Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Harpings (-ĭngz) noun plural (Nautical) The fore parts of the wales, which encompass the bow of a vessel, and are fastened to the stem. [ Written also harpins .] Totten.

Harpist noun [ Confer French harpiste .] A player on the harp; a harper. W. Browne.

Harpoon (här*pōn") noun [ French harpon , Late Latin harpo , perhaps of German origin, from the harp ; confer French harper to take and grasp strongly, harpe a dog's claw, harpin boathook (the sense of hook coming from the shape of the harp); but confer also Greek "a`rph the kite, sickle, and English harpy . Confer Harp .] A spear or javelin used to strike and kill large fish, as whales; a harping iron. It consists of a long shank, with a broad, fiat, triangular head, sharpened at both edges, and is thrown by hand, or discharged from a gun.

Harpoon fork , a kind of hayfork, consisting of bar with hinged barbs at one end and a loop for a rope at the other end, used for lifting hay from the load by horse power. -- Harpoon gun , a gun used in the whale fishery for shooting the harpoon into a whale.

Harpoon transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Harpooned (-pōnd"); present participle & verbal noun Harpooning .] To strike, catch, or kill with a harpoon.

Harpooneer (här`pōn*ēr") noun An harpooner. Crabb.

Harpooner (här*pōn"ẽr) noun [ Confer French harponneur .] One who throws the harpoon.

Harpress (härp"rĕs) noun A female harper. [ R.] Sir W. Scott.

Harpsichon (härp"sĭ*kŏn) noun A harpsichord. [ Obsolete]

Harpsichord (-kôrd) noun [ Old French harpechorde , in which the harpe is of German origin. See Harp , and Chord .] (Mus.) A harp-shaped instrument of music set horizontally on legs, like the grand piano, with strings of wire, played by the fingers, by means of keys provided with quills, instead of hammers, for striking the strings. It is now superseded by the piano.

Harpy (här"pȳ) noun ; plural Harpies (-pĭz). [ French harpie , Latin harpyia , Greek "a`rpyia , from the root of "arpa`zein to snatch, to seize. Confer Rapacious .]
1. (Gr. Myth.) A fabulous winged monster, ravenous and filthy, having the face of a woman and the body of a vulture, with long claws, and the face pale with hunger. Some writers mention two, others three.

Both table and provisions vanished quite.
With sound of harpies' wings and talons heard.
Milton.

2. One who is rapacious or ravenous; an extortioner.

The harpies about all pocket the pool.
Goldsmith.

3. (Zoology) (a) The European moor buzzard or marsh harrier ( Circus æruginosus ). (b) A large and powerful, double-crested, short-winged American eagle ( Thrasaëtus harpyia ). It ranges from Texas to Brazil.

Harpy bat (Zoology) (a) An East Indian fruit bat of the genus Harpyia (esp. H. cephalotes ), having prominent, tubular nostrils. (b) A small, insectivorous Indian bat ( Harpiocephalus harpia ). -- Harpy fly (Zoology) , the house fly.

Harquebus, Harquebuse (här"kwe*bŭs) noun [ See Arquebus .] A firearm with match holder, trigger, and tumbler, made in the second half of the 15th century. The barrel was about forty inches long. A form of the harquebus was subsequently called arquebus with matchlock .

Harrage (hăr"raj; 48) transitive verb [ See Harry .] To harass; to plunder from. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Harre (här"r e ) noun [ Middle English , from Anglo-Saxon heorr , híor .] A hinge. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Harridan (hăr"rĭ*d a n) noun [ French haridelle a worn-out horse, jade.] A worn-out strumpet; a vixenish woman; a hag.

Such a weak, watery, wicked old harridan , substituted for the pretty creature I had been used to see.
De Quincey.

Harrier (-ẽr) noun [ From Hare , noun ] (Zoology) One of a small breed of hounds, used for hunting hares. [ Written also harier .]

Harrier noun [ From Harry .]
1. One who harries.

2. (Zoology) One of several species of hawks or buzzards of the genus Circus which fly low and harry small animals or birds, -- as the European marsh harrier ( Circus æruginosus ), and the hen harrier ( C. cyaneus ).

Harrier hawk (Zoology) , one of several species of American hawks of the genus Micrastur .

Harrow (hăr"ro) noun [ Middle English harowe , harwe , Anglo-Saxon hearge ; confer Dutch hark rake, German harke , Icelandic herfi harrow, Danish harve , Swedish harf . √16.]
1. An implement of agriculture, usually formed of pieces of timber or metal crossing each other, and set with iron or wooden teeth. It is drawn over plowed land to level it and break the clods, to stir the soil and make it fine, or to cover seed when sown.

2. (Mil.) An obstacle formed by turning an ordinary harrow upside down, the frame being buried.

Bush harrow , a kind of light harrow made of bushes, for harrowing grass lands and covering seeds, or to finish the work of a toothed harrow. -- Drill harrow . See under 6th Drill . -- Under the harrow , subjected to actual torture with a toothed instrument, or to great affliction or oppression.

Harrow transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Harrowed (-rod); present participle & verbal noun Harrowing .] [ Middle English harowen , harwen ; confer Danish harve . See Harrow , noun ]
1. To draw a harrow over, as for the purpose of breaking clods and leveling the surface, or for covering seed; as, to harrow land.

Will he harrow the valleys after thee?
Job xxxix. 10.

2. To break or tear, as with a harrow; to wound; to lacerate; to torment or distress; to vex.

My aged muscles harrowed up with whips.
Rowe.

I could a tale unfold, whose lightest word
Would harrow up thy soul.
Shak.

Harrow interj. [ Old French harau , haro ; from Old High German hara , hera , herot , or from Old Saxon herod hither, akin to English here .] Help! Halloo! An exclamation of distress; a call for succor; -- the ancient Norman hue and cry. " Harrow and well away!" Spenser.

Harrow ! alas! here lies my fellow slain.
Chaucer.

Harrow transitive verb [ See Harry .] To pillage; to harry; to oppress. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Meaning thereby to harrow his people.
Bacon

Harrower (-ẽr) noun One who harrows.

Harrower noun One who harries. [ Obsolete]

Harry (-rȳ) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Harried (-rĭd); present participle & verbal noun Harrying .] [ Middle English harwen , herien , herʒien , Anglo-Saxon hergian to act as an army, to ravage, plunder, from here army; akin to German heer , Icelandic herr , Goth. harjis , and Lithuanian karas war. Confer Harbor , Herald , Heriot .]


1. To strip; to pillage; to lay waste; as, the Northmen came several times and harried the land.

To harry this beautiful region.
W. Irving.

A red squirrel had harried the nest of a wood thrush.
J. Burroughs.

2. To agitate; to worry; to harrow; to harass. Shak.

Syn. -- To ravage; plunder; pillage; lay waste; vex; tease; worry; annoy; harass.

Harry intransitive verb To make a predatory incursion; to plunder or lay waste. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.

Harsh (härsh) adjective [ Compar. Harsher (-ẽr); superl. Harshest .] [ Middle English harsk ; akin to German harsch , Danish harsk rancid, Swedish härsk ; from the same source as English hard . See Hard , adjective ]
1. Rough; disagreeable; grating ; esp.: (a) To the touch. " Harsh sand." Boyle. (b) To the taste. "Berries harsh and crude." Milton. (c) To the ear. " Harsh din." Milton.

2. Unpleasant and repulsive to the sensibilities; austere; crabbed; morose; abusive; abusive; severe; rough.

Clarence is so harsh , so blunt.
Shak.

Though harsh the precept, yet the preacher charmed.
Dryden.

3. (Painting, Drawing, etc.) Having violent contrasts of color, or of light and shade; lacking in harmony.

Harshly adverb In a harsh manner; gratingly; roughly; rudely.

'T will sound harshly in her ears.
Shak.

Harshness noun The quality or state of being harsh.

O, she is
Ten times more gentle than her father's crabbed,
And he's composed of harshness .
Shak.

'Tis not enough no harshness gives offense,
The sound must seem an echo to the sense.
Pope.

Syn. -- Acrimony; roughness; sternness; asperity; tartness. See Acrimony .

Harslet (härs"lĕt) noun See Haslet .

Hart (härt) noun [ Middle English hart , hert , heort , Anglo-Saxon heort , heorot ; akin to Dutch hert , Old High German hiruz , hirz , German hirsch , Icelandic hjörtr , Dan. & Swedish hjort , Latin cervus , and probably to Greek kerao`s horned, ke`ras horn. √230. See Horn .] (Zoology) A stag; the male of the red deer. See the Note under Buck .

Goodliest of all the forest, hart and hind.
Milton.

Hart's clover (härts" klō`vẽr). (Botany) Melilot or sweet clover. See Melilot .

Hart's-ear (-ēr`) noun (Botany) An Asiatic species of Cacalia ( C. Kleinia ), used medicinally in India.

Hart's-tongue (härts"tŭng`) noun (Botany) (a) A common British fern ( Scolopendrium vulgare ), rare in America. (b) A West Indian fern, the Polypodium Phyllitidis of Linnæus. It is also found in Florida.

Hartbeest (-bēst`) noun [ Dutch hertebeest . See Hart , and Beast .] (Zoology) A large South African antelope ( Alcelaphus caama ), formerly much more abundant than it is now. The face and legs are marked with black, the rump with white. [ Written also hartebeest , and hartebest .]

Harten (-'n) transitive verb To hearten; to encourage; to incite. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Hartford (härt"fẽrd) noun The Hartford grape, a variety of grape first raised at Hartford , Connecticut, from the Northern fox grape. Its large dark-colored berries ripen earlier than those of most other kinds.

Hartshorn (-hôrn`) noun
1. The horn or antler of the hart, or male red deer.

2. Spirits of hartshorn (see below); volatile salts.

Hartshorn plantain (Botany) , an annual species of plantain ( Plantago Coronopus ); -- called also buck's-horn . Booth. -- Hartshorn shavings , originally taken from the horns of harts, are now obtained chiefly by planing down the bones of calves. They afford a kind of jelly. Hebert. -- Salt of hartshorn (Chemistry) , an impure solid carbonate of ammonia, obtained by the destructive distillation of hartshorn, or any kind of bone; volatile salts. Brande & C. -- Spirits of hartshorn (Chemistry) , a solution of ammonia in water; -- so called because formerly obtained from hartshorn shavings by destructive distillation. Similar ammoniacal solutions from other sources have received the same name.

Hartwort (härt"wûrt`) noun (Botany) A coarse umbelliferous plant of Europe ( Tordylium maximum ).

» The name is often vaguely given to other plants of the same order, as species of Seseli and Bupleurum .

Harum-scarum (hâr"ŭm*skâr"ŭm) adjective [ Confer hare , transitive verb , and scare , transitive verb ] Wild; giddy; flighty; rash; thoughtless. [ Colloq.]

They had a quarrel with Sir Thomas Newcome's own son, a harum-scarum lad.
Thackeray.

Haruspication (hȧ*rŭs`pĭ*kā"shŭn) noun See Haruspicy . Tylor.

Haruspice (hȧ*rŭs"pĭs) noun [ French, from Latin haruspex .] A diviner of ancient Rome. Same as Aruspice .

Haruspicy (-pĭ*sȳ) noun The art or practices of haruspices. See Aruspicy .

Harvest (här"vĕst) noun [ Middle English harvest , hervest , Anglo-Saxon hærfest autumn; akin to LG. harfst , Dutch herfst , Old High German herbist , German herbst , and probably to Latin carpere to pluck, Greek karpo`s fruit. Confer Carpet .]
1. The gathering of a crop of any kind; the ingathering of the crops; also, the season of gathering grain and fruits, late summer or early autumn.

Seedtime and harvest . . . shall not cease.
Gen. viii. 22.

At harvest , when corn is ripe.
Tyndale.

2. That which is reaped or ready to be reaped or gathered; a crop, as of grain (wheat, maize, etc.), or fruit.

Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe.
Joel iii. 13.

To glean the broken ears after the man
That the main harvest reaps.
Shak.

3. The product or result of any exertion or labor; gain; reward.

The pope's principal harvest was in the jubilee.
Fuller.

The harvest of a quiet eye.
Wordsworth.

Harvest fish (Zoology) , a marine fish of the Southern United States ( Stromateus alepidotus ); -- called whiting in Virginia. Also applied to the dollar fish. -- Harvest fly (Zoology) , an hemipterous insect of the genus Cicada , often called locust . See Cicada . -- Harvest lord , the head reaper at a harvest. [ Obsolete] Tusser. -- Harvest mite (Zoology) , a minute European mite ( Leptus autumnalis ), of a bright crimson color, which is troublesome by penetrating the skin of man and domestic animals; -- called also harvest louse , and harvest bug . -- Harvest moon , the moon near the full at the time of harvest in England, or about the autumnal equinox, when, by reason of the small angle that is made by the moon's orbit with the horizon, it rises nearly at the same hour for several days. -- Harvest mouse (Zoology) , a very small European field mouse ( Mus minutus ). It builds a globular nest on the stems of wheat and other plants. -- Harvest queen , an image representing Ceres, formerly carried about on the last day of harvest. Milton. -- Harvest spider . (Zoology) See Daddy longlegs .

Harvest transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Harvested ; present participle & verbal noun Harvesting .] To reap or gather, as any crop.

Harvest-home (-hōm) noun
1. The gathering and bringing home of the harvest; the time of harvest.

Showed like a stubble land at harvest- home .
Shak.

2. The song sung by reapers at the feast made at the close of the harvest; the feast itself. Dryden.

3. A service of thanksgiving, at harvest time, in the Church of England and in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States.

4. The opportunity of gathering treasure. Shak.

Harvester (-ẽr) noun
1. One who harvests; a machine for cutting and gathering grain; a reaper.

2. (Zoology) A harvesting ant.

Harvesting adjective & noun , from Harvest , transitive verb

Harvesting ant (Zoology) , any species of ant which gathers and stores up seeds for food. Many species are known.

» The species found in Southern Europe and Palestine are Aphenogaster structor and A. barbara ; that of Texas, called agricultural ant , is Pogonomyrmex barbatus or Myrmica molifaciens ; that of Florida is P. crudelis . See Agricultural ant , under Agricultural .

Harvestless adjective Without harvest; lacking in crops; barren. " Harvestless autumns." Tennyson.

Harvestman (-m a n) noun ; plural Harvestmen (-m e n).
1. A man engaged in harvesting. Shak.

2. (Zoology) See Daddy longlegs , 1.

Harvestry (-rȳ) noun The act of harvesting; also, that which is harvested. Swinburne.

Harvey process (Metal.) A process of hardening the face of steel, as armor plates, invented by Hayward A. Harvey of New Jersey, consisting in the additional carburizing of the face of a piece of low carbon steel by subjecting it to the action of carbon under long-continued pressure at a very high heat, and then to a violent chilling, as by a spray of cold water. This process gives an armor plate a thick surface of extreme hardness supported by material gradually decreasing in hardness to the unaltered soft steel at the back.