservation .] The act or process of preserving, or keeping safe; the state of being preserved, or kept from injury, destruction, or decay; security; safety; as, preservation of life, fruit, game, etc.; a picture in good preservation .

Give us particulars of thy preservation .
Shak.

Preservative adjective [ Confer French préservatif .] Having the power or quality of preserving; tending to preserve, or to keep from injury, decay, etc.

Preservative noun That which preserves, or has the power of preserving; a presevative agent.

To wear tablets as preservatives against the plague.
Bacon.

Preservatory adjective Preservative. Bp. Hall.

Preservatory noun ; plural Preservatories
1. A preservative. [ Obsolete] Whitlock.

2. A room, or apparatus, in which perishable things, as fruit, vegetables, etc., can be preserved without decay.

Preserve transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Preserved ; present participle & verbal noun Preserving .] [ French préserver , from Latin prae before + servare to save, preserve; confer Latin praeservare to observe beforehand. See Serve .]
1. To keep or save from injury or destruction; to guard or defend from evil, harm, danger, etc.; to protect.

O Lord, thou preserved man and beast.
Ps. xxxvi. 6.

Now, good angels preserve the king.
Shak.

2. To save from decay by the use of some preservative substance, as sugar, salt, etc.; to season and prepare for remaining in a good state, as fruits, meat, etc.; as, to preserve peaches or grapes.

You can not preserve it from tainting.
Shak.

3. To maintain throughout; to keep intact; as, to preserve appearances; to preserve silence.

To preserve game , to protect it from extermination.

Syn. -- To keep; save; secure; uphold; sustain; defend; spare; protect; guard; shield. See Keep .

Preserve intransitive verb
1. To make preserves. Shak.

2. To protect game for purposes of sport.

Preserve noun
1. That which is preserved; fruit, etc., seasoned and kept by suitable preparation; esp., fruit cooked with sugar; -- commonly in the plural.

2. A place in which game, fish, etc., are preserved for purposes of sport, or for food.

Preserver noun
1. One who, or that which, preserves, saves, or defends, from destruction, injury, or decay; esp., one who saves the life or character of another. Shak.

2. One who makes preserves of fruit.

Game preserver . See under Game .

Preshow transitive verb To foreshow.

Preside intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Presided ; present participle & verbal noun Presiding .] [ Latin praesidere ; prae before + sedere to sit: confer French présider . See Sit .]
1. To be set, or to sit, in the place of authority; to occupy the place of president, chairman, moderator, director, etc.; to direct, control, and regulate, as chief officer; as, to preside at a public meeting; to preside over the senate.

2. To exercise superintendence; to watch over.

Some o'er the public magazines preside .
Dryden.

Presidence noun See Presidency . [ Obsolete]

Presidency noun ; plural Presidencies . [ Confer French présidence .]
1. The function or condition of one who presides; superintendence; control and care.

2. The office of president; as, Washington was elected to the presidency .

3. The term during which a president holds his office; as, during the presidency of Madison.

4. One of the three great divisions of British India, the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay Presidencies, each of which had a council of which its governor was president.

President noun Precedent. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

President adjective Occupying the first rank or chief place; having the highest authority; presiding. [ R.]

His angels president
In every province.
Milton.

President noun [ French président , Latin praesidens , -entis , present participle of praesidere . See Preside .]
1. One who is elected or appointed to preside; a presiding officer, as of a legislative body. Specifically: (a) The chief officer of a corporation, company, institution, society, or the like. (b) The chief executive officer of the government in certain republics; as, the president of the United States.

2. A protector; a guardian; a presiding genius. [ Obsolete]

Just Apollo, president of verse.
Waller.

Presidential adjective
1. Presiding or watching over. " Presidential angels." Glanvill.

2. Of or pertaining to a president; as, the presidential chair; a presidential election.

Presidentship noun The office and dignity of president; presidency. Hooker.

Presider noun One who presides.

Presidial, Presidiary adjective [ Latin praesidialis and praesidiarius , from praesidium a presiding over, defense, guard. See Preside .] Of or pertaining to a garrison; having a garrison.

There are three presidial castles in this city.
Howell.

Presidiary noun [ Latin praesidiarium .] A guard. [ Obsolete] "Heavenly presidiaries ." Bp. Hall.

Presiding adjective & noun from Preside .

Presiding elder . See under 2d Elder .

Presidio noun [ Spanish ] A place of defense; a fortress; a garrison; a fortress; a garrison or guardhouse.

Presignification noun [ .... praesignificatio . See Presignify .] The act of signifying or showing beforehand.