Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Vertebral adjective [ Confer French vertébral .]
1. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a vertebræ, or the vertebral column; spinal; rachidian.

2. Vertebrate.

Vertebral noun (Zoology) A vertebrate. [ R.]

Vertebrally adverb (Anat.) At or within a vertebra or vertebræ; -- distinguished from interverterbrally .

Vertebrarterial adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a vertebræ and an artery; -- said of the foramina in the transverse processes of cervical vertebræ and of the canal which they form for the vertebral artery and vein.

Vertebrata noun plural [ New Latin ] (Zoology) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, comprising all animals that have a backbone composed of bony or cartilaginous vertebræ, together with Amphioxus in which the backbone is represented by a simple undivided notochord. The Vertebrata always have a dorsal, or neural, cavity above the notochord or backbone, and a ventral, or visceral, cavity below it. The subdivisions or classes of Vertebrata are Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Pisces, Marsipobranchia, and Leptocardia.

Vertebrate noun (Zoology) One of the Vertebrata.

Vertebrate, Vertebrated adjective [ Latin vertebratus .]
1. (Anat.) Having a backbone, or vertebral column, containing the spinal marrow, as man, quadrupeds, birds, amphibia, and fishes.

2. (Botany) Contracted at intervals, so as to resemble the spine in animals. Henslow.

3. (Zoology) Having movable joints resembling vertebræ; -- said of the arms ophiurans.

4. (Zoology) Of or pertaining to the Vertebrata; -- used only in the form vertebrate .

Vertebre noun (Anat.) A vertebra. [ Obsolete]

Vertebro- A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with , or relation to , a vertebra , vertebræ , or vertebral column ; as in vertebro costal.

Vertebro-iliac adjective (Anat.) Iliolumbar.

Vertex noun ; plural Vertexes , Latin Vertices . [ Latin vertex , -icis , a whirl, top of the head, top, summit, from vertere to turn. See Verse , and confer Vortex .] A turning point; the principal or highest point; top; summit; crown; apex. Specifically: --

(a) (Anat.) The top, or crown, of the head.

(b) (Anat.) The zenith, or the point of the heavens directly overhead.

(c) (Math.) The point in any figure opposite to, and farthest from, the base; the terminating point of some particular line or lines in a figure or a curve; the top, or the point opposite the base.

» The principal vertex of a conic section is, in the parabola, the vertex of the axis of the curve: in the ellipse, either extremity of either axis, but usually the left-hand vertex of the transverse axis; in the hyperbola, either vertex, but usually the right- hand vertex of the transverse axis.

Vertex of a curve (Math.) , the point in which the axis of the curve intersects it. -- Vertex of an angle (Math.) , the point in which the sides of the angle meet. -- Vertex of a solid , or of a surface of revolution (Math.) , the point in which the axis pierces the surface.

Vertical adjective [ Confer French vertical . See Vertex .]


1. Of or pertaining to the vertex; situated at the vertex, or highest point; directly overhead, or in the zenith; perpendicularly above one.

Charity . . . is the vertical top of all religion.
Jer. Taylor.

2. Perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; upright; plumb; as, a vertical line.

Vertical angle (Astron. & Geod.) , an angle measured on a vertical circle, called an angle of elevation , or altitude , when reckoned from the horizon upward, and of depression when downward below the horizon. -- Vertical anthers (Botany) , such anthers as stand erect at the top of the filaments. -- Vertical circle (Astron.) , an azimuth circle. See under Azimuth . -- Vertical drill , an drill. See under Upright . -- Vertical fire (Mil.) , the fire, as of mortars, at high angles of elevation. -- Vertical leaves (Botany) , leaves which present their edges to the earth and the sky, and their faces to the horizon, as in the Australian species of Eucalyptus. -- Vertical limb , a graduated arc attached to an instrument, as a theodolite, for measuring vertical angles. -- Vertical line . (a) (Dialing) A line perpendicular to the horizon. (b) (Conic Sections) A right line drawn on the vertical plane, and passing through the vertex of the cone. (c) (Surv.) The direction of a plumb line; a line normal to the surface of still water. (d) (Geom., Drawing, etc.) A line parallel to the sides of a page or sheet, in distinction from a horizontal line parallel to the top or bottom. -- Vertical plane . (a) (Conic Sections) A plane passing through the vertex of a cone, and through its axis. (b) (Projections) Any plane which passes through a vertical line. (c) (Persp.) The plane passing through the point of sight, and perpendicular to the ground plane, and also to the picture. -- Vertical sash , a sash sliding up and down. Confer French sash , under 3d Sash . -- Vertical steam engine , a steam engine having the crank shaft vertically above or below a vertical cylinder.

Vertical noun
1. Vertical position; zenith. [ R.]

2. (Math.) A vertical line, plane, or circle.

Prime vertical , Prime vertical dial . See under Prime , adjective

Verticality noun The quality or state of being vertical; verticalness. [ R.]

The different points of the verticality .
Sir T. Browne.

Vertically adverb In a vertical manner, position, or direction; perpendicularly; as, to look down vertically ; to raise a thing vertically .

Verticalness noun Quality or state of being vertical.

Verticil noun [ Latin verticillus , dim. of vertex a whirl: confer French verticille . See Vertex .] (Botany) A circle either of leaves or flowers about a stem at the same node; a whorl. [ Written also verticel .]

Verticillaster adjective [ New Latin , from Latin verticillus a whirl + aster a star.] (Botany) A whorl of flowers apparently of one cluster, but composed of two opposite axillary cymes, as in mint. See Illust. of Whorl .

Verticillate (?; 277), Ver*tic"il*la`ted adjective [ See Verticil .] (Bot. & Zoology) Arranged in a transverse whorl or whorls like the rays of a wheel; as, verticillate leaves of a plant; a verticillate shell.

Verticillus noun [ Latin , a whirl.] (Botany) A whorl; a verticil.

Verticity noun [ Confer French verticité . See Vertex .] The quality or power of turning; revolution; rotation. [ R.] Locke.

I hardly believe he hath from elder times unknown the verticity of the loadstone.
Sir T. Browne.

Verticle noun [ Latin verticula a joint.] An axis; hinge; a turning point. E. Waterhouse.

Vertiginate adjective Turned round; giddy. [ R.] Coleridge.

Vertiginous adjective [ Latin vertiginosus , from vertigo a whirling around, giddiness: confer French vertigineux . See Vertig...... .]
1. Turning round; whirling; rotary; revolving; as, vertiginous motion.

Some vertiginous whirl of fortune.
De Quincey.

2. Affected with vertigo; giddy; dizzy.

They [ the angels] grew vertiginous , and fell from the battlements of heaven.
Jer. Taylor.

-- Ver*tig"i*nous*ly , adverb -- Ver*tig"i*nous*ness , noun

Vertigo noun ; plural English Vertigoes , Latin Vertigines . [ Latin , from vertere to turn. See Verse .]
1. (Medicine) Dizziness or swimming of the head; an affection of the head in which objects, though stationary, appear to move in various directions, and the person affected finds it difficult to maintain an erect posture; giddiness. Quian.

2. (Zoology) Any one of numerous species of small land snails belonging to the genus Vertigo , having an elongated or conical spiral shell and usually teeth in the aperture.

Vertilinear adjective [ Verti cal + linear .] Straight; rectilinear. [ R.]

Vertu noun
1. Virtue; power. See Virtue . [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. See Virtu .

Vertuous adjective Virtuous; powerful. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Verumontanum noun [ New Latin ] (Anat.) An elevation, or crest, in the wall of the urethra where the seminal ducts enter it.

» This is sometimes written veru montanum.

Vervain noun [ Middle English verveine , French verveine , from Latin verbena , plural verbenae sacred boughs of laurel, olive, or myrtle, a class of plants; confer verbenaca vervain. Confer Verbena .] (Botany) Any plant of the genus Verbena.

Vervain mallow (Botany) , a species of mallow ( Malva Alcea ) with rose-colored flowers.

Verve noun [ French] Excitement of imagination such as animates a poet, artist, or musician, in composing or performing; rapture; enthusiasm; spirit; energy.

Vervel noun See Varvel .

Vervet noun (Zoology) A South African monkey ( Cercopithecus pygerythrus, or Lelandii ). The upper parts are grayish green, finely specked with black. The cheeks and belly are reddish white.

Very adjective [ Compar. Verier ; superl. Veriest .] [ Middle English verai , verray , Old French verai , vrai , French vrai , (assumed) Late Latin veracus , for Latin verax true, veracious, from verus true; akin to Old High German & Old Saxon wār , German wahr , Dutch waar ; perhaps originally, that is or exists, and akin to English was . Confer Aver , transitive verb , Veracious , Verdict , Verity .] True; real; actual; veritable.

Whether thou be my very son Esau or not.
Gen. xxvii. 21.

He that covereth a transgression seeketh love; but he that repeateth a matter separateth very friends.
Prov. xvii. 9.

The very essence of truth is plainness and brightness.
Milton.

I looked on the consideration of public service or public ornament to be real and very justice.
Burke.

» Very is sometimes used to make the word with which it is connected emphatic, and may then be paraphrased by same , self- same , itself , and the like. "The very hand, the very words." Shak. "The very rats instinctively have quit it." Shak. "Yea, there where very desolation dwells." Milton. Very is used occasionally in the comparative degree, and more frequently in the superlative. "Was not my lord the verier wag of the two?" Shak. "The veriest hermit in the nation." Pope. "He had spoken the very truth, and transformed it into the veriest falsehood." Hawthorne.

Very Reverend . See the Note under Reverend .

Very adverb In a high degree; to no small extent; exceedingly; excessively; extremely; as, a very great mountain; a very bright sum; a very cold day; the river flows very rapidly; he was very much hurt.

Very's, Very night signals [ After Lieut. Samuel W. Very , who invented the system in 1877.] (Nautical) A system of signaling in which balls of red and green fire are fired from a pistol, the arrangement in groups denoting numbers having a code significance.

Vesbium noun [ New Latin , from Latin Vesuvius , contr. Vesbius , Vesuvius.] (Chemistry) A rare metallic element of which little is known. It is said by Scacchi to have been extracted from a yellowish incrustation from the cracks of a Vesuvian lava erupted in 1631.

Vese noun [ Confer Frese , noun ] Onset; rush; violent draught or wind. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Vesica noun [ Latin ] A bladder.

Vesica piscis . [ Latin , dish bladder.] (Eccl. Art) A glory, or aureole, of oval shape, or composed of two arcs of circles usually represented as surrounding a divine personage. More rarely, an oval composed of two arcs not representing a glory; a solid oval, etc.

Vesical adjective [ Latin vesica bladder.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder. Dunglison.

Vesicant noun [ Latin vesica blister: confer French vésicant .] (Medicine) A vesicatory.

Vesicate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Vesicated ; present participle & verbal noun Vesicating .] [ See Vesicant .] (Medicine) To raise little bladders or blisters upon; to inflame and separate the cuticle of; to blister. Wiseman.

Vesication noun [ Confer French vésication .] (Medicine) The process of vesicating, or of raising blisters.

Vesicatory adjective [ Confer French vésicatoire .] (Medicine) Tending, or having power, to raise a blister. -- noun A blistering application or plaster; a vesicant; an epispastic.

Vesicle noun [ Latin vesicula , dim. of vesica a bladder, blister; akin to Sanskrit vasti bladder: confer French vésicule .] A bladderlike vessel; a membranous cavity; a cyst; a cell. Specifically: --

(a) (Botany) A small bladderlike body in the substance of vegetable, or upon the surface of a leaf.

(b) (Medicine) A small, and more or less circular, elevation of the cuticle, containing a clear watery fluid.

(c) (Anat.) A cavity or sac, especially one filled with fluid; as, the umbilical vesicle .

(d) (Zoology) A small convex hollow prominence on the surface of a shell or a coral.

(e) (Geol.) A small cavity, nearly spherical in form, and usually of the size of a pea or smaller, such as are common in some volcanic rocks. They are produced by the liberation of watery vapor in the molten mass.

Vesico- A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with , or relation to , the bladder ; as in vesico prostatic, vesico vaginal.

Vesicoprostatic adjective (Anat.) Of a pertaining to the bladder and the prostrate gland.

Vesicouterine adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder and the uterus.

Vesicovaginal adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bladder and the vagina.

Vesicula noun ; plural Vesiculæ . [ Latin , dim. of vesica .] (Anat. & Med.) A vesicle.

Vesicular adjective [ Confer French vésiculaire .]
1. Of or pertaining to vesicles; esp., of or pertaining to the air vesicles, or air cells, of the lungs; as, vesicular breathing, or normal breathing, in which the air enters freely the air vesicles of the lungs.

2. Containing, or composed of, vesicles or vesiclelike structures; covered with vesicles or bladders; vesiculate; as, vesicular coral; vesicular lava; a vesicular leaf.

3. Having the form or structure of a vesicle; as, a vesicular body.

Vesicular column (Anat.) , a series of nerve cells forming one of the tracts distinguished in the spinal; -- also called the ganglionic column . -- Vesicular emphysema (Medicine) , emphysema of the lungs, in which the air vesicles are distended and their walls ruptured. -- Vesicular murmur (Medicine) , the sound, audible on auscultation of the chest, made by the air entering and leaving the air vesicles of the lungs in respiration.