Encyclo - Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Crustiness (-ĭ-nĕs) noun
1. The state or quality of having crust or being like crust; hardness.

2. The quality of being crusty or surly.

Old Christy forgot his usual crustiness .
W. Irving.

Crusty (-ȳ) adjective
1. Having the nature of crust; pertaining to a hard covering; as, a crusty coat; a crusty surface or substance.

2. [ Possibly a corruption of cursty . Confer Curst , Curstness .] Having a hard exterior, or a short, rough manner, though kind at heart; snappish; peevish; surly.

Thou crusty batch of nature, what's the news?
Shak.

Crut (krŭt) noun [ Confer French croûte crust.] The rough, shaggy part of oak bark.

Crutch (krŭch; 224) noun ; plural Crutches (-ĕz). [ Middle English crucche , Anglo-Saxon crycc , cricc ; akin to Dutch kruk , G. krücke , Danish krykke , Swedish krycka , and to English crook . See Crook , and confer Cricket a low stool.]
1. A staff with a crosspiece at the head, to be placed under the arm or shoulder, to support the lame or infirm in walking.

I'll lean upon one crutch , and fight with the other.
Shak.

Rhyme is a crutch that lifts the weak alone.
H. Smith.

2. A form of pommel for a woman's saddle, consisting of a forked rest to hold the leg of the rider.

3. (Nautical) (a) A knee, or piece of knee timber . (b) A forked stanchion or post; a crotch. See Crotch .

Crutch transitive verb To support on crutches; to prop up. [ R.]

Two fools that crutch their feeble sense on verse.
Dryden.

Crutched adjective
1. Supported upon crutches.

2. [ See Crouch , transitive verb , and Crouched , adjective ] Marked with the sign of the cross; crouched.

Crutched friar (Eccl.) , one of a religious order, so called because its members bore the sign of the cross on their staves and habits; -- called also crossed friar and crouched friar .

Cruth noun [ W. crwth .] (Mus.) See 4th Crowd .

Crux (krŭks) noun ; plural E. Cruxes (-ĕz), Latin Cruces (kru"sēz). [ Latin , cross, torture, trouble.] Anything that is very puzzling or difficult to explain. Dr. Sheridan.

The perpetual crux of New Testament chronologists.
Strauss.

Crux ansata [ Latin , cross with a handle.] A cross in the shape of the ankh.

Cruzado noun A coin. See Crusado .

Crwth (krōth) noun [ W.] (Mus.) See 4th Crowd .

Cry (krī) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cried (krīd); present participle & verbal noun Crying .] [ French crier , confer Latin quiritare to raise a plaintive cry, scream, shriek, perhaps from queri to complain; confer Sanskrit cvas to pant, hiss, sigh. Confer Quarrel a brawl, Querulous .]
1. To make a loud call or cry; to call or exclaim vehemently or earnestly; to shout; to vociferate; to proclaim; to pray; to implore.

And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried with a loud voice.
Matt. xxvii. 46.

Clapping their hands, and crying with loud voice.
Shak.

Hear the voice of my supplications when I cry unto thee.
Ps. xxviii. 2.

The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord.
Is. xl. 3.

Some cried after him to return.
Bunyan.

2. To utter lamentations; to lament audibly; to express pain, grief, or distress, by weeping and sobbing; to shed tears; to bawl, as a child.

Ye shall cry for sorrow of heart.
Is. lxv. 14.

I could find it in my heart to disgrace my man's apparel and to cry like a woman.
Shak.

3. To utter inarticulate sounds, as animals.

The young ravens which cry .
Ps. cxlvii. 9.

In a cowslip's bell I lie
There I couch when owls do cry .
Shak.

To cry on or upon , to call upon the name of; to beseech. "No longer on Saint Denis will we cry ." Shak. -- To cry out . (a) To exclaim; to vociferate; to scream; to clamor. (b) To complain loudly; to lament. -- To cry out against , to complain loudly of; to censure; to blame. -- To cry out on or upon , to denounce; to censure. " Cries out upon abuses." Shak. -- To cry to , to call on in prayer; to implore. -- To cry you mercy , to beg your pardon. "I cry you mercy , madam; was it you?" Shak.

Cry transitive verb
1. To utter loudly; to call out; to shout; to sound abroad; to declare publicly.

All, all, cry shame against ye, yet I 'll speak.
Shak.

The man . . . ran on, crying , Life! life! Eternal life!
Bunyan.

2. To cause to do something, or bring to some state, by crying or weeping; as, to cry one's self to sleep.

3. To make oral and public proclamation of; to declare publicly; to notify or advertise by outcry, especially things lost or found, goods to be sold, ets.; as, to cry goods, etc.

Love is lost, and thus she cries him.
Crashaw.

4. Hence, to publish the banns of, as for marriage.

I should not be surprised if they were cried in church next Sabbath.
Judd.

To cry aim . See under Aim . - - To cry down , to decry; to depreciate; to dispraise; to condemn.

Men of dissolute lives cry down religion, because they would not be under the restraints of it.
Tillotson.

-- To cry out , to proclaim; to shout. "Your gesture cries it out ." Shak. -- To cry quits , to propose, or declare, the abandonment of a contest. -- To cry up , to enhance the value or reputation of by public and noisy praise; to extol; to laud publicly or urgently.

Cry noun ; plural Cries (kr...z). [ French cri , from crier to cry. See Cry , intransitive verb ]
1. A loud utterance; especially, the inarticulate sound produced by one of the lower animals; as, the cry of hounds; the cry of wolves. Milton.

2. Outcry; clamor; tumult; popular demand.

Again that cry was found to have been as unreasonable as ever.
Macaulay.

3. Any expression of grief, distress, etc., accompanied with tears or sobs; a loud sound, uttered in lamentation.

There shall be a great cry throughout all the land.
Ex. xi. 6.

An infant crying in the night,
An infant crying for the light;
And with no language but a cry .
Tennyson.

4. Loud expression of triumph or wonder or of popular acclamation or favor. Swift.

The cry went once on thee.
Shak.

5. Importunate supplication.

O, the most piteous cry of the poor souls.
Shak.

6. Public advertisement by outcry; proclamation, as by hawkers of their wares.

The street cries of London.
Mayhew.

7. Common report; fame.

The cry goes that you shall marry her.
Shak.

8. A word or phrase caught up by a party or faction and repeated for effect; as, the party cry of the Tories.

All now depends upon a good cry .
Beaconsfield.

9. A pack of hounds. Milton.

A cry more tunable
Was never hollaed to, nor cheered with horn.
Shak.

10. A pack or company of persons; -- in contempt.

Would not this . . . get me a fellowship in a cry of players?
Shak.

11. The crackling noise made by block tin when it is bent back and forth.

A far cry , a long distance; -- in allusion to the sending of criers or messengers through the territory of a Scottish clan with an announcement or summons.

Cryal noun [ Confer W. creyr , cryr , crychydd . Confer Cruer a hawk.] The heron [ Obsolete] Ainsworth.

Cryer noun [ French faucon gruyer a falcon trained to fly at the crane, from crye crane, from Latin crus crane. Confer Cryal .] The female of the hawk; a falcon-gentil.

Crying adjective Calling for notice; compelling attention; notorious; heinous; as, a crying evil.

Too much fondness for meditative retirement is not the crying sin of our modern Christianity.
I. Taylor.

Cryohydrate noun [ Greek kry`os cold + E. hydrate .] (Chemistry) A substance, as salt, ammonium chloride, etc., which crystallizes with water of crystallization only at low temperatures, or below the freezing point of water. F. Guthrie.

Cryolite noun [ Greek kry`os icy cold, frost + -lite : confer French cryolithe .] (Min.) A fluoride of sodium and aluminum, found in Greenland, in white cleavable masses; -- used as a source of soda and alumina.

Cryometer noun [ Greek ... cold, frost + -meter .] (Physics) A thermometer for the measurement of low temperatures, esp. such an instrument containing alcohol or some other liquid of a lower freezing point than mercury.

Cryophorus (kri*ŏf"o*rŭs) noun [ New Latin , from Greek kry`os icy cold, frost + fe`rein to bear.] (Chemistry) An instrument used to illustrate the freezing of water by its own evaporation. The ordinary form consists of two glass bulbs, connected by a tube of the same material, and containing only a quantity of water and its vapor, devoid of air. The water is in one of the bulbs, and freezes when the other is cooled below 32° Fahr.

Crypt (krĭpt) noun [ Latin crypta vault, crypt, Greek kry`pth , from kry`ptein to hide. See Grot , Grotto .]
1. A vault wholly or partly under ground; especially, a vault under a church, whether used for burial purposes or for a subterranean chapel or oratory.

Priesthood works out its task age after age, . . . treasuring in convents and crypts the few fossils of antique learning.
Motley.

My knees are bowed in crypt and shrine.
Tennyson.

2. (Anat.) A simple gland, glandular cavity, or tube; a follicle; as, the crypts of Lieberkühn, the simple tubular glands of the small intestines.

Cryptal (- a l) adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to crypts.

Cryptic (krĭp"tĭk), Cryp"tic*al (-t?-k a l) adjective [ Latin crypticus , Greek kryptiko`s , from kry`ptein to hide.] Hidden; secret; occult. "Her [ nature's] more cryptic ways of working." Glanvill.

Cryptically adverb Secretly; occultly.

Cryptidine noun [ Greek krypto`s hidden.] (Chemistry) One of the quinoline bases, obtained from coal tar as an oily liquid, C 11 H 11 N; also, any one of several substances metameric with, and resembling, cryptidine proper.

Cryptobranchiata noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek krypto`s hidden + Latin branchia a gill.] (Zoology) (a) A division of the Amphibia; the Derotremata. (b) A group of nudibranch mollusks.

Cryptobranchiate adjective (Zoology) Having concealed or rudimentary gills.

Cryptocrystalline adjective [ Greek krypto`s hidden + English crystalline .] (Geol.) Indistinctly crystalline; -- applied to rocks and minerals, whose state of aggregation is so fine that no distinct particles are visible, even under the microscope.

Cryptogam noun [ Confer F. cryptogame . See Cryptogamia .] (Botany) A plant belonging to the Cryptogamia. Henslow.

Cryptogamia noun ; plural Cryptogamiæ (-...). [ New Latin , from Greek krypto`s hidden, secret + ga`mos marriage.] (Botany) The series or division of flowerless plants, or those never having true stamens and pistils, but propagated by spores of various kinds.

» The subdivisions have been variously arranged. The following arrangement recognizes four classes: --

I. Pteridophyta , or Vascular Acrogens . These include Ferns , Equiseta or Scouring rushes, Lycopodiaceæ or Club mosses, Selaginelleæ , and several other smaller orders. Here belonged also the extinct coal plants called Lepidodendron , Sigillaria , and Calamites .

II. Bryophita , or Cellular Acrogens . These include Musci , or Mosses, Hepaticæ , or Scale mosses and Liverworts, and possibly Characeæ , the Stoneworts.

III. Algæ , which are divided into Florideæ , the Red Seaweeds, and the orders Dictyoteæ , Oösporeæ , Zoösporeæ , Conjugatæ , Diatomaceæ , and Cryptophyceæ .

IV. Fungi . The molds, mildews, mushrooms, puffballs, etc., which are variously grouped into several subclasses and many orders. The Lichenes or Lichens are now considered to be of a mixed nature, each plant partly a Fungus and partly an Alga.

Cryptogamian (kr?p`t?-g?"m?-a]/> n), Cryp`to*gam"ic (kr?p`t?-g?m"?k), Cryp*to"gam*ous adjective Of or pertaining to the series Cryptogamia, or to plants of that series.

Cryptogamist noun One skilled in cryptogamic botany.

Cryptogram noun A cipher writing. Same as Cryptograph .

Cryptograph noun [ Greek krypto`s hidden + -graph : confer French cryptographe .] Cipher; something written in cipher. "Decipherers of cryptograph ." J. Earle.

Cryptographal adjective Pertaining to cryptography; cryptographical. Boyle.

Cryptographer noun One who writes in cipher, or secret characters.

Cryptographic (kr?p`t?-gr?f"?k), Cryp`to*graph"ic*al (kr?p`t?-gr?f"?-k a l) adjective Relating to cryptography; written in secret characters or in cipher, or with sympathetic ink.

Cryptographist noun Same as Cryptographer .

Cryptography noun [ Confer French cryptographie .] The act or art of writing in secret characters; also, secret characters, or cipher.

Cryptology noun [ Greek krypto`s hidden + -logy .] Secret or enigmatical language. Johnson.

Cryptonym noun [ Greek ............ secret + ............ name.] A secret name; a name by which a person is known only to the initiated.

Cryptopine noun [ Greek krypto`s hidden + English op ium.] (Chemistry) A colorless crystalline alkaloid obtained in small quantities from opium.

Crypturi (krĭp*tū"rī) noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek krypto`s hidden + o'yra` tail.] (Zoology) An order of flying, dromæognathous birds, including the tinamous of South America. See Tinamou .

Crystal (krĭs"t a l) noun [ Middle English cristal , F. cristal , Latin crystallum crystal, ice, from Greek kry`stallos , from kry`os icy cold, frost; confer Anglo-Saxon crystalla , from Latin crystallum ; probably akin to E. crust . See Crust , Raw .]
1. (Chem. & Min.) The regular form which a substance tends to assume in solidifying, through the inherent power of cohesive attraction. It is bounded by plane surfaces, symmetrically arranged, and each species of crystal has fixed axial ratios. See Crystallization .

2. The material of quartz, in crystallization transparent or nearly so, and either colorless or slightly tinged with gray, or the like; -- called also rock crystal . Ornamental vessels are made of it. Confer Smoky quartz , Pebble ; also Brazilian pebble , under Brazilian .

3. A species of glass, more perfect in its composition and manufacture than common glass, and often cut into ornamental forms. See Flint glass .

4. The glass over the dial of a watch case.

5. Anything resembling crystal, as clear water, etc.

The blue crystal of the seas.
Byron.

Blood crystal . See under Blood . -- Compound crystal . See under Compound . -- Iceland crystal , a transparent variety of calcite, or crystallized calcium carbonate, brought from Iceland, and used in certain optical instruments, as the polariscope. -- Rock crystal , or Mountain crystal , any transparent crystal of quartz, particularly of limpid or colorless quartz.

Crystal adjective Consisting of, or like, crystal; clear; transparent; lucid; pellucid; crystalline.

Through crystal walls each little mote will peep.
Shak.

By crystal streams that murmur through the meads.
Dryden.

The crystal pellets at the touch congeal,
And from the ground rebounds the ratting hail.
H. Brooks.

Crystallin noun (Physiol. Chem.) See Gobulin .

Crystalline adjective [ Latin crystallinus , from Greek ............: confer F. cristallin . See Crystal .]
1. Consisting, or made, of crystal.

Mount, eagle, to my palace crystalline .
Shak.

2. Formed by crystallization; like crystal in texture.

Their crystalline structure.
Whewell.

3. Imperfectly crystallized; as, granite is only crystalline , while quartz crystal is perfectly crystallized.

4. Fig.: Resembling crystal; pure; transparent; pellucid. "The crystalline sky." Milton.

Crystalline heavens , or Crystalline spheres , in the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, two transparent spheres imagined to exist between the region of the fixed stars and the primum mobile (or outer circle of the heavens, which by its motion was supposed to carry round all those within it), in order to explain certain movements of the heavenly bodies. -- Crystalline lens (Anat.) , the capsular lenslike body in the eye, serving to focus the rays of light. It consists of rodlike cells derived from the external embryonic epithelium.

Crystalline noun
1. A crystalline substance.

2. See Aniline . [ Obsolete]

Crystallite noun [ See Crystal .] (Min.) A minute mineral form like those common in glassy volcanic rocks and some slags, not having a definite crystalline outline and not referable to any mineral species, but marking the first step in the crystallization process. According to their form crystallites are called trichites , belonites , globulites , etc.