Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Hawk (hak) noun [ Middle English hauk (prob. from Icelandic ), havek , Anglo-Saxon hafoc , heafoc ; akin to Dutch havik , Old High German habuh , German habicht , Icelandic haukr , Swedish hök , Danish hög , probably from the root of English heave .] (Zoology) One of numerous species and genera of rapacious birds of the family Falconidæ . They differ from the true falcons in lacking the prominent tooth and notch of the bill, and in having shorter and less pointed wings. Many are of large size and grade into the eagles. Some, as the goshawk, were formerly trained like falcons. In a more general sense the word is not infrequently applied, also, to true falcons, as the sparrow hawk , pigeon hawk , duck hawk , and prairie hawk .

» Among the common American species are the red-tailed hawk ( Buteo borealis ); the red-shouldered ( B. lineatus ); the broad-winged ( B. Pennsylvanicus ); the rough-legged ( Archibuteo lagopus ); the sharp-shinned ( Accipiter fuscus ). See Fishhawk , Goshawk , Marsh hawk , under Marsh , Night hawk , under Night .

Bee hawk (Zoology) , the honey buzzard. -- Eagle hawk . See under Eagle . -- Hawk eagle (Zoology) , an Asiatic bird of the genus Spizætus , or Limnætus , intermediate between the hawks and eagles. There are several species. -- Hawk fly (Zoology) , a voracious fly of the family Asilidæ . See Hornet fly , under Hornet . -- Hawk moth . (Zoology) See Hawk moth , in the Vocabulary. -- Hawk owl . (Zoology) (a) A northern owl ( Surnia ulula ) of Europe and America. It flies by day, and in some respects resembles the hawks. (b) An owl of India ( Ninox scutellatus ). -- Hawk's bill (Horology) , the pawl for the rack, in the striking mechanism of a clock.

Hawk (hak) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Hawked (hakt); present participle & verbal noun Hawking .]
1. To catch, or attempt to catch, birds by means of hawks trained for the purpose, and let loose on the prey; to practice falconry.

A falconer Henry is, when Emma hawks .
Prior.

2. To make an attack while on the wing; to soar and strike like a hawk; -- generally with at ; as, to hawk at flies. Dryden.

A falcon, towering in her pride of place,
Was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed.
Shak.

Hawk intransitive verb [ W. hochi .] To clear the throat with an audible sound by forcing an expiratory current of air through the narrow passage between the depressed soft palate and the root of the tongue, thus aiding in the removal of foreign substances.

Hawk transitive verb To raise by hawking, as phlegm.

Hawk noun [ W. hoch .] An effort to force up phlegm from the throat, accompanied with noise.

Hawk transitive verb [ Akin to Dutch hauker a hawker, German höken , höcken , to higgle, to retail, höke , höker , a higgler, huckster. See Huckster .] To offer for sale by outcry in the street; to carry (merchandise) about from place to place for sale; to peddle; as, to hawk goods or pamphlets.

His works were hawked in every street.
Swift.

Hawk noun (Masonry) A small board, with a handle on the under side, to hold mortar.

Hawk boy , an attendant on a plasterer to supply him with mortar.

Hawk moth (mŏth`; 115). (Zoology) Any moth of the family Sphingidæ , of which there are numerous genera and species. They are large, handsome moths, which fly mostly at twilight and hover about flowers like a humming bird, sucking the honey by means of a long, slender proboscis. The larvæ are large, hairless caterpillars ornamented with green and other bright colors, and often with a caudal spine. See Sphinx , also Tobacco worm , and Tomato worm .

Tobacco Hawk Moth ( Macrosila Carolina ), and its Larva, the Tobacco Worm.

» The larvæ of several species of hawk moths feed on grapevines. The elm-tree hawk moth is Ceratomia Amyntor .

Hawk-eyed (-īd`) adjective Having a keen eye; sharpsighted; discerning.

Hawkbill (-bĭl`) noun (Zoology) A sea turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ), which yields the best quality of tortoise shell; -- called also caret .

Hawkbit (-bĭt`) noun (Botany) The fall dandelion ( Leontodon autumnale ).

Hawked (hakt) adjective Curved like a hawk's bill; crooked.

Hawker (hak"ẽr) noun One who sells wares by crying them in the street; hence, a peddler or a packman. Swift.

Hawker intransitive verb To sell goods by outcry in the street. [ Obsolete] Hudibras.

Hawker noun [ Confer Anglo-Saxon hafecere . See 1st Hawk .] A falconer.

Hawkey (-ȳ) noun See Hockey . Holloway.

Hawkeye State Iowa; -- a nickname of obscure origin.

Hawkweed (-wēd`) noun (Botany) (a) A plant of the genus Hieracium ; -- so called from the ancient belief that birds of prey used its juice to strengthen their vision. (b) A plant of the genus Senecio ( S. hieracifolius ). Loudon.

Hawm (ham) noun See Haulm , straw.

Hawm intransitive verb [ Etymol. uncertain.] To lounge; to loiter. [ Prov. Eng.] Tennyson.

Hawse (haz or has; 277) noun [ Orig. a hawse hole , or hole in the bow of the ship; confer Icelandic hals , hāls , neck, part of the bows of a ship, Anglo-Saxon heals neck. See Collar , and confer Halse to embrace.]
1. A hawse hole. Harris.

2. (Nautical) (a) The situation of the cables when a vessel is moored with two anchors, one on the starboard, the other on the port bow. (b) The distance ahead to which the cables usually extend; as, the ship has a clear or open hawse , or a foul hawse ; to anchor in our hawse , or athwart hawse . (c) That part of a vessel's bow in which are the hawse holes for the cables.

Athwart hawse . See under Athwart . -- Foul hawse , a hawse in which the cables cross each other, or are twisted together. -- Hawse block , a block used to stop up a hawse hole at sea; -- called also hawse plug . -- Hawse hole , a hole in the bow of a ship, through which a cable passes. -- Hawse piece , one of the foremost timbers of a ship, through which the hawse hole is cut. -- Hawse plug . Same as Hawse block (above). -- To come in at the hawse holes , to enter the naval service at the lowest grade. [ Cant] -- To freshen the hawse , to veer out a little more cable and bring the chafe and strain on another part.

Hawser (haz"ẽr or has"ẽr) noun [ From French hausser to lift, raise (cf. Old French hausserée towpath, towing, French haussière hawser), Late Latin altiare , from Latin altus high. See Haughty .] A large rope made of three strands each containing many yarns.

» Three hawsers twisted together make a cable; but it nautical usage the distinction between cable and hawser is often one of size rather than of manufacture.

Hawser iron , a calking iron.

Hawser-laid (-lād`) adjective Made in the manner of a hawser. Confer Cable-laid , and see Illust. of Cordage .

Hawthorn (ha"thôrn`) noun [ Anglo-Saxon hagaþorn , hægþorn . See Haw a hedge, and Thorn .] (Botany) A thorny shrub or tree (the Cratægus oxyacantha ), having deeply lobed, shining leaves, small, roselike, fragrant flowers, and a fruit called haw . It is much used in Europe for hedges, and for standards in gardens. The American hawthorn is Cratægus cordata , which has the leaves but little lobed.

Gives not the hawthorn bush a sweeter shade
To shepherds?
Shak.

Hay (hā) noun [ Anglo-Saxon hege : confer French haie , of German origin. See Haw a hedge, Hedge .]
1. A hedge. [ Obsolete]

2. A net set around the haunt of an animal, especially of a rabbit. Rowe.

To dance the hay , to dance in a ring. Shak.

Hay intransitive verb To lay snares for rabbits. Huloet.

Hay noun [ Middle English hei , Anglo-Saxon hēg ; akin to Dutch hooi , Old High German hewi , houwi , German heu , Dan. & Swedish , Icelandic hey , ha , Goth. hawi grass, from the root of English hew . See Hew to cut.] Grass cut and cured for fodder.

Make hay while the sun shines.
Camden.

Hay may be dried too much as well as too little.
C. Latin Flint.

Hay cap , a canvas covering for a haycock. -- Hay fever (Medicine) , nasal catarrh accompanied with fever, and sometimes with paroxysms of dyspnœa, to which some persons are subject in the spring and summer seasons. It has been attributed to the effluvium from hay, and to the pollen of certain plants. It is also called hay asthma , hay cold , rose cold , and rose fever . -- Hay knife , a sharp instrument used in cutting hay out of a stack or mow. -- Hay press , a press for baling loose hay. -- Hay tea , the juice of hay extracted by boiling, used as food for cattle, etc. -- Hay tedder , a machine for spreading and turning new-mown hay. See Tedder .

Hay intransitive verb To cut and cure grass for hay.

Hay-cutter (hā"kŭt`tẽr) noun A machine in which hay is chopped short, as fodder for cattle.

Haybird (hā"bẽrd`) noun (Zoology) (a) The European spotted flycatcher. (b) The European blackcap.

Haybote (hā"bōt`) noun [ See Hay hedge, and Bote , and confer Hedgebote .] (Eng. Law.) An allowance of wood to a tenant for repairing his hedges or fences; hedgebote. See Bote . Blackstone.

Haycock (hā"kŏk`) noun A conical pile or heap of hay in the field.

The tanned haycock in the mead.
Milton.

Hayfield (hā"fēld`) noun A field where grass for hay has been cut; a meadow. Cowper.

Hayfork (hā"fôrk`) noun A fork for pitching and tedding hay.

Horse hayfork , a contrivance for unloading hay from the cart and depositing it in the loft, or on a mow, by horse power.

Hayloft (hā"lŏft`; 115) noun A loft or scaffold for hay.

Haymaker (hā"māk`ẽr) noun
1. One who cuts and cures hay.

2. A machine for curing hay in rainy weather.

Haymaking noun The operation or work of cutting grass and curing it for hay.

Haymow (hā"mou`) noun
1. A mow or mass of hay laid up in a barn for preservation.

2. The place in a barn where hay is deposited.

Hayrack (hā"răk`) noun A frame mounted on the running gear of a wagon, and used in hauling hay, straw, sheaves, etc.; -- called also hay rigging .

Hayrake (hā"rāk`) noun A rake for collecting hay; especially, a large rake drawn by a horse or horses.

Hayrick (-rĭk`) noun A heap or pile of hay, usually covered with thatch for preservation in the open air.

Haystack (hā"stăk`) noun A stack or conical pile of hay in the open air.

Haystalk (hā"stak`) noun A stalk of hay.

Haythorn (hā"thôrn`) noun Hawthorn. R. Scot.

Haytian (hā"tĭ* a n) adjective Of pertaining to Hayti. -- noun A native of Hayti. [ Written also Haitian .]

Hayward (hā"wẽrd) noun [ Hay a hedge + ward .] An officer who is appointed to guard hedges, and to keep cattle from breaking or cropping them, and whose further duty it is to impound animals found running at large.

Hazard (hăz"ẽrd) noun [ French hasard , Spanish azar an unforeseen disaster or accident, an unfortunate card or throw at dice, probably from Arabic zahr , zār , a die, which, with the article al the, would give azzahr , azzār .]
1. A game of chance played with dice. Chaucer.

2. The uncertain result of throwing a die; hence, a fortuitous event; chance; accident; casualty.

I will stand the hazard of the die.
Shak.

3. Risk; danger; peril; as, he encountered the enemy at the hazard of his reputation and life.

Men are led on from one stage of life to another in a condition of the utmost hazard .
Rogers.

4. (Billiards) Holing a ball, whether the object ball (winning hazard ) or the player's ball (losing hazard ).

5. Anything that is hazarded or risked, as the stakes in gaming. "Your latter hazard ." Shak.

Hazard table , a table on which hazard is played, or any game of chance for stakes. -- To run the hazard , to take the chance or risk.

Syn. -- Danger; risk; chance. See Danger .

Hazard transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Hazarded ; present participle & verbal noun Hazarding .] [ Confer French hasarder . See Hazard , noun ]


1. To expose to the operation of chance; to put in danger of loss or injury; to venture; to risk.

Men hazard nothing by a course of evangelical obedience.
John Clarke.

He hazards his neck to the halter.
Fuller.

2. To venture to incur, or bring on.

I hazarded the loss of whom I loved.
Shak.

They hazard to cut their feet.
Landor.

Syn. -- To venture; risk; jeopard; peril; endanger.

Hazard (hăz"ẽrd) intransitive verb To try the chance; to encounter risk or danger. Shak.

Hazard noun (Golf) Any place into which the ball may not be safely played, such as bunkers, furze, water, sand, or other kind of bad ground.

Hazardable (-ȧ*b'l) adjective
1. Liable to hazard or chance; uncertain; risky. Sir T. Browne.

2. Such as can be hazarded or risked.

Hazarder (-ẽr) noun
1. A player at the game of hazard; a gamester. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. One who hazards or ventures.

Hazardize (-īz) noun A hazardous attempt or situation; hazard. [ Obsolete]

Herself had run into that hazardize .
Spenser.

Hazardous (-ŭs) adjective [ Confer French hasardeux .] Exposed to hazard; dangerous; risky.

To enterprise so hazardous and high!
Milton.

Syn. -- Perilous; dangerous; bold; daring; adventurous; venturesome; precarious; uncertain.

-- Haz"ard*ous*ly , adverb -- Haz"ard*ous*ness , noun