Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Crook (krok) noun [ Middle English crok ; akin to Icelandic krokr hook, bend, SW. krok , Danish krog , OD. krooke ; or confer Gael. crocan crook, hook, W. crwca crooked. Confer Crosier , Crotchet , Crutch , Encroach .]
1. A bend, turn, or curve; curvature; flexure.

Through lanes, and crooks , and darkness.
Phaer.

2. Any implement having a bent or crooked end. Especially: (a) The staff used by a shepherd, the hook of which serves to hold a runaway sheep. (b) A bishop's staff of office. Confer Pastoral staff .

He left his crook , he left his flocks .
Prior.

3. A pothook. "As black as the crook ." Sir W. Scott.

4. An artifice; trick; tricky device; subterfuge.

For all yuor brags, hooks, and crooks .
Cranmer.

5. (Mus.) A small tube, usually curved, applied to a trumpet, horn, etc., to change its pitch or key.

6. A person given to fraudulent practices; an accomplice of thieves, forgers, etc. [ Cant, U.S.]

By hook or by crook , in some way or other; by fair means or foul.

Crook transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Crooked (kr??kt); present participle & verbal noun Crooking .] [ Middle English croken ; confer Swedish kr...ka , Danish kr...ge . See Crook, noun ]
1. To turn from a straight line; to bend; to curve.

Crook the pregnant hinges of the knee.
Shak.

2. To turn from the path of rectitude; to pervert; to misapply; to twist. [ Archaic]

There is no one thing that crooks youth more than such unlawfull games.
Ascham.

What soever affairs pass such a man's hands, he crooketh them to his own ends.
Bacon.

Crook intransitive verb To bend; to curve; to wind; to have a curvature. " The port . . . crooketh like a bow." Phaer.

Their shoes and pattens are snouted, and piked more than a finger long, crooking upwards.
Camden.

Crookback (krok"băk`) noun A crooked back; one who has a crooked or deformed back; a hunchback.

Crookback adjective Hunched. Shak.

Crookbill noun (Zoöl) A New Zealand plover ( Anarhynchus frontalis ), remarkable for having the end of the beak abruptly bent to the right.

Crooked adjective
1. Characterized by a crook or curve; not straight; turning; bent; twisted; deformed. " Crooked paths." Locke.

he is deformed, crooked , old, and sere.
Shak.

2. Not straightforward; deviating from rectitude; distorted from the right.

They are a perverse and crooked generation.
Deut. xxxii. 5.

3. False; dishonest; fraudulent; as, crooked dealings.

Crooked whisky , whisky on which the payment of duty has been fraudulently evaded. [ Slang, U.S.] Barlett.

Crookedly adverb In a curved or crooked manner; in a perverse or untoward manner.

Crookedness noun The condition or quality of being crooked; hence, deformity of body or of mind; deviation from moral rectitude; perverseness.

Crooken transitive verb To make crooked. [ Obsolete]

Crookes space (kroks). [ After Sir William Crookes , English chemist, who first described it.] (Physics) The dark space within the negative-pole glow at the cathode of a vacuum tube, observed only when the pressure is low enough to give a striated discharge; -- called also Crookes layer .

Crookes tube (kr??ks" t?b`). (Physics ) A vacuum tube in which the exhaustion is carried to a very high degree, with the production of a distinct class of effects; -- so called from W. Crookes who introduced it.

Crookneck noun Either of two varieties of squash, distinguished by their tapering, recurved necks. The summer crookneck is botanically a variety of the pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and matures early in the season. It is pale yellow in color, with warty excrescences. The winter crookneck belongs to a distinct species ( C. moschata ) and is smooth and often striped. [ U. S.]

Croon (krōn) intransitive verb [ Middle English croinen , confer D. kreunen to moan. √24.]
1. To make a continuous hollow moan, as cattle do when in pain. [ Scot.] Jamieson.

2. To hum or sing in a low tone; to murmur softly.

Here an old grandmother was crooning over a sick child, and rocking it to and fro.
Dickens.

Croon transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Crooned (krōnd); present participle & verbal noun Crooning .]
1. To sing in a low tone, as if to one's self; to hum.

Hearing such stanzas crooned in her praise.
C. Bronté.

2. To soothe by singing softly.

The fragment of the childish hymn with which he sung and crooned himself asleep.
Dickens.

Croon noun
1. A low, continued moan; a murmur.

2. A low singing; a plain, artless melody.

Crop (krŏp) noun [ Middle English crop , croppe , craw, top of a plant, harvest, Anglo-Saxon crop , cropp , craw, top, bunch, ear of corn; akin to Dutch krop craw, German kropf , Icelandic kroppr hump or bunch on the body, body; but confer also W. cropa , croppa , crop or craw of a bird, Ir. & Gael. sgroban . Confer Croup , Crupper , Croup .]
1. The pouchlike enlargement of the gullet of birds, serving as a receptacle for food; the craw.

2. The top, end, or highest part of anything, especially of a plant or tree. [ Obsolete] " Crop and root." Chaucer.

3. That which is cropped, cut, or gathered from a single felld, or of a single kind of grain or fruit, or in a single season; especially, the product of what is planted in the earth; fruit; harvest.

Lab'ring the soil, and reaping plenteous crop ,
Corn, wine, and oil.
Milton.

4. Grain or other product of the field while standing.

5. Anything cut off or gathered.

Guiltless of steel, and from the razor free,
It falls a plenteous crop reserved for thee.
Dryden.

6. Hair cut close or short, or the act or style of so cutting; as, a convict's crop .

7. (Architecture) A projecting ornament in carved stone. Specifically, a finial. [ Obsolete]

8. (Mining.) (a) Tin ore prepared for smelting. (b) Outcrop of a vein or seam at the surface. Knight.

9. A riding whip with a loop instead of a lash.

Neck and crop , altogether; roughly and at once. [ Colloq.]

Crop transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Cropped (kr?pt); present participle & verbal noun Cropping .]
1. To cut off the tops or tips of; to bite or pull off; to browse; to pluck; to mow; to reap.

I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one.
Ezek. xvii. 22.

2. Fig.: To cut off, as if in harvest.

Death . . . . crops the growing boys.
Creech.

3. To cause to bear a crop; as, to crop a field.

Crop intransitive verb To yield harvest.

To crop out . (a) (Geol.) To appear above the surface, as a seam or vein, or inclined bed, as of coal. (b) To come to light; to be manifest; to appear; as, the peculiarities of an author crop out . -- To crop up , to sprout; to spring up. "Cares crop up in villas." Beaconsfield.

Crop-ear noun A person or animal whose ears are cropped.

Crop-eared adjective Having the ears cropped.

Crop-tailed adjective Having the tail cropped.

Cropful adjective Having a full crop or belly; satiated. Milton.

Cropper (krŏp"pẽr) noun
1. One that crops.

2. A variety of pigeon with a large crop; a pouter.

3. (Mech.) A machine for cropping, as for shearing off bolts or rod iron, or for facing cloth.

4. A fall on one's head when riding at full speed, as in hunting; hence, a sudden failure or collapse. [ Slang.]

Cropsick adjective Sick from excess in eating or drinking. [ Obsolete] " Cropsick drunkards." Tate. -- Crop"sick`ness , noun [ Obsolete] Whitlock.

Croquante noun [ French] A brittle cake or other crisp pastry.

Cross transitive verb -- To cross a check (Eng. Banking) , to draw two parallel transverse lines across the face of a check, with or without adding between them the words "and company", with or without the words "not negotiable", or to draw the transverse lines simply, with or without the words "not negotiable" (the check in any of these cases being crossed generally ). Also, to write or print across the face of a check the name of a banker, with or without the words "not negotiable" (the check being then crossed specially ). A check crossed generally is payable only when presented through a bank; one crossed specially, only when presented through the bank mentioned.

Croquet noun [ From French; confer Walloon croque blow, fillip. French croquet a crisp biscuit, croquer to crunch, from croc a crackling sound, of imitative origin. Croquet then properly meant a smart tap on the ball.]


1. An open-air game in which two or more players endeavor to drive wooden balls, by means of mallets, through a series of hoops or arches set in the ground according to some pattern.

2. The act of croqueting.

Croquet transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Croqueted (-k?d); present participle & verbal noun Croqueting (-k?"?ng).] In the game of croquet, to drive away an opponent's ball, after putting one's own in contact with it, by striking one's own ball with the mallet.

Croquette noun [ French, from croquer to crunch.] (Cookery) A ball of minced meat, fowl, rice, or other ingredients, highly seasoned, and fried.

Crore (krōr) noun [ Hind. karor , Sanskrit koti .] Ten millions; as, a crore of rupees (which is nearly $5,000,000). [ East Indies] Malcolm.

Crosier noun [ Middle English rocer , croser , croyser , from croce crosier, Old French croce , croche , F. crosse , from Late Latin crocea , crocia , from the same German or Celtic sourse as French croc hook; akin to English crook .] The pastoral staff of a bishop (also of an archbishop, being the symbol of his office as a shepherd of the flock of God.

» The true shape of the crosier was with a hooked or curved top; the archbishop's staff alone bore a cross instead of a crook, and was of exceptional, not of regular form. Skeat.

Crosiered adjective Bearing a crosier.

Croslet noun See Crosslet .

Cross (krŏs; 115) noun [ Middle English crois , croys , cros ; the former from Old French crois , croiz , F. croix , from Latin crux ; the second is perhaps directly from Prov. cros , crotz . from the same Latin crux ; confer Icelandic kross . Confer Crucial , Crusade , Cruise , Crux .]


1. A gibbet, consisting of two pieces of timber placed transversely upon one another, in various forms, as a T , or +, with the horizontal piece below the upper end of the upright, or as an X . It was anciently used in the execution of criminals.

Nailed to the cross
By his own nation.
Milton.

2. The sign or mark of the cross, made with the finger, or in ink, etc., or actually represented in some material; the symbol of Christ's death; the ensign and chosen symbol of Christianity, of a Christian people, and of Christendom.

The custom of making the sign of the cross with the hand or finger, as a means of conferring blessing or preserving from evil, is very old.
Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

Before the cross has waned the crescent's ray.
Sir W. Scott.

Tis where the cross is preached.
Cowper.

3. Affiction regarded as a test of patience or virtue; trial; disappointment; opposition; misfortune.

Heaven prepares a good man with crosses .
B. Jonson.

4. A piece of money stamped with the figure of a cross, also, that side of such a piece on which the cross is stamped; hence, money in general.

I should bear no cross if I did bear you; for I think you have no money in your purse.
Shak.

5. An appendage or ornament or anything in the form of a cross; a badge or ornamental device of the general shape of a cross; hence, such an ornament, even when varying considerably from that form; thus, the Cross of the British Order of St. George and St. Michael consists of a central medallion with seven arms radiating from it.

6. (Architecture) A monument in the form of a cross, or surmounted by a cross, set up in a public place; as, a market cross ; a boundary cross ; Charing Cross in London.

Dun-Edin's Cross , a pillared stone,
Rose on a turret octagon.
Sir W. Scott.

7. (Her.) A common heraldic bearing, of which there are many varieties. See the Illustration, above.

8. The crosslike mark or symbol used instead of a signature by those unable to write.

Five Kentish abbesses . . . .subscribed their names and crosses .
Fuller.

9. Church lands. [ Ireland] [ Obsolete] Sir J. Davies.

10. A line drawn across or through another line.

11. Hence: A mixing of breeds or stock, especially in cattle breeding; or the product of such intermixture; a hybrid of any kind.

Toning down the ancient Viking into a sort of a cross between Paul Jones and Jeremy Diddler.
Lord Dufferin.

12. (Surveying) An instrument for laying of offsets perpendicular to the main course.

13. (Mech.) A pipe-fitting with four branches the axes of which usually form's right angle.

Cross and pile , a game with money, at which it is put to chance whether a coin shall fall with that side up which bears the cross, or the other, which is called pile , or reverse ; the game called heads or tails . -- Cross bottony or bottoné . See under Bottony . -- Cross estoilé (Her.) . a cross, each of whose arms is pointed like the ray of a star; that is, a star having four long points only. -- Cross of Calvary . See Calvary , 3. -- Southern cross . (Astron.) See under Southern . -- To do a thing on the cross , to act dishonestly; -- opposed to acting on the square . [ Slang] -- To take up the cross , to bear troubles and afflictions with patience from love to Christ.

Cross (krŏs) adjective
1. Not parallel; lying or falling athwart; transverse; oblique; intersecting.

The cross refraction of the second prism.
Sir I. Newton.

2. Not accordant with what is wished or expected; interrupting; adverse; contrary; thwarting; perverse. "A cross fortune." Jer. Taylor.

The cross and unlucky issue of my design.
Glanvill.

The article of the resurrection seems to lie marvelously cross to the common experience of mankind.
South.

We are both love's captives, but with fates so cross ,
One must be happy by the other's loss.
Dryden.

3. Characterized by, or in a state of, peevishness, fretfulness, or ill humor; as, a cross man or woman.

He had received a cross answer from his mistress.
Jer. Taylor.

4. Made in an opposite direction, or an inverse relation; mutually inverse; interchanged; as, cross interrogatories; cross marriages, as when a brother and sister marry persons standing in the same relation to each other.

Cross action (Law) , an action brought by a party who is sued against the person who has sued him, upon the same subject matter, as upon the same contract. Burrill. -- Cross aisle (Architecture) , a transept; the lateral divisions of a cruciform church. -- Cross axle . (a) (Machinery) A shaft, windlass, or roller, worked by levers at opposite ends, as in the copperplate printing press. (b) A driving axle, with cranks set at an angle of 90° with each other. -- Cross bedding (Geol.) , oblique lamination of horizontal beds. -- Cross bill . See in the Vocabulary. -- Cross bitt . Same as Crosspiece . -- Cross bond , a form of bricklaying, in which the joints of one stretcher course come midway between those of the stretcher courses above and below, a course of headers and stretchers intervening. See Bond , noun , 8. -- Cross breed . See in the Vocabulary. -- Cross breeding . See under Breeding . -- Cross buttock , a particular throw in wrestling; hence, an unexpected defeat or repulse. Smollet. -- Cross country , across the country; not by the road. "The cross-country ride." Cowper. -- Cross fertilization , the fertilization of the female products of one physiological individual by the male products of another, -- as the fertilization of the ovules of one plant by pollen from another. See Fertilization . -- Cross file , a double convex file, used in dressing out the arms or crosses of fine wheels. -- Cross fire (Mil.) , lines of fire, from two or more points or places, crossing each other. -- Cross forked . (Her.) See under Forked . -- Cross frog . See under Frog . -- Cross furrow , a furrow or trench cut across other furrows to receive the water running in them and conduct it to the side of the field. -- Cross handle , a handle attached transversely to the axis of a tool, as in the augur. Knight. -- Cross lode (Mining) , a vein intersecting the true or principal lode. -- Cross purpose . See Cross-purpose , in the Vocabulary. -- Cross reference , a reference made from one part of a book or register to another part, where the same or an allied subject is treated of. -- Cross sea (Nautical) , a chopping sea, in which the waves run in contrary directions. -- Cross stroke , a line or stroke across something, as across the letter t . -- Cross wind , a side wind; an unfavorable wind. -- Cross wires , fine wires made to traverse the field of view in a telescope, and moved by a screw with a graduated head, used for delicate astronomical observations; spider lines. Fixed cross wires are also used in microscopes, etc.

Syn. -- Fretful; peevish. See Fretful .

Cross preposition Athwart; across. [ Archaic or Colloq.]

A fox was taking a walk one night cross a village.
L'Estrange.

To go cross lots , to go across the fields; to take a short cut. [ Colloq.]

Cross transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Crossed (kr?st; 115); present participle & verbal noun Crossing .]
1. To put across or athwart; to cause to intersect; as, to cross the arms.

2. To lay or draw something, as a line, across; as, to cross the letter t .

3. To pass from one side to the other of; to pass or move over; to traverse; as, to cross a stream.

A hunted hare . . . crosses and confounds her former track.
I. Watts.

4. To pass, as objects going in an opposite direction at the same time. "Your kind letter crossed mine." J. D. Forbes.

5. To run counter to; to thwart; to obstruct; to hinder; to clash or interfere with.

In each thing give him way; cross him in nothing.
Shak.

An oyster may be crossed in love.
Sheridan.

6. To interfere and cut off; to debar. [ Obsolete]

To cross me from the golden time I look for.
Shak.

7. To make the sign of the cross upon; -- followed by the reflexive pronoun; as, he crossed himself.

8. To cancel by marking crosses on or over, or drawing a line across; to erase; -- usually with out , off , or over ; as, to cross out a name.

9. To cause to interbreed; -- said of different stocks or races; to mix the breed of.

To cross one's path , to oppose one's plans. Macaulay.

Cross intransitive verb
1. To lie or be athwart.

2. To move or pass from one side to the other, or from place to place; to make a transit; as, to cross from New York to Liverpool.

3. To be inconsistent. [ Obsolete]

Men's actions do not always cross with reason.
Sir P. Sidney.

4. To interbreed, as races; to mix distinct breeds.

If two individuals of distinct races cross , a third is invariably produced different from either.
Coleridge.

Cross-armed adjective With arms crossed.

Cross-banded adjective A term used when a narrow ribbon of veneer is inserted into the surface of any piece of furniture, wainscoting, etc., so that the grain of it is contrary to the general surface.

Cross-bearer noun (R. C. Ch.) A subdeacon who bears a cross before an archbishop or primate on solemn occasions.

Cross-birth (-bẽrth`) noun (Medicine) Any preternatural labor, in which the body of the child lies across the pelvis of the mother, so that the shoulder, arm, or trunk is the part first presented at the mouth of the uterus.

Crossbar (-bär`) noun A transverse bar or piece, as a bar across a door, or as the iron bar or stock which passes through the shank of an anchor to insure its turning fluke down. Russell.

Crossbar shot , a projectile which folds into a sphere for loading, but on leaving the gun expands to a cross with a quarter ball at the end of each arm; -- used in naval actions for cutting the enemy's rigging.

Crossbarred (-bärd`) adjective
1. Secured by, or furnished with, crossbars. Milton.

2. Made or patterned in lines crossing each other; as, crossbarred muslin.

Crossbeak (-bēk`) noun (Zoology) Same as Crossbill .

Crossbeam (-bēm`). noun
1. (Architecture) A girder.

2. (Nautical) A beam laid across the bitts, to which the cable is fastened when riding at anchor.

Crossbill (-bĭl`). (Law) A bill brought by a defendant, in an equity or chancery suit, against the plaintiff, respecting the matter in question in that suit. Bouvier.

» In criminal practice, cross bills of indictment for assault, in which the prosecutor in once case is the defendant in another, may be tried together.

Crossbill noun (Zoology) A bird of the genus Loxia , allied to the finches. Their mandibles are strongly curved and cross each other; the crossbeak.

Crossbite (-bīt`) noun A deception; a cheat. [ Obsolete]

Crossbite transitive verb To deceive; to trick; to gull. [ Obsolete]

Crossbones (-bōnz`) noun plural A representation of two of the leg bones or arm bones of a skeleton, laid crosswise, often surmounted with a skull, and serving as a symbol of death.

Crossbones , scythes, hourglasses, and other lugubrious emblems of mortality.
Hawthorne.

Crossbow (-bō`) noun (Archery) A weapon, used in discharging arrows, formed by placing a bow crosswise on a stock.