Webster's Dictionary, 1913
[ Latin vindemialis
, from vindemia
a vintage. See Vintage
.] Of or pertaining to a vintage, or grape harvest.
Vindemiate intransitive verb
[ Latin vindemiare
. See Vindemial
.] To gather the vintage.
[ Obsolete] Evelyn.
Vindemiation noun [ Late Latin vindemiatio .] The operation of gathering grapes. [ Obsolete] Bailey.
Vindicable adjective Capable of being vindicated. -- Vin`di*ca*bil"i*ty noun
Vindicate transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Vindicated
; present participle & verbal noun Vindicating
.] [ Latin vindicatus
, past participle of vindicare
to lay claim to, defend, avenge. See Vengeance
.] 1. To lay claim to; to assert a right to; to claim.
Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain? Pope. 2. To maintain or defend with success; to prove to be valid; to assert convincingly; to sustain against assault; as, to vindicate a right, claim, or title. 3. To support or maintain as true or correct, against denial, censure, or objections; to defend; to justify.
The birds of heaven shall vindicate their grain.
When the respondent denies any proposition, the opponent must directly vindicate . . . that proposition. I. Watts.
Laugh where we must, be candid where we can, Pope. 4. To maintain, as a law or a cause, by overthrowing enemies. Milton. 5. To liberate; to set free; to deliver.
But vindicate the ways of God to man.
I am confident he deserves much more Massinger. 6. To avenge; to punish; as, a war to vindicate or punish infidelity.
That vindicates his country from a tyrant
Than he that saves a citizen.
[ Obsolete] Bacon.
God is more powerful to exact subjection and to vindicate rebellion. Bp. Pearson. Syn.
-- To assert; maintain; claim. See Assert
[ Latin vindicatio
a laying claim, defense, vindication. See Vindicate
.] 1. The act of vindicating, or the state of being vindicated; defense; justification against denial or censure; as, the vindication of opinions; his vindication is complete.
Occasion for the vindication of this passage in my book. Locke. 2. (Civil Law) The claiming a thing as one's own; the asserting of a right or title in, or to, a thing. Burrill.
[ Confer French vindicatif
. Confer Vindictive
.] 1. Tending to vindicate; vindicating; as, a vindicative policy. 2. Revengeful; vindictive.
Vindicative persons live the life of witches, who, as they are mischievous, so end they infortunate. Bacon.
Vindicator noun [ Late Latin , an avenger.] One who vindicates; one who justifies or maintains. Locke.
Vindicatory adjective 1. Tending or serving to vindicate or justify; justificatory; vindicative. 2. Inflicting punishment; avenging; punitory.
The afflictions of Job were no vindicatory punishments to take vengeance of his sins. Abp. Bramhall.
[ For vindicative
, confused with Latin vindicta
revenge, punishment, from vindicare
to vindicate. Confer Vindicative
.] 1. Disposed to revenge; prompted or characterized by revenge; revengeful.
I am vindictive enough to repel force by force. Dryden. 2. Punitive.
[ Obsolete] Vindictive damages
. (Law) See under Damage , noun
[ French vigne
, Latin vinea
a vineyard, vine from vineus
of or belonging to wine, vinum
wine, grapes. See Wine
, and confer Vignette
.] (Botany) (a) Any woody climbing plant which bears grapes. (b) Hence, a climbing or trailing plant; the long, slender stem of any plant that trails on the ground, or climbs by winding round a fixed object, or by seizing anything with its tendrils, or claspers; a creeper; as, the hop vine ; the bean vine ; the vines of melons, squashes, pumpkins, and other cucurbitaceous plants.
There shall be no grapes on the vine . Jer. viii. 13.
And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine , and gathered thereof wild gourds. 2 Kings iv. 89. Vine apple (Botany)
, a small kind of squash. Roger Williams.
-- Vine beetle (Zoology)
, any one of several species of beetles which are injurious to the leaves or branches of the grapevine. Among the more important species are the grapevine fidia (see Fidia ), the spotted Pelidnota (see Rutilian ), the vine fleabeetle ( Graptodera chalybea ), the rose beetle (see under Rose ), the vine weevil, and several species of Colaspis and Anomala .
-- Vine borer
. (Zoology) (a) Any one of several species of beetles whose larvæ bore in the wood or pith of the grapevine, especially Sinoxylon basilare , a small species the larva of which bores in the stems, and Ampeloglypter sesostris , a small reddish brown weevil (called also vine weevil ), which produces knotlike galls on the branches. (b) A clearwing moth ( Ægeria polistiformis ), whose larva bores in the roots of the grapevine and is often destructive.
-- Vine dragon
, an old and fruitless branch of a vine.
[ Obsolete] Holland.
-- Vine forester (Zoology)
, any one of several species of moths belonging to Alypia and allied genera, whose larvæ feed on the leaves of the grapevine.
-- Vine fretter (Zoology)
, a plant louse, esp. the phylloxera that injuries the grapevine.
-- Vine grub (Zoology)
, any one of numerous species of insect larvæ that are injurious to the grapevine.
-- Vine hopper (Zoology)
, any one of several species of leaf hoppers which suck the sap of the grapevine, especially Erythroneura vitis . See Illust. of Grape hopper , under Grape .
-- Vine inchworm (Zoology)
, the larva of any species of geometrid moths which feed on the leaves of the grapevine, especially Cidaria diversilineata .
-- Vine-leaf rooer (Zoology)
, a small moth ( Desmia maculalis ) whose larva makes a nest by rolling up the leaves of the grapevine. The moth is brownish black, spotted with white.
-- Vine louse (Zoology)
, the phylloxera.
-- Vine mildew (Botany)
, a fungous growth which forms a white, delicate, cottony layer upon the leaves, young shoots, and fruit of the vine, causing brown spots upon the green parts, and finally a hardening and destruction of the vitality of the surface. The plant has been called Oidium Tuckeri , but is now thought to be the conidia-producing stage of an Erysiphe .
-- Vine of Sodom (Botany)
, a plant named in the Bible ( Deut. xxxii. 32 ), now thought to be identical with the apple of Sodom. See Apple of Sodom , under Apple .
-- Vine sawfly (Zoology)
, a small black sawfiy ( Selandria vitis ) whose larva feeds upon the leaves of the grapevine. The larvæ stand side by side in clusters while feeding.
-- Vine slug (Zoology)
, the larva of the vine sawfly.
-- Vine sorrel (Botany)
, a climbing plant ( Cissus acida ) related to the grapevine, and having acid leaves. It is found in Florida and the West Indies.
-- Vine sphinx (Zoology)
, any one of several species of hawk moths. The larvæ feed on grapevine leaves.
-- Vine weevil
. (Zoology) See Vine borer (a) above, and Wound gall , under Wound .
Vine-clad adjective Covered with vines.
Vineal adjective [ Latin vinealis .] Of or pertaining to vines; containing vines. [ R.] Sir T. Browne.
Vined adjective Having leaves like those of the vine; ornamented with vine leaves. " Vined and figured columns." Sir H. Wotton.
Vinedresser noun One who cultivates, prunes, or cares for, grapevines; a laborer in a vineyard.
The sons of the shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers . Isa. lxi. 5.
[ Middle English vinegre
, French vinaigre
; vin wine (L. vinum
) + aigre
sour. See Wine
, and Eager
] 1. A sour liquid used as a condiment, or as a preservative, and obtained by the spontaneous ( acetous ) fermentation, or by the artificial oxidation, of wine, cider, beer, or the like.
» The characteristic sourness of vinegar is due to acetic acid, of which it contains from three to five per cent. Wine vinegar contains also tartaric acid, citric acid, etc. 2. Hence, anything sour; -- used also metaphorically.
Here's the challenge: . . . I warrant there's vinegar and pepper in't. Shak. Aromatic vinegar
, strong acetic acid highly flavored with aromatic substances.
-- Mother of vinegar
. See 4th Mother .
-- Radical vinegar
, acetic acid.
-- Thieves' vinegar
. See under Thief .
-- Vinegar eel (Zoology)
, a minute nematode worm ( Leptodera oxophila , or Anguillula acetiglutinis ), commonly found in great numbers in vinegar, sour paste, and other fermenting vegetable substances; -- called also vinegar worm .
-- Vinegar lamp (Chemistry)
, a fanciful name of an apparatus designed to oxidize alcohol to acetic acid by means of platinum.
-- Vinegar plant
. See 4th Mother .
-- Vinegar tree (Botany)
, the stag-horn sumac ( Rhus typhina ), whose acid berries have been used to intensify the sourness of vinegar.
-- Wood vinegar
. See under Wood .
Vinegar transitive verb To convert into vinegar; to make like vinegar; to render sour or sharp.
Hoping that he hath vinegared his senses B. Jonson.
As he was bid.
Vinegar fly Any of several fruit flies, esp. Drosophila ampelopophila , which breed in imperfectly sealed preserves and in pickles.
Vinegarroon noun [ Confer Spanish vinagre vinegar.] A whip scorpion, esp. a large Mexican species ( Thelyphonus giganteus ) popularly supposed to be very venomous; -- from the odor that it emits when alarmed.
Vinegary adjective Having the nature of vinegar; sour; unamiable.
Viner noun A vinedresser. [ Obsolete]
1. A vineyard. [ Obsolete] "The vinery of Ramer." Fabyan. 2. A structure, usually inclosed with glass, for rearing and protecting vines; a grapery.
[ Confer Vignette
.] A sprig or branch.
[ Archaic] Halliwell.
[ For Middle English winyard
, Anglo-Saxon wīngeard
; influenced by English vine
. See Wine
, and Yard
an inclosure.] An inclosure or yard for grapevines; a plantation of vines producing grapes.
Vineyardist noun One who cultivates a vineyard.
Vingt et un [ French, twenty and one.] A game at cards, played by two or more persons. The fortune of each player depends upon obtaining from the dealer such cards that the sum of their pips, or spots, is twenty-one, or a number near to it.
Vinic adjective (Chemistry) Of or pertaining to wine; as, vinic alcohol.
Viniculture noun [ Latin vinum wine + cultura culture.] The cultivation of the vine, esp. for making wine; viticulture.
Vinification noun [ Latin vinum wine + English -fication .] The conversion of a fruit juice or other saccharine solution into alcohol by fermentation.
[ See Fenowed
.] Moldy; musty.
[ Written also vinewed
.] [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.] -- Vin"newed*ness
Many of Chaucer's words are become, as it were, vinnewed and hoary with over-long lying. F. Beaumont.
Vinny adjective Vinnewed. [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.]
[ Latin vinolentina
. See Vinolent
Vinolent adjective [ Latin vinolentus , from vinum wine.] Given to wine; drunken; intemperate. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Vinometer noun [ Latin vinum vine + -meter .] An instrument for determining the strength or purity of wine by measuring its density.
Vinose adjective Vinous.
Vinosity noun [ Latin vinositas : confer French vinosité .] The quality or state of being vinous.
[ Latin vinosus
, from vinum
wine: confer French vineux
. See Wine
.] Of or pertaining to wine; having the qualities of wine; as, a vinous taste.
Vinquish noun (Far.) See Vanquish , noun
[ Corrupted by influence of vintner
, from Middle English vindage
, for vendange
, Old French vendenge
, French vendange
, from Latin vindemia
wine, grapes + demere
to take off; de + emere
, originally, to take. See Wine
, and confer Vindemial
.] 1. The produce of the vine for one season, in grapes or in wine; as, the vintage is abundant; the vintage of 1840. 2. The act or time of gathering the crop of grapes, or making the wine for a season. Vintage spring
, a wine fount.
-- Vintage time
, the time of gathering grapes and making wine. Milton.
[ From Vintage
: confer French vendangeur
.] One who gathers the vintage.
Vintaging noun The act of gathering the vintage, or crop of grapes.
[ Middle English vintener
, Old French vinetier
, Late Latin vinetarius
, from Latin vinetum
a vineyard, from vinum
wine. See Wine
.] One who deals in wine; a wine seller, or wine merchant.
[ Middle English viniterie
, from Old French vinotier
, wine merchant. See Vintner
.] A place where wine is sold.
[ Obsolete] Ainsworth.
; plural Vina
. [ Latin See Wine
.] Wine, -- chiefly used in Pharmacy in the name of solutions of some medicinal substance in wine; as: vina medicata , medicated wines; vinum opii , wine of opium.
Viny adjective Of or pertaining to vines; producing, or abounding in, vines. P. Fletcher.
Vinyl noun [ Latin vinum wine + - yl .] (Chemistry) The hypothetical radical C 2 H 3 , regarded as the characteristic residue of ethylene and that related series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with which the allyl compounds are homologous.
[ French viole
; confer Pr. viola
, Spanish , Portuguese , & Italian viola
, Late Latin vitula
; of uncertain origin; perhaps from Latin vitulari
to celebrate a festival, keep holiday, be joyful, perhaps originally, to sacrifice a calf ( vitulus
; confer Veal
). Confer Fiddle
, 2d Viola
.] 1. (Mus.) A stringed musical instrument formerly in use, of the same form as the violin, but larger, and having six strings, to be struck with a bow, and the neck furnished with frets for stopping the strings.
Me softer airs befit, and softer strings Milton.
Of lute, or viol still, more apt for mournful things.
» The name is now applied as a general term to designate instruments of the violin kind, as tenor viol
, bass viol
, etc. 2. (Nautical) A large rope sometimes used in weighing anchor.
[ Written also voyal
, and voyal