Encyclo - Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Viola noun [ Latin , a violet. See Violet .] (Botany) A genus of polypetalous herbaceous plants, including all kinds of violets.

Viola noun [ Italian See Viol .] (Mus.) An instrument in form and use resembling the violin, but larger, and a fifth lower in compass.

Violable adjective [ Latin violabilis : confer French violable . See Violate .] Capable of being violated, broken, or injured. -- Vi"o*la*bly , adverb

Violaceous adjective [ Latin violaceus , from viola a violet.]
1. Resembling violets in color; bluish purple.

2. (Botany) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants, of which the violet is the type. It contains about twenty genera and two hundred and fifty species.

Violaniline noun [ Viol et + aniline .] (Chemistry) A dyestuff of the induline group, made from aniline, and used as a substitute for indigo in dyeing wool and silk a violet-blue or a gray-blue color.

Violantin noun [ See Violuric .] (Chemistry) A complex nitrogenous substance, produced as a yellow crystalline substance, and regarded as a complex derivative of barbituric acid.

Violaquercitrin noun (Chemistry) A yellow crystalline glucoside obtained from the pansy ( Viola tricolor ), and decomposing into glucose and quercitrin.

Violascent adjective Violescent. [ R.]

Violate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Violates ; present participle & verbal noun Violating .] [ Latin violatus , past participle of violare to violate, from vis strength, force. See Violent .]
1. To treat in a violent manner; to abuse.

His wife Boadicea violated with stripes, his daughters with rape.
Milton.

2. To do violence to, as to anything that should be held sacred or respected; to profane; to desecrate; to break forcibly; to trench upon; to infringe.

Violated vows
'Twixt the souls of friend and friend.
Shak.

Oft have they violated
The temple, oft the law, with foul affronts.
Milton.

3. To disturb; to interrupt. "Employed, it seems, to violate sleep." Milton.

4. To commit rape on; to ravish; to outrage.

Syn. -- To injure; disturb; interrupt; infringe; transgress; profane; deflour; debauch; dishonor.

Violation noun [ Latin violatio : confer French violation .] The act of violating, treating with violence, or injuring; the state of being violated. Specifically: --

(a) Infringement; transgression; nonobservance; as, the violation of law or positive command, of covenants, promises, etc. "The violation of my faith." Shak.

(b) An act of irreverence or desecration; profanation or contemptuous treatment of sacred things; as, the violation of a church. Udall.

(c) Interruption, as of sleep or peace; disturbance.

(d) Ravishment; rape; outrage. Shak.

Violative adjective Violating, or tending to violate.

Violator noun [ Latin ] One who violates; an infringer; a profaner; a ravisher.

Viole noun A vial. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Violence noun [ French, from Latin violentia . See Violent .]
1. The quality or state of being violent; highly excited action, whether physical or moral; vehemence; impetuosity; force.

That seal
You ask with such a violence , the king,
Mine and your master, with his own hand gave me.
Shak.

All the elements
At least had gone to wrack, disturbed and torn
With the violence of this conflict.
Milton.

2. Injury done to that which is entitled to respect, reverence, or observance; profanation; infringement; unjust force; outrage; assault.

Do violence to do man.
Luke iii. 14.

We can not, without offering violence to all records, divine and human, deny an universal deluge.
T. Burnet.

Looking down, he saw
The whole earth filled with violence .
Milton.

3. Ravishment; rape; constupration.

To do violence on , to attack; to murder. "She . . . did violence on herself." Shak. -- To do violence to , to outrage; to injure; as, he does violence to his own opinions.

Syn. -- Vehemence; outrage; fierceness; eagerness; violation; infraction; infringement; transgression; oppression.

Violence transitive verb To assault; to injure; also, to bring by violence; to compel. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

Violent adjective [ French, from Latin violentus , from vis strength, force; probably akin to Greek ... a muscle, strength.]
1. Moving or acting with physical strength; urged or impelled with force; excited by strong feeling or passion; forcible; vehement; impetuous; fierce; furious; severe; as, a violent blow; the violent attack of a disease.

Float upon a wild and violent sea.
Shak.

A violent cross wind from either coast.
Milton.

2. Acting, characterized, or produced by unjust or improper force; outrageous; unauthorized; as, a violent attack on the right of free speech.

To bring forth more violent deeds.
Milton.

Some violent hands were laid on Humphrey's life.
Shak.

3. Produced or effected by force; not spontaneous; unnatural; abnormal.

These violent delights have violent ends.
Shak.

No violent state can be perpetual.
T. Burnet.

Ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.
Milton.

Violent presumption (Law) , presumption of a fact that arises from proof of circumstances which necessarily attend such facts. -- Violent profits (Scots Law) , rents or profits of an estate obtained by a tenant wrongfully holding over after warning. They are recoverable in a process of removing.

Syn. -- Fierce; vehement; outrageous; boisterous; turbulent; impetuous; passionate; severe; extreme.

Violent noun An assailant. [ Obsolete] Dr. H. More.

Violent transitive verb [ Confer French violenter .] To urge with violence. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Violent intransitive verb To be violent; to act violently. [ Obsolete]

The grief is fine, full, perfect, that I taste,
And violenteth in a sense as strong
As that which causeth it.
Shak.

Violently adverb In a violent manner.

Violescent adjective [ Latin viola a violet.] Tending to a violet color; violascent.

Violet noun [ French violette a violet (cf. violet violet-colored), dim. of Old French viole a violet, Latin viola ; akin to Greek .... Confer Iodine .]
1. (Botany) Any plant or flower of the genus Viola , of many species. The violets are generally low, herbaceous plants, and the flowers of many of the species are blue, while others are white or yellow, or of several colors, as the pansy ( Viola tricolor ).

» The cultivated sweet violet is Viola odorata of Europe. The common blue violet of the eastern United States is V. cucullata ; the sand, or bird-foot, violet is V. pedata .

2. The color of a violet, or that part of the spectrum farthest from red. It is the most refrangible part of the spectrum.

3. In art, a color produced by a combination of red and blue in equal proportions; a bluish purple color. Mollett.

4. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of small violet-colored butterflies belonging to Lycæna , or Rusticus , and allied genera.

Corn violet . See under Corn . -- Dame's violet . (Botany) See Damewort . -- Dogtooth violet . (Botany) See under Dogtooth . -- Water violet (Botany) , an aquatic European herb ( Hottonia palustris ) with pale purplish flowers and pinnatifid leaves.

Violet adjective [ Confer French violet . See Violet , noun ] Dark blue, inclining to red; bluish purple; having a color produced by red and blue combined.

Violet shell (Zoology) , any species of Ianthina; -- called also violet snail . See Ianthina . -- Violet wood , a name given to several kinds of hard purplish or reddish woods, as king wood, myall wood, and the wood of the Andira violacea , a tree of Guiana.

Violet-ear noun Any tropical humming bird of the genus Petasophora , having violet or purplish ear tufts.

Violet-tip noun (Zoology) A very handsome American butterfly ( Polygonia interrogationis ). Its wings are mottled with various shades of red and brown and have violet tips.

Violin noun [ Italian violino , dim. of viola . See Viol .] (Mus.) A small instrument with four strings, played with a bow; a fiddle.

» The violin is distinguished for the brilliancy and gayety, as well as the power and variety, of its tones, and in the orchestra it is the leading and most important instrument.

Violine noun (Chemistry) (a) A pale yellow amorphous substance of alkaloidal nature and emetic properties, said to have been extracted from the root and foliage of the violet ( Viola ). (b) Mauve aniline. See under Mauve .

Violinist noun [ Confer French violiniste , violoniste , Italian violonista .] A player on the violin.

Violist noun [ Confer French violiste .] A player on the viol.

Violoncellist noun [ Confer French violoncelliste , Italian violoncellista .] A player on the violoncello.

Violoncello noun [ Italian violoncello , dim. of violone a bass viol. See Violone .] (Mus.) A stringed instrument of music; a bass viol of four strings, or a bass violin with long, large strings, giving sounds an octave lower than the viola, or tenor or alto violin.

Violone noun [ Italian violone , augment. of viola a viol. See Viol .] (Mus.) The largest instrument of the bass-viol kind, having strings tuned an octave below those of the violoncello; the contrabasso; -- called also double bass . [ Written also violono .]

Violous adjective Violent. [ Obsolete] J. Fletcher.

Violuric adjective [ Viol et + barbit uric .] (Chemistry) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a complex nitroso derivative of barbituric acid. It is obtained as a white or yellow crystalline substance, and forms characteristic yellow, blue, and violet salts.

Viper noun [ French vipère , Latin vipera , probably contr. from vivipera ; vivus alive + parere to bring forth, because it was believed to be the only serpent that brings forth living young. Confer Quick , adjective , Parent , Viviparous , Wivern , Weever .]


1. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of Old World venomous makes belonging to Vipera , Clotho , Daboia , and other genera of the family Viperidæ .

There came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.
Acts xxviii. 3.

» Among the best-known species are the European adder ( Pelias berus ), the European asp ( Vipera aspis ), the African horned viper ( V. cerastes ), and the Indian viper ( Daboia Russellii ).

2. A dangerous, treacherous, or malignant person.

Who committed
To such a viper his most sacred trust
Of secrecy.
Milton.

Horned viper . (Zoology) See Cerastes . -- Red viper (Zoology) , the copperhead. -- Viper fish (Zoology) , a small, slender, phosphorescent deep-sea fish ( Chauliodus Sloanii ). It has long ventral and dorsal fins, a large mouth, and very long, sharp teeth. -- Viper's bugloss (Botany) , a rough-leaved biennial herb ( Echium vulgare ) having showy purplish blue flowers. It is sometimes cultivated, but has become a pestilent weed in fields from New York to Virginia. Also called blue weed . -- Viper's grass (Botany) , a perennial composite herb ( Scorzonera Hispanica ) with narrow, entire leaves, and solitary heads of yellow flowers. The long, white, carrot-shaped roots are used for food in Spain and some other countries. Called also viper grass .

Viperina noun plural (Zoology) See Viperoidea .

Viperine adjective [ Latin viperinus : confer French vipérin .] Of or pertaining to a viper or vipers; resembling a viper.

Viperine snake . (Zoology) (a) Any venomous snake of the family Viperidæ . (b) A harmless snake resembling a viper in form or color, esp. Tropidonotus viperinus , a small European species which resembles the viper in color.

Viperish adjective Somewhat like a viper; viperous.

Viperoid adjective [ Viper + - oid .] (Zoology) Like or pertaining to the vipers.

Viperoidea, Viperoides noun plural [ New Latin See Viper , and -oid .] (Zoology) A division of serpents which includes the true vipers of the Old World and the rattlesnakes and moccasin snakes of America; -- called also Viperina .

Viperous adjective Having the qualities of a viper; malignant; venomous; as, a viperous tongue. "This viperous slander." Shak. -- Vi"per*ous*ly , adverb

Viraginian adjective Of or pertaining to a virago; having the qualities of a virago. Milton.

Viraginity noun The qualities or characteristics of a virago.

Virago noun ; plural Viragoes . [ Latin virago , -intis , from vir a man. See Virile .]
1. A woman of extraordinary stature, strength, and courage; a woman who has the robust body and masculine mind of a man; a female warrior.

To arms! to arms! the fierce virago cries.
Pope.

2. Hence, a mannish woman; a bold, turbulent woman; a termagant; a vixen.

Virago . . . serpent under femininity.
Chaucer.

Vire noun [ Old French vire , from virer to turn. Confer Veer , Vireton .] An arrow, having a rotary motion, formerly used with the crossbow. Confer Vireton . Gower.

Virelay noun [ French virelai ; virer to turn + lai a song, a lay.] An ancient French song, or short poem, wholly in two rhymes, and composed in short lines, with a refrain.

Of such matter made he many lays,
Songs, complains, roundels, virelayes .
Chaucer.

To which a lady sung a virelay .
Dryden.

» "The virelay admitted only two rhymes, and, after employing one for some time, the poet was virer , or to turn, to the other." Nares.

Virent adjective [ Latin virens , present participle of virere to be green.] Green; not withered. [ R.] Sir T. Browne.

Vireo noun [ Latin , a species of bird.] (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of American singing birds belonging to Vireo and allied genera of the family Vireonidæ . In many of the species the back is greenish, or olive-colored. Called also greenlet .

» In the Eastern United States the most common species are the white-eyed vireo ( Vireo Noveboracensis ), the redeyed vireo ( V. olivaceus ), the blue-headed, or solitary, vireo ( V. solitarius ), the warbling vireo ( V. gilvus ), and the yellow-throated vireo ( V. flavifrons ). All these are noted for the sweetness of their songs.

Virescence (Botany) The act or state of becoming green through the formation of chlorophyll.

Virescent adjective [ Latin virescens , present participle of virescere to grow green, verb incho. from virere to be green.] Beginning to be green; slightly green; greenish.