Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Lichenologist (-ŏl"o*jĭst) noun One versed in lichenology.

Lichenology (-jȳ) noun [ Lichen + -logy .] The science which treats of lichens.

Lichenous (lī"kĕn*ŭs) adjective Of, pertaining to, or resembling, lichens; abounding in lichens; covered with lichens. G. Eliot.

Lichi (lē"chē`) noun (Botany) See Litchi .

Lichwale (lĭch"wāl`) noun (Botany) The gromwell.

Lichwort (-wûrt`) noun (Botany) An herb, the wall pellitory. See Pellitory .

Licit (lĭs"ĭt) adjective [ Latin licitus permitted, lawful, from licere : confer French licite . See License .] Lawful. " Licit establishments." Carlyle. -- Lic"it*ly , adverb -- Lic"it*ness , noun

Licitation (lĭs`ĭ*tā"shŭn) noun [ Latin licitatio , from licitari , liceri , to bid, offer a price.] The act of offering for sale to the highest bidder. [ R.]

Lick (lĭk) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Licked (lĭkt); present participle & verbal noun Licking .] [ Anglo-Saxon liccian ; akin to Old Saxon likkōn , Dutch likken , Old High German lecchōn , German lecken , Goth. bi-laigōn , Russian lizate , Latin lingere , Greek lei`chein , Sanskrit lih , rih . √121. Confer Lecher , Relish .]
1. To draw or pass the tongue over; as, a dog licks his master's hand. Addison.

2. To lap; to take in with the tongue; as, a dog or cat licks milk. Shak.

To lick the dust , to be slain; to fall in battle. "His enemies shall lick the dust ." Ps. lxxii. 9. -- To lick into shape , to give proper form to; -- from a notion that the bear's cubs are born shapeless and subsequently formed by licking. Hudibras. -- To lick the spittle of , to fawn upon. South. - - To lick up , to take all of by licking; to devour; to consume entirely. Shak. Num. xxii. 4.

Lick noun [ See Lick , v. ]
1. A stroke of the tongue in licking. "A lick at the honey pot." Dryden.

2. A quick and careless application of anything, as if by a stroke of the tongue, or of something which acts like a tongue; as, to put on colors with a lick of the brush. Also, a small quantity of any substance so applied. [ Colloq.]

A lick of court whitewash.
Gray.

3. A place where salt is found on the surface of the earth, to which wild animals resort to lick it up; -- often, but not always, near salt springs. [ U. S.]

Lick transitive verb [ Confer OSw. lägga to place, strike, prick.] To strike with repeated blows for punishment; to flog; to whip or conquer, as in a pugilistic encounter. [ Colloq. or Low] Carlyle. Thackeray.

Lick noun A slap; a quick stroke. [ Colloq.] "A lick across the face." Dryden.

Lick-spigot (-spĭg`ŭt) noun A tapster. [ Obsolete]

Lick-spittle (-spĭt`t'l) noun An abject flatterer or parasite. Theodore Hook.

Licker (lĭk"ẽr) noun [ Confer Lecher .] One who, or that which, licks.

Licker in (Carding Machine) , the drum, or cylinder, by which the lap is taken from the feed rollers.

Lickerish adjective [ Confer Lecherous .]
1. Eager; craving; urged by desire; eager to taste or enjoy; greedy. "The lickerish palate of the glutton." Bp. Hall.

2. Tempting the appetite; dainty. " Lickerish baits, fit to insnare a brute." Milton.

3. Lecherous; lustful. Robert of Brunne.

-- Lick"er*ish*ly , adverb -- Lick"er*ish*ness , noun

Lickerous (-ŭs) adjective Lickerish; eager; lustful. [ Obsolete]

-- Lick"er*ous*ness , noun [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Licking noun
1. A lapping with the tongue.

2. A flogging or castigation. [ Colloq. or Low]

Lickpenny (-pĕn`nȳ) noun A devourer or absorber of money. "Law is a lickpenny ." Sir W. Scott.

Licorice (lĭk"o*rĭs) noun [ Middle English licoris , through old French, from Latin liquiritia , corrupted from glycyrrhiza , Greek glyky`rriza ; glyky`s sweet + "ri`za root. Confer Glycerin , Glycyrrhiza , Wort .] [ Written also liquorice .]
1. (Botany) A plant of the genus Glycyrrhiza ( G. glabra ), the root of which abounds with a sweet juice, and is much used in demulcent compositions.

2. The inspissated juice of licorice root, used as a confection and for medicinal purposes.

Licorice fern (Botany) , a name of several kinds of polypody which have rootstocks of a sweetish flavor. -- Licorice sugar . (Chemistry) See Glycyrrhizin . -- Licorice weed (Botany) , the tropical plant Scapania dulcis . -- Mountain licorice (Botany) , a kind of clover ( Trifolium alpinum ), found in the Alps. It has large purplish flowers and a sweetish perennial rootstock. -- Wild licorice . (Botany) (a) The North American perennial herb Glycyrrhiza lepidota . (b) Certain broad-leaved cleavers ( Galium circæzans and G. lanceolatum ). (c) The leguminous climber Abrus precatorius , whose scarlet and black seeds are called black-eyed Susans . Its roots are used as a substitute for those of true licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ).

Licorous (lĭk"o*rŭs) adjective See Lickerish . -- Lic"o*rous*ness , noun [ Obsolete] Herbert.

Licour (lĭk"ŏr) noun Liquor. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Lictor (lĭk"tŏr) noun [ Latin ] (Rom. Antiq.) An officer who bore an ax and fasces or rods, as ensigns of his office. His duty was to attend the chief magistrates when they appeared in public, to clear the way, and cause due respect to be paid to them, also to apprehend and punish criminals.

Lictors and rods, the ensigns of their power.
Milton.

Lid (lĭd) noun [ Anglo-Saxon hlid , from hlīdan (in comp.) to cover, shut; akin to Old Saxon hlīdan (in comp.), Dutch lid lid, Old High German hlit , G. augen lid eyelid, Icelandic hlið gate, gateway. √40.]


1. That which covers the opening of a vessel or box, etc.; a movable cover; as, the lid of a chest or trunk.

2. The cover of the eye; an eyelid. Shak.

Tears, big tears, gushed from the rough soldier's lid .
Byron.

3. (Botany) (a) The cover of the spore cases of mosses. (b) A calyx which separates from the flower, and falls off in a single piece, as in the Australian Eucalypti . (c) The top of an ovary which opens transversely, as in the fruit of the purslane and the tree which yields Brazil nuts.

Lidded (lĭd"dĕd) adjective Covered with a lid. Keats.

Lidge (lĭj) noun Same as Ledge . [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Lidless (lĭd"lĕs) adjective Having no lid, or not covered with the lids, as the eyes; hence, sleepless; watchful.

A lidless watcher of the public weal.
Tennyson.

Lie (lī) noun See Lye .

Lie (lī) noun [ Anglo-Saxon lyge ; akin to Dutch leugen , Old High German lugi , German lüge , lug , Icelandic lygi , Dan. & Swedish lögn , Goth. liugn . See Lie to utter a falsehood.]
1. A falsehood uttered or acted for the purpose of deception; an intentional violation of truth; an untruth spoken with the intention to deceive.

The proper notion of a lie is an endeavoring to deceive another by signifying that to him as true, which we ourselves think not to be so.
S. Clarke.

It is willful deceit that makes a lie . A man may act a lie , as by pointing his finger in a wrong direction when a traveler inquires of him his road.
Paley.

2. A fiction; a fable; an untruth. Dryden.

3. Anything which misleads or disappoints.

Wishing this lie of life was o'er.
Trench.

To give the lie to . (a) To charge with falsehood; as, the man gave him the lie . (b) To reveal to be false; as, a man's actions may give the lie to his words. -- White lie , a euphemism for such lies as one finds it convenient to tell, and excuses himself for telling.

Syn. -- Untruth; falsehood; fiction; deception. -- Lie , Untruth . A man may state what is untrue from ignorance or misconception; hence, to impute an untruth to one is not necessarily the same as charging him with a lie . Every lie is an untruth , but not every untruth is a lie . Confer Falsity .

Lie intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Lied (līd); present participle & verbal noun Lying (lī"ĭng).] [ Middle English lien , liʒen , leʒen , leoʒen , Anglo-Saxon leógan ; akin to Dutch liegen , Old Saxon & Old High German liogan , German lügen , Icelandic ljūga , Swedish ljuga , Danish lyve , Goth. liugan , Russian lgate .] To utter falsehood with an intention to deceive; to say or do that which is intended to deceive another, when he a right to know the truth, or when morality requires a just representation.

Lie (lī) noun The position or way in which anything lies; the lay, as of land or country. J. H. Newman.

He surveyed with his own eyes . . . the lie of the country on the side towards Thrace.
Jowett (Thucyd.).

Lieberkühn (lē"bẽr*kun) noun [ Named after a German physician and instrument maker, J. N. Lieberkühn .] (Optics) A concave metallic mirror attached to the object-glass end of a microscope, to throw down light on opaque objects; a reflector.

Lieberkühn's glands (lē"bẽr*kunz glăndz`). [ See Lieberkühn .] (Anat.) The simple tubular glands of the small intestines; -- called also crypts of Lieberkühn .

Lied (lēt) noun ; plural Lieder (lē"dẽr). [ G.] (Mus.) A lay; a German song. It differs from the French chanson , and the Italian canzone , all three being national.

The German Lied is perhaps the most faithful reflection of the national sentiment.
Grove.

Liederkranz noun [ G. See Lied , and Grants .] (Mus.) Lit., wreath of songs; -- used as the title of a group of songs, and esp. as the common name for German vocal clubs of men.

Liedertafel (lē"dẽr*tä`f'l) noun [ G., lit., a song table.] (Mus.) A popular name for any society or club which meets for the practice of male part songs.

Lief (lēf) noun Same as Lif .

Lief (lēf) adjective [ Written also lieve .] [ Middle English leef , lef , leof , Anglo-Saxon leóf ; akin to Old Saxon liof , OFries. liaf , Dutch lief , German lieb , Old High German liob , Icelandic ljūfr , Swedish ljuf , Goth. liubs , and English love . √124. See Love , and confer Believe , Leave , noun , Furlough , Libidinous .]
1. Dear; beloved. [ Obsolete, except in poetry.] "My liefe mother." Chaucer. "My liefest liege." Shak.

As thou art lief and dear.
Tennyson.

2. (Used with a form of the verb to be , and the dative of the personal pronoun.) Pleasing; agreeable; acceptable; preferable. [ Obsolete] See Lief , adverb , and Had as lief , under Had .

Full lief me were this counsel for to hide.
Chaucer.

Death me liefer were than such despite.
Spenser.

3. Willing; disposed. [ Obsolete]

I am not lief to gab.
Chaucer.

He up arose, however lief or loth.
Spenser.

Lief noun A dear one; a sweetheart. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Lief adverb Gladly; willingly; freely; -- now used only in the phrases, had as lief , and would as lief ; as, I had, or would, as lief go as not.

All women liefest would
Be sovereign of man's love.
Gower.

I had as lief the town crier spoke my lines.
Shak.

Far liefer by his dear hand had I die.
Tennyson.

» The comparative liefer with had or would , and followed by the infinitive, either with or without the sign to , signifies prefer , choose as preferable , would or had rather . In the 16th century rather was substituted for liefer in such constructions in literary English, and has continued to be generally so used. See Had as lief , Had rather , etc. , under Had .

Liefsome (lēf"sŭm) adjective Pleasing; delightful. [ Obsolete]

Liegance (lē"j a ns) noun Same as Ligeance .

Liege (lēj) adjective [ Middle English lige , lege , French lige , Late Latin ligius , legius , liege, unlimited, complete, probably of German origin; confer German ledig free from bonds and obstacles, Middle High German ledec , ledic , lidic , freed, loosed, and Charta Ottonis de Benthem, ann. 1253, " ligius homo quod Teutonicè dicitur ledigman ," i. e., uni soli homagio obligatus, free from all obligations to others; influenced by Latin ligare to bind. German ledig perhaps orig. meant, free to go where one pleases, and is perhaps akin to English lead to conduct. Confer Lead to guide.]
1. Sovereign; independent; having authority or right to allegiance; as, a liege lord. Chaucer.

She looked as grand as doomsday and as grave;
And he, he reverenced his liege lady there.
Tennyson.

2. Serving an independent sovereign or master; bound by a feudal tenure; obliged to be faithful and loyal to a superior, as a vassal to his lord; faithful; loyal; as, a liege man; a liege subject.

3. (Old Law) Full; perfect; complete; pure. Burrill.

Liege homage (Feudal Custom) , that homage of one sovereign or prince to another which acknowledged an obligation of fealty and services. -- Liege poustie [ Latin legitima potestas ] (Scots Law) , perfect, i. e. , legal, power; specif., having health requisite to do legal acts. -- Liege widowhood , perfect, i. e. , pure, widowhood. [ Obsolete]

Liege (lēj) noun
1. A free and independent person; specif., a lord paramount; a sovereign. Mrs. Browning.

The anointed sovereign of sighs and groans,
Liege of all loiterers and malcontents.
Shak.

2. The subject of a sovereign or lord; a liegeman.

A liege lord seems to have been a lord of a free band; and his lieges , though serving under him, were privileged men, free from all other obligations, their name being due to their freedom, not to their service.
Skeat.

Liegeman (-m a n) noun ; plural Liegemen (-m e n). Same as Liege , noun , 2. Chaucer. Spenser.

Lieger (lē"jẽr) noun [ See Leger , Ledger .] A resident ambassador. [ Obsolete] See Leger . Denham.

Liegiancy (lē"j a n*sȳ) noun See Ligeance .

Lien (lī"ĕn), obsolete past participle of Lie . See Lain . Ps. lxviii. 13.

Lien (lēn or lī"ĕn; 277) noun [ French lien band, bond, tie, from Latin ligamen , from ligare to bind. Confer League a union, Leam a string, Leamer , Ligament .] (Law) A legal claim; a charge upon real or personal property for the satisfaction of some debt or duty; a right in one to control or hold and retain the property of another until some claim of the former is paid or satisfied.