Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Viduation noun The state of being widowed or bereaved; loss; bereavement. [ R.]

Viduity noun [ Latin viduitas : confer French viduité .] Widowhood. [ R.] "Chaste viduity ." Ld. Ellenborough.

Vie intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Vied ; present participle & verbal noun Vying .] [ Middle English vien , shortened from envien , Old French envier to invite, to challenge, a word used in gambling, Latin invitare to invite; of uncertain origin. Confer Invite , Envie .]
1. To stake a sum upon a hand of cards, as in the old game of gleek. See Revie . [ Obsolete]

2. To strive for superiority; to contend; to use emulous effort, as in a race, contest, or competition.

In a trading nation, the younger sons may be placed in such a way of life as . . . to vie with the best of their family.
Addison.

While Waterloo with Cannæ's carnage vies .
Byron.

Vie transitive verb
1. To stake; to wager. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

2. To do or produce in emulation, competition, or rivalry; to put in competition; to bandy. [ Obsolete]

She hung about my neck; and kiss on kiss
She vied so fast.
Shak.

Nor was he set over us to vie wisdom with his Parliament, but to be guided by them.
Milton.

And vying malice with my gentleness,
Pick quarrels with their only happiness.
Herbert.

Vie noun A contest for superiority; competition; rivalry; strife; also, a challenge; a wager. [ Obsolete]

We 'll all to church together instantly,
And then a vie for boys.
J. Fletcher.

Vielle noun [ French Confer Viol .] An old stringed instrument played upon with a wheel; a hurdy- gurdy.

Vienna paste (Pharm.) A caustic application made up of equal parts of caustic potash and quicklime; -- called also Vienna caustic .

Viennese adjective Of or pertaining to Vienna, or people of Vienna. -- noun sing. & plural An inhabitant, or the inhabitants, of Vienna.

Vierkleur noun [ Dutch, from vier four + kleur color, French couleur .] The four-colored flag of the South African Republic, or Transvaal, -- red, white, blue, and green.

View noun [ Old French veue , French vue , from Old French veoir to see, past participle veu , French voir , past participle vu , from Latin videre to see. See Vision , and cl. Interview , Purview , Review , Vista .]
1. The act of seeing or beholding; sight; look; survey; examination by the eye; inspection.

Thenceforth I thought thee worth my nearer view .
Milton.

Objects near our view are thought greater than those of a larger size are more remote.
Locke.

Surveying nature with too nice a view .
Dryden.

2. Mental survey; intellectual perception or examination; as, a just view of the arguments or facts in a case.

I have with exact view perused thee, Hector.
Shak.

3. Power of seeing, either physically or mentally; reach or range of sight; extent of prospect.

The walls of Pluto's palace are in view .
Dryden.

4. That which is seen or beheld; sight presented to the natural or intellectual eye; scene; prospect; as, the view from a window.

'T is distance lends enchantment to the view .
Campbell.

5. The pictorial representation of a scene; a sketch, ...ither drawn or painted; as, a fine view of Lake George.

6. Mode of looking at anything; manner of apprehension; conception; opinion; judgment; as, to state one's views of the policy which ought to be pursued.

To give a right view of this mistaken part of liberty.
Locke.

7. That which is looked towards, or kept in sight, as object, aim, intention, purpose, design; as, he did it with a view of escaping.

No man sets himself about anything but upon some view or other which serves him for a reason.
Locke.

8. Appearance; show; aspect. [ Obsolete]

[ Graces] which, by the splendor of her view
Dazzled, before we never knew.
Waller.

Field of view . See under Field . -- Point of view . See under Point . -- To have in view , to have in mind as an incident, object, or aim; as, to have one's resignation in view . - - View halloo , the shout uttered by a hunter upon seeing the fox break cover. -- View of frankpledge (Law) , a court of record, held in a hundred, lordship, or manor, before the steward of the leet. Blackstone. -- View of premises (Law) , the inspection by the jury of the place where a litigated transaction is said to have occurred.

View transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Viewed ; present participle & verbal noun Viewing .]
1. To see; to behold; especially, to look at with attention, or for the purpose of examining; to examine with the eye; to inspect; to explore.

O, let me view his visage, being dead.
Shak.

Nearer to view his prey, and, unespied,
To mark what of their state he more might learn.
Milton.

2. To survey or examine mentally; to consider; as, to view the subject in all its aspects.

The happiest youth, viewing his progress through.
Shak.

Viewer noun
1. One who views or examines.

2. (Law) A person appointed to inspect highways, fences, or the like, and to report upon the same.

3. The superintendent of a coal mine. [ Eng.]

Viewiness noun The quality or state of being viewy, or of having unpractical views.

Viewless adjective Not perceivable by the eye; invisible; unseen. " Viewless winds." Shak.

Swift through the valves the visionary fair
Repassed, and viewless mixed with common air.
Pope.

Viewly, Viewsome adjective Pleasing to the sight; sightly. [ Prov. Eng.]

Viewy adjective
1. Having peculiar views; fanciful; visionary; unpractical; as, a viewy person.

2. Spectacular; pleasing to the eye or the imagination.

A government intent on showy absurdities and viewy enterprises rather than solid work.
London Spectator.

Vifda noun In the Orkney and Shetland Islands, beef and mutton hung and dried, but not salted. [ Scot.] [ Written also vivda .] Jamieson.

Vigesimal adjective [ Latin vigesimus twentieth, from viginti twenty.] Twentieth; divided into, or consisting of, twenties or twenty parts. Tylor.

Vigesimation noun The act of putting to death every twentieth man. [ R.]

Vigesimo-quarto adjective [ Latin vigesimus quartus twenty-fourth. Confer Duodecimo .] Having twenty-four leaves to a sheet; as, a vigesimo-quarto form, book, leaf, size, etc.

Vigesimo-quarto noun ; plural - tos A book composed of sheets each of which is folded into twenty-four leaves; hence, indicating more or less definitely a size of book so made; -- usually written 24mo , or 24° .

Vigil noun [ Middle English vigile , Latin vigilia , from vigil awake, watchful, probably akin to English wake : confer French vigile . See Wake , intransitive verb , and confer Reveille , Surveillance , Vedette , Vegetable , Vigor .]
1. Abstinence from sleep, whether at a time when sleep is customary or not; the act of keeping awake, or the state of being awake, or the state of being awake; sleeplessness; wakefulness; watch. "Worn out by the labors and vigils of many months." Macaulay.

Nothing wears out a fine face like the vigils of the card table and those cutting passions which attend them.
Addison.

2. Hence, devotional watching; waking for prayer, or other religious exercises.

So they in heaven their odes and vigils tuned.
Milton.

Be sober and keep vigil ,
The Judge is at the gate.
Neale (Rhythm of St. Bernard).

3. (Eccl.) (a) Originally, the watch kept on the night before a feast. (b) Later, the day and the night preceding a feast.

He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbors,
And say, "To-morrow is St. Crispian."
Shak.

(c) A religious service performed in the evening preceding a feast.

Vigils, or Watchings , of flowers (Botany) , a peculiar faculty belonging to the flowers of certain plants of opening and closing their petals as certain hours of the day. [ R.]

Vigilance noun [ Latin vigilantia : confer French vigilance .]
1. The quality or state of being vigilant; forbearance of sleep; wakefulness.

2. Watchfulness in respect of danger; care; caution; circumspection. Cowper.

And flaming ministers to watch and tend
Their earthly charge; of these the vigilance
I dread.
Milton.

3. Guard; watch. [ Obsolete] "In at this gate none pass the vigilance here placed." Milton.

Vigilance committee , a volunteer committee of citizens for the oversight and protection of any interest, esp. one organized for the summary suppression and punishment of crime, as when the processes of law appear inadequate.

Vigilancy noun Vigilance. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Vigilant adjective [ Latin vigilans , - antis , present participle of vigilare to watch, from vigil awake: confer French vigilant . See Vigil .] Attentive to discover and avoid danger, or to provide for safety; wakeful; watchful; circumspect; wary. "Be sober, be vigilant ." 1 Pet. v. 8.

Sirs, take your places, and be vigilant .
Shak.

Vigilantly adverb In a vigilant manner.

Vigily noun [ Latin vigilia .] A vigil. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Vigintivirate noun [ Latin vigintiviratus , from vigintiviri ; viginti twenty + vir a man.] The office of the vigintiviri , a body of officers of government consisting of twenty men; also, the vigintiviri. [ R.]

Vignette noun [ French vignette , from vigne a vine. See Vine , and confer Vinette .]
1. (Architecture) A running ornament consisting of leaves and tendrils, used in Gothic architecture.

2. A decorative design, originally representing vine branches or tendrils, at the head of a chapter, of a manuscript or printed book, or in a similar position; hence, by extension, any small picture in a book; hence, also, as such pictures are often without a definite bounding line, any picture, as an engraving, a photograph, or the like, which vanishes gradually at the edge.

Vignette transitive verb To make, as an engraving or a photograph, with a border or edge insensibly fading away.

Vignette noun A picture, illustration, or depiction in words, esp. one of a small or dainty kind.

Vignetter noun
1. A device used by photographers in printing vignettes, consisting of a screen of paper or glass with a central aperture the edges of which become opaque by intensible gradations.

2. A maker of vignettes.

Vigonia adjective [ Confer French vigogne vicuña. See Vicuña .] Of or pertaining to the vicuña; characterizing the vicuña; -- said of the wool of that animal, used in felting hats, and for other purposes. Prescott.

Vigor noun [ Middle English vigour , vigor , Old French vigor , vigur , vigour , French vigueur , from Latin vigor , from vigere to be lively or strong. See Vegetable , Vigil .]
1. Active strength or force of body or mind; capacity for exertion, physically, intellectually, or morally; force; energy.

The vigor of this arm was never vain.
Dryden.

2. Strength or force in animal or force in animal or vegetable nature or action; as, a plant grows with vigor .

3. Strength; efficacy; potency.

But in the fruithful earth . . .
His beams, unactive else, their vigor find.
Milton.

» Vigor and its derivatives commonly imply active strength, or the power of action and exertion, in distinction from passive strength, or strength to endure.

Vigor transitive verb To invigorate. [ Obsolete] Feltham.

Vigorite noun [ Latin vigor strength.] An explosive containing nitroglycerin. It is used in blasting.

Vigoroso adjective & adverb [ Italian ] (Mus.) Vigorous; energetic; with energy; -- a direction to perform a passage with energy and force.

Vigorous adjective [ Confer Old French vigoros , French vigoureux , Late Latin vigorosus .]
1. Possessing vigor; full of physical or mental strength or active force; strong; lusty; robust; as, a vigorous youth; a vigorous plant.

Famed for his valor, young,
At sea successful, vigorous and strong.
Waller.

2. Exhibiting strength, either of body or mind; powerful; strong; forcible; energetic; as, vigorous exertions; a vigorous prosecution of a war.

The beginnings of confederacies have been always vigorous and successful.
Davenant.

-- Vig"or*ous*ly , adverb -- Vig"or*ous*ness , noun

Viking noun [ Icelandic vīkingr , from vīk a bay, inlet.] One belonging to the pirate crews from among the Northmen, who plundered the coasts of Europe in the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries.

Of grim Vikings , and the rapture
Of the sea fight, and the capture,
And the life of slavery.
Longfellow.

» Vikings differs in meaning from sea king , with which frequently confounded. "The sea king was a man connected with a royal race, either of the small kings of the country, or of the Haarfager family, and who, by right, received the title of king as soon he took the command of men, although only of a single ship's crew, and without having any land or kingdom . . . Vikings were merely pirates, alternately peasants and pirates, deriving the name of viking from the vicks , wicks , or inlets, on the coast in which they harbored with their long ships or rowing galleys." Laing.

Vilany noun Villainy. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Vilayet noun [ Turk., from Arabic wilāyah .] One of the chief administrative divisions or provinces of the Ottoman Empire; -- formerly called eyalet .

Vild adjective [ As if the past participle of a verb to vile . See Vile , adjective ] Vile. [ Obsolete] "That vild race." Spenser. -- Vild"ly , adverb [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Vile adjective [ Comp. Viler ; superl. Vilest .] [ Middle English vil , French vil , from Latin vilis cheap, worthless, vile, base.]


1. Low; base; worthless; mean; despicable.

A poor man in vile raiment.
James ii. 2.

The craft either of fishing, which was Peter's, or of making tents, which was Paul's, were [ was] more vile than the science of physic.
Ridley.

The inhabitants account gold but as a vile thing.
Abp. Abbot.

2. Morally base or impure; depraved by sin; hateful; in the sight of God and men; sinful; wicked; bad. "Such vile base practices." Shak.

Behold, I am vile ; what shall I answer thee ?
Job xl. 4.

Syn. -- See Base .

-- Vile"ly , adverb -- Vile"ness , noun

Viled adjective [ See Vild .] Abusive; scurrilous; defamatory; vile. [ Obsolete] " Viled speeches." Hayward.

Vileyns adjective [ See Villain .] Villainous. [ Obsolete] " Vileyns sinful deeds make a churl." Chaucer.

Vilification noun The act of vilifying or defaming; abuse. South.

Vilifier noun One who vilifies or defames.

Vilify transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Vilified ; present participle & verbal noun Vilifying .] [ Latin vilis vile + -fly ; confer Latin vilificare to esteem of little value.]
1. To make vile; to debase; to degrade; to disgrace. [ R.]

When themselves they vilified
To serve ungoverned appetite.
Milton.

2. To degrade or debase by report; to defame; to traduce; to calumniate. I. Taylor.

Many passions dispose us to depress and vilify the merit of one rising in the esteem of mankind.
Addison.

3. To treat as vile; to despise. [ Obsolete]

I do vilify your censure.
Beau. & Fl.

Vilipend transitive verb [ Latin vilipendere ; vilis vile + pendere to weigh, to value: confer French vilipender .] To value lightly; to depreciate; to slight; to despise.

To vilipend the art of portrait painting.
Longfellow.

Vilipendency noun Disesteem; slight; disparagement. [ R.] E. Waterhouse.