Webster's Dictionary, 1913
Prestigious adjective [ Latin praestigiosus .] Practicing tricks; juggling. [ Obsolete] Cotton Mather.
[ Late Latin praestimonium
, from Latin praestare
to furnish, supply: confer French prestimonie
. See Prest
] (Canon Law) A fund for the support of a priest, without the title of a benefice. The patron in the collator.
Prestissimo adverb [ Italian , superl. of presto .] (Mus.) Very quickly; with great rapidity.
[ Italian or Spanish presto
quick, quickly. See Prest
] 1. Quickly; immediately; in haste; suddenly.
Presto ! begone! 'tis here again. Swift. 2. (Mus.) Quickly; rapidly; -- a direction for a quick, lively movement or performance; quicker than allegro, or any rate of time except prestissimo.
[ Latin praestrictio
a binding fast, from praestringere
. See Pre-
, and Stringent
.] Obstruction, dimness, or defect of sight.
[ Obsolete] Milton.
Presultor noun [ Latin praesultor ; prae before + salire to dance.] A leader in the dance. [ R.]
Presumable adjective [ Confer French présumable .] Such as may be presumed or supposed to be true; that seems entitled to belief without direct evidence.
Presumably adverb In a presumable manner; by, or according to, presumption.
Presume transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Presumed
; present participle & verbal noun Presuming
.] [ French présumer
, Latin praesumere
before + sumere
to take. See Assume
.] 1. To assume or take beforehand; esp., to do or undertake without leave or authority previously obtained.
Dare he presume to scorn us in this manner? Shak.
Bold deed thou hast presumed , adventurous Eve. Milton. 2. To take or suppose to be true, or entitled to belief, without examination or proof, or on the strength of probability; to take for granted; to infer; to suppose.
Every man is to be presumed innocent till he is proved to be guilty. Blackstone.
What rests but that the mortal sentence pass, . . . Milton.
Which he presumes already vain and void,
Because not yet inflicted?
Presume intransitive verb 1. To suppose or assume something to be, or to be true, on grounds deemed valid, though not amounting to proof; to believe by anticipation; to infer; as, we may presume too far. 2. To venture, go, or act, by an assumption of leave or authority not granted; to go beyond what is warranted by the circumstances of the case; to venture beyond license; to take liberties; -- often with on or upon before the ground of confidence.
Do not presume too much upon my love. Shak.
This man presumes upon his parts. Locke.
Presumedly adverb By presumption.
Presumer noun One who presumes; also, an arrogant person. Sir H. Wotton.
Presumingly adverb Confidently; arrogantly.
[ Latin praesumptio
: confer French présomption
, Old French also presumpcion
. See Presume
.] 1. The act of presuming, or believing upon probable evidence; the act of assuming or taking for granted; belief upon incomplete proof. 2. Ground for presuming; evidence probable, but not conclusive; strong probability; reasonable supposition; as, the presumption is that an event has taken place. 3. That which is presumed or assumed; that which is supposed or believed to be real or true, on evidence that is probable but not conclusive.
"In contradiction to these very plausible presumptions
." De Quincey. 4. The act of venturing beyond due beyond due bounds; an overstepping of the bounds of reverence, respect, or courtesy; forward, overconfident, or arrogant opinion or conduct; presumptuousness; arrogance; effrontery.
Thy son I killed for his presumption . Shak.
I had the presumption to dedicate to you a very unfinished piece. Dryden. Conclusive presumption
. See under Conclusive .
-- Presumption of fact (Law)
, an argument of a fact from a fact; an inference as to the existence of one fact not certainly known, from the existence of some other fact known or proved, founded on a previous experience of their connection; supposition of the truth or real existence of something, without direct or positive proof of the fact, but grounded on circumstantial or probable evidence which entitles it to belief. Burrill. Best. Wharton.
-- Presumption of law (Law)
, a postulate applied in advance to all cases of a particular class; e. g. , the presumption of innocence and of regularity of records. Such a presumption is rebuttable or irrebuttable.
[ Confer French présomptif
.] 1. Based on presumption or probability; grounded on probable evidence; probable; as, presumptive proof. 2. Presumptuous; arrogant.
[ R.] Sir T. Browne. Presumptive evidence (Law)
, that which is derived from circumstances which necessarily or usually attend a fact, as distinct from direct evidence or positive proof; indirect or circumstantial evidence. " Presumptive evidence of felony should be cautiously admitted." Blackstone. The distinction, however, between direct and presumptive (or circumstantial) evidence is now generally abandoned; all evidence being now more or less direct and more or less presumptive.
-- Presumptive heir
. See Heir presumptive , under Heir .
Presumptively adverb By presumption, or supposition grounded or probability; presumably.
[ Latin praesumptuosus
: confer French présomptueux
, Old French also presumptuous
. See Presumption
.] 1. Full of presumption; presuming; overconfident or venturesome; audacious; rash; taking liberties unduly; arrogant; insolent; as, a presumptuous commander; presumptuous conduct.
A class of presumptuous men, whom age has not made cautious, nor adversity wise. Buckminster. 2. Founded on presumption; as, a presumptuous idea.
hope." Milton. 3. Done with hold design, rash confidence, or in violation of known duty; willful.
"Keep back the servant also from presumptuous
sins." Ps. xix. 13. Syn.
-- Overconfident; foolhardy; rash; presuming; forward; arrogant; insolent.
Presumptuously adverb In a presumptuous manner; arrogantly.
Presumptuousness noun The quality or state of being presumptuous.
Presupposal noun Presupposition. [ R.] " Presupposal of knowledge." Hooker.
Presuppose transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Presupposed
; present participle & verbal noun Presupposing
.] [ Prefix pre-
: confer French présupposer
.] To suppose beforehand; to imply as antecedent; to take for granted; to assume; as, creation presupposes a creator.
Each [ kind of knowledge] presupposes many necessary things learned in other sciences, and known beforehand. Hooker.
Presupposition noun [ Prefix pre- + supposition : confer French présupposition .]
1. The act of presupposing; an antecedent implication; presumption. 2. That which is presupposed; a previous supposition or surmise.
Presurmise noun A surmise previously formed. Shak.
Presystolic adjective (Physiol.) Preceding the systole or contraction of the heart; as, the presystolic friction sound.
Pretemporal adjective (Anat.) Situated in front of the temporal bone.
Pretend transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Pretended
; present participle & verbal noun Pretending
.] [ Middle English pretenden
to lay claim to, French prétendre
, Latin praetendere
, to stretch forward, pretend, simulate, assert; prae
before + tendere
to stretch. See Tend
, transitive verb
] 1. To lay a claim to; to allege a title to; to claim.
Chiefs shall be grudged the part which they pretend . Dryden. 2. To hold before, or put forward, as a cloak or disguise for something else; to exhibit as a veil for something hidden.
Lest that too heavenly form, pretended Milton. 3. To hold out, or represent, falsely; to put forward, or offer, as true or real (something untrue or unreal); to show hypocritically, or for the purpose of deceiving; to simulate; to feign; as, to pretend friendship.
To hellish falsehood, snare them.
This let him know, Milton. 4. To intend; to design; to plot; to attempt.
Lest, willfully transgressing, he pretend
Such as shall pretend Shak. 5. To hold before one; to extend.
Malicious practices against his state.
[ Obsolete] "His target always over her pretended
Pretend intransitive verb 1. To put in, or make, a claim, truly or falsely; to allege a title; to lay claim to, or strive after, something; -- usually with to .
"Countries that pretend
to freedom." Swift.
For to what fine he would anon pretend , Chaucer. 2. To hold out the appearance of being, possessing, or performing; to profess; to make believe; to feign; to sham; as, to pretend to be asleep.
That know I well.
"[ He] pretended
to drink the waters." Macaulay.
Pretendant noun A pretender; a claimant.
Pretended adjective Making a false appearance; unreal; false; as, pretended friend. -- Pre*tend"ed*ly , adverb
Pretendence noun The act of pretending; pretense. [ Obsolete] Daniel.
Pretender noun 1. One who lays claim, or asserts a title (to something); a claimant.
Specifically, The pretender (Eng. Hist.) , the son or the grandson of James II., the heir of the royal family of Stuart, who laid claim to the throne of Great Britain, from which the house was excluded by law.
It is the shallow, unimproved intellects that are the confident pretenders to certainty. Glanvill. 2. One who pretends, simulates, or feigns.
Pretendership noun The character, right, or claim of a pretender. Swift.
Pretendingly adverb As by right or title; arrogantly; presumptuously. Collier.
Pretense, Pretence noun
[ Late Latin praetensus
, for Latin praetentus
, past participle of praetendere
. See Pretend
, and confer Tension
.] 1. The act of laying claim; the claim laid; assumption; pretension. Spenser.
Primogeniture can not have any pretense to a right of solely inheriting property or power. Locke.
I went to Lambeth with Sir R. Brown's pretense to the wardenship of Merton College, Oxford. Evelyn. 2. The act of holding out, or offering, to others something false or feigned; presentation of what is deceptive or hypocritical; deception by showing what is unreal and concealing what is real; false show; simulation; as, pretense of illness; under pretense of patriotism; on pretense of revenging Cæsar's death. 3. That which is pretended; false, deceptive, or hypocritical show, argument, or reason; pretext; feint.
Let not the Trojans, with a feigned pretense Dryden. 4. Intention; design.
Of proffered peace, delude the Latian prince.
A very pretense and purpose of unkindness. Shak.
» See the Note
-- Mask; appearance; color; show; pretext; excuse. -- Pretense
. A pretense
is something held out as real when it is not so, thus falsifying the truth. A pretext
is something woven up in order to cover or conceal one's true motives, feelings, or reasons. Pretext
is often, but not always, used in a bad sense.
Pretensed adjective Pretended; feigned. [ Obsolete] -- Pre*tens"ed*ly adverb [ Obsolete]
Pretenseful adjective Abounding in pretenses.
Pretenseless adjective Not having or making pretenses.
[ Confer French prétention
. See Pretend
.] 1. The act of pretending, or laying claim; the act of asserting right or title.
The arrogant pretensions of Glengarry contributed to protract the discussion. Macaulay. 2. A claim made, whether true or false; a right alleged or assumed; a holding out the appearance of possessing a certain character; as, pretensions to scholarship.
This was but an invention and pretension given out by the Spaniards. Bacon.
Men indulge those opinions and practices that favor their pretensions . L'Estrange.
Pretentative adjective [ Prefix pre- + tentative : confer Latin praetentare to try beforehand.] Fitted for trial beforehand; experimental. [ R.] Sir H. Wotton.
[ Confer French prétentieux
. See Pretend
.] Full of pretension; disposed to lay claim to more than is one's; presuming; assuming.
- - Pre*ten"tious*ness
[ Latin praeter
past, beyond, originally a compar. of prae
before. See For
.] A prefix signifying past , by , beyond , more than ; as, preter- mission, a permitting to go by; preter natural, beyond or more than is natural.
[ Written also præter
Preterhuman adjective [ Prefix preter- + human .] More than human.
[ Latin praeteriens
, present participle See Preterit
.] Passed through; antecedent; previous; as, preterient states.
Preterimperfect adjective & noun [ Prefix preter- + imperfect .] (Gram.) Old name of the tense also called imperfect .
Preterist noun [ Prefix preter- + -ist .]
1. One whose chief interest is in the past; one who regards the past with most pleasure or favor. 2. (Theol.) One who believes the prophecies of the Apocalypse to have been already fulfilled. Farrar.
[ Latin praeteritus
, past participle of praeterire
to go or pass by; praeter
beyond, by + ire
to go: confer French prétérit
. See Issue
.] [ Written also preterite
.] 1. (Gram.) Past; -- applied to a tense which expresses an action or state as past. 2. Belonging wholly to the past; passed by.
Things and persons as thoroughly preterite as Romulus or Numa. Lowell.
Preterit noun (Gram.) The preterit; also, a word in the preterit tense.
Preterite adjective & noun Same as Preterit .