Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Lienal (li*ē"n a l) adjective [ Latin lien the spleen.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the spleen; splenic.

Lienculus (li*ĕn"ku*lŭs) noun ; plural Lienculi (- lī). [ New Latin , dim. of Latin lien the spleen.] (Anat.) One of the small nodules sometimes found in the neighborhood of the spleen; an accessory or supplementary spleen.

Lieno-intestinal (li*ē`no- ĭn*tĕs"tĭ*n a l) adjective [ Latin lien the spleen + English intestinal .] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the spleen and intestine; as, the lieno- intestinal vein of the frog.

Lienteric (lī`ĕn*tĕr"ĭk) adjective [ Latin lientericus , Greek leienteriko`s : confer French lientérique . See Lientery .] (Medicine) Of or pertaining to, or of the nature of, a lientery. -- noun (Medicine) A lientery. Grew.

Lientery (lī"ĕn*tĕr*ȳ) noun [ Greek leienteri`a ; lei^os smooth, soft + 'e`nteron an intestine: confer French lientérie .] (Medicine) A diarrhea, in which the food is discharged imperfectly digested, or with but little change. Dunglison.

Lier (lī"ẽr) noun [ From Lie . ] One who lies down; one who rests or remains, as in concealment.

There were liers in ambush against him.
Josh. viii. 14.

Lierne rib (lyârn" rĭb`). [ French lierne .] (Architecture) In Gothic vaulting, any rib which does not spring from the impost and is not a ridge rib, but passes from one boss or intersection of the principal ribs to another.

Lieu (lū) noun [ French, Old French also liu , leu , lou , from Latin locus place. See Local , Locus .] Place; room; stead; -- used only in the phrase in lieu of , that is, instead of .

The plan of extortion had been adopted in lieu of the scheme of confiscation.
Burke.

Lieutenancy (lu*tĕn" a n*sȳ; 277) noun
1. The office, rank, or commission, of a lieutenant.

2. The body of lieutenants or subordinates. [ Obsolete]

The list of the lieutenancy of our metropolis.
Felton.

Lieutenant (lu*tĕn" a nt) noun [ French, from lieu place + tenant holding, present participle of tenir to hold, Latin tenere . See Lieu , and Tenant , and confer Locum Tenens .]
1. An officer who supplies the place of a superior in his absence; a representative of, or substitute for, another in the performance of any duty.

The lawful magistrate, who is the vicegerent or lieutenant of God.
Abp. Bramhall.

2. (a) A commissioned officer in the army, next below a captain. (b) A commissioned officer in the British navy, in rank next below a commander. (c) A commissioned officer in the United States navy, in rank next below a lieutenant commander.

» Lieutenant is often used, either adjectively or in hyphened compounds, to denote an officer, in rank next below another, especially when the duties of the higher officer may devolve upon the lower one; as, lieutenant general, or lieutenant- general; lieutenant colonel, or lieutenant- colonel; lieutenant governor, etc.

Deputy lieutenant , the title of any one of the deputies or assistants of the lord lieutenant of a county. [ Eng.] -- Lieutenant colonel , an army officer next in rank above major, and below colonel. -- Lieutenant commander , an officer in the United States navy, in rank next below a commander and next above a lieutenant. -- Lieutenant general . See in Vocabulary. -- Lieutenant governor . (a) An officer of a State, being next in rank to the governor, and, in case of the death or resignation of the latter, himself acting as governor . [ U. S.] (b) A deputy governor acting as the chief civil officer of one of several colonies under a governor general. [ Eng.]

Lieutenant general (jĕn"ẽr* a l). An army officer in rank next below a general and next above a major general.

» In the United States, before the civil war, this rank had been conferred only on George Washington and (in brevet) on Winfield Scott. In 1864 it was revived by Congress and conferred on Ulysses S. Grant, and subsequently, by promotion, on William T. Sherman and Philip H. Sheridan, each of whom was advanced to the rank of general of the army . When Sheridan was made general (in 1888) the rank of lieutenant general was suffered to lapse. See General .

Lieutenantry (-rȳ) noun See Lieutenancy . [ Obsolete]

Lieutenantship noun Same as Lieutenancy , 1.

Lieve (lēv) adjective Same as Lief .

Lif (lĭf) noun [ Written also lief .] The fiber by which the petioles of the date palm are bound together, from which various kinds of cordage are made.

Life (līf) noun ; plural Lives (līvz). [ Anglo-Saxon līf ; akin to Dutch lijf body, German leib body, Middle High German līp life, body, Old High German līb life, Icelandic līf , life, body, Swedish lif , Danish liv , and English live , v. √119. See Live , and confer Alive .]
1. The state of being which begins with generation, birth, or germination, and ends with death; also, the time during which this state continues; that state of an animal or plant in which all or any of its organs are capable of performing all or any of their functions; - - used of all animal and vegetable organisms.

2. Of human beings: The union of the soul and body; also, the duration of their union; sometimes, the deathless quality or existence of the soul; as, man is a creature having an immortal life .

She shows a body rather than a life .
Shak.

3. (Philos.) The potential principle, or force, by which the organs of animals and plants are started and continued in the performance of their several and coöperative functions; the vital force, whether regarded as physical or spiritual.

4. Figuratively: The potential or animating principle, also, the period of duration, of anything that is conceived of as resembling a natural organism in structure or functions; as, the life of a state, a machine, or a book; authority is the life of government.

5. A certain way or manner of living with respect to conditions, circumstances, character, conduct, occupation, etc.; hence, human affairs; also, lives, considered collectively, as a distinct class or type; as, low life ; a good or evil life ; the life of Indians, or of miners.

That which before us lies in daily life .
Milton.

By experience of life abroad in the world.
Ascham.

Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime.
Longfellow.

'T is from high life high characters are drawn.
Pope

6. Animation; spirit; vivacity; vigor; energy.

No notion of life and fire in fancy and in words.
Felton.

That gives thy gestures grace and life .
Wordsworth.

7. That which imparts or excites spirit or vigor; that upon which enjoyment or success depends; as, he was the life of the company, or of the enterprise.

8. The living or actual form, person, thing, or state; as, a picture or a description from the life .

9. A person; a living being, usually a human being; as, many lives were sacrificed.

10. The system of animal nature; animals in general, or considered collectively.

Full nature swarms with life .
Thomson.

11. An essential constituent of life, esp. the blood.

The words that I speak unto you . . . they are life .
John vi. 63.

The warm life came issuing through the wound.
Pope

12. A history of the acts and events of a life; a biography; as, Johnson wrote the life of Milton.

13. Enjoyment in the right use of the powers; especially, a spiritual existence; happiness in the favor of God; heavenly felicity.

14. Something dear to one as one's existence; a darling; -- used as a term of endearment.

» Life forms the first part of many compounds, for the most part of obvious meaning; as, life- giving, life- sustaining, etc.

Life annuity , an annuity payable during one's life. -- Life arrow , Life rocket , Life shot , an arrow, rocket, or shot, for carrying an attached line to a vessel in distress in order to save life. -- Life assurance . See Life insurance , below. -- Life buoy . See Buoy . -- Life car , a water- tight boat or box, traveling on a line from a wrecked vessel to the shore. In it persons are hauled through the waves and surf. -- Life drop , a drop of vital blood. Byron. -- Life estate (Law) , an estate which is held during the term of some certain person's life, but does not pass by inheritance. -- Life everlasting (Botany) , a plant with white or yellow persistent scales about the heads of the flowers, as Antennaria , and Gnaphalium ; cudweed. -- Life of an execution (Law) , the period when an execution is in force, or before it expires. -- Life guard . (Mil.) See under Guard . -- Life insurance , the act or system of insuring against death; a contract by which the insurer undertakes, in consideration of the payment of a premium (usually at stated periods), to pay a stipulated sum in the event of the death of the insured or of a third person in whose life the insured has an interest. -- Life interest , an estate or interest which lasts during one's life, or the life of another person, but does not pass by inheritance. -- Life land (Law) , land held by lease for the term of a life or lives. -- Life line . (a) (Nautical) A line along any part of a vessel for the security of sailors . (b) A line attached to a life boat, or to any life saving apparatus, to be grasped by a person in the water. -- Life rate , the rate of premium for insuring a life. -- Life rent , the rent of a life estate; rent or property to which one is entitled during one's life. -- Life school , a school for artists in which they model, paint, or draw from living models. -- Life table , a table showing the probability of life at different ages. -- To lose one's life , to die. -- To seek the life of , to seek to kill. -- To the life , so as closely to resemble the living person or the subject; as, the portrait was drawn to the life .

Life-giving (-gĭv`ĭng) adjective Giving life or spirit; having power to give life; inspiriting; invigorating.

Life-preserver (līf"pre*zẽrv`ẽr) noun An apparatus, made in very various forms, and of various materials, for saving one from drowning by buoying up the body while in the water. -- Life"-pre*serv`ing , adjective

Life-saving (-sāv`ĭng) adjective That saves life, or is suited to save life, esp. from drowning; as, the life-saving service; a life- saving station.

Life-size (-sīz`) adjective Of full size; of the natural size.

Life-weary (-wē`rȳ) adjective Weary of living. Shak.

Lifeblood (līf"blŭd`) noun
1. The blood necessary to life; vital blood. Dryden.

2. Fig.: That which gives strength and energy.

Money [ is] the lifeblood of the nation.
Swift.

Lifeboat (-bōt`) noun A strong, buoyant boat especially designed for saving the lives of shipwrecked people.

Lifeful (-ful) adjective Full of vitality. Spenser.

Lifehold (-hōld`) noun Land held by a life estate.

Lifeless adjective Destitute of life, or deprived of life; not containing, or inhabited by, living beings or vegetation; dead, or apparently dead; spiritless; powerless; dull; as, a lifeless carcass; lifeless matter; a lifeless desert; a lifeless wine; a lifeless story. -- Life"less*ly , adverb -- Life"less*ness , noun

Syn. -- Dead; soulless; inanimate; torpid; inert; inactive; dull; heavy; unanimated; spiritless; frigid; pointless; vapid; flat; tasteless. -- Lifeless , Dull , Inanimate , Dead . In a moral sense, lifeless denotes a want of vital energy; inanimate , a want of expression as to any feeling that may be possessed; dull implies a torpor of soul which checks all mental activity; dead supposes a destitution of feeling. A person is said to be lifeless who has lost the spirits which he once had; he is said to be inanimate when he is naturally wanting in spirits; one is dull from an original deficiency of mental power; he who is dead to moral sentiment is wholly bereft of the highest attribute of his nature.

Lifelike (līf"līk`) adjective [ Confer Lively .] Like a living being; resembling life; giving an accurate representation; as, a lifelike portrait. -- Life"like`ness , noun Poe.

Lifelong (-lŏng`) adjective [ Life + long . Confer Livelong .] Lasting or continuing through life. Tennyson.

Lifely adverb [ Confer Lively , adjective ] In a lifelike manner. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Lifemate (-māt`) noun Companion for life. Hawthorne.

Lifen (līf"'n) transitive verb To enliven. [ Obsolete] Marston.

Lifesome (-sŭm) adjective Animated; sprightly. [ Poetic] Coleridge. -- Life"some*ness , noun

Lifespring (-sprĭng`) noun Spring or source of life.

Lifestring (-strĭng`) noun A nerve, or string, that is imagined to be essential to life. Daniel.

Lifetime (-tīm`) noun The time that life continues.

Liflode (līf"lōd) noun Livelihood. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Lift (lĭft) noun [ Anglo-Saxon lyft air. See Loft .] The sky; the atmosphere; the firmament. [ Obsolete or Scot.]

Lift (lĭft) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Lifted ; present participle & verbal noun Lifting .] [ Icelandic lypta , from lopt air; akin to Swedish lyfta to lift, Danish löfte , German lüften ; -- prop., to raise into the air. See Loft , and confer 1st Lift .]
1. To move in a direction opposite to that of gravitation; to raise; to elevate; to bring up from a lower place to a higher; to upheave; sometimes implying a continued support or holding in the higher place; -- said of material things; as, to lift the foot or the hand; to lift a chair or a burden.

2. To raise, elevate, exalt, improve, in rank, condition, estimation, character, etc.; -- often with up .

The Roman virtues lift up mortal man.
Addison.

Lest, being lifted up with pride.
1 Tim. iii. 6.

3. To bear; to support. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

4. To collect, as moneys due; to raise.

5. [ Perh. a different word, and akin to Goth. hliftus thief, hlifan to steal, Latin clepere , Greek kle`ptein . Confer Shoplifter .] To steal; to carry off by theft (esp. cattle); as, to lift a drove of cattle.

» In old writers, lift is sometimes used for lifted .

He ne'er lift up his hand but conquered.
Shak.

To lift up , to raise or elevate; in the Scriptures, specifically, to elevate upon the cross. John viii. 28. -- To lift up the eyes . To look up; to raise the eyes, as in prayer. Ps. cxxi. 1. -- To lift up the feet , to come speedily to one's relief. Ps. lxxiv. 3. -- To lift up the hand . (a) To take an oath . Gen. xiv. 22. (b) To pray. Ps. xxviii. 2. (c) To engage in duty. Hebrew xii. 12. -- To lift up the hand against , to rebel against; to assault; to attack; to injure; to oppress. Job xxxi. 21. -- To lift up one's head , to cause one to be exalted or to rejoice. Gen. xl. 13. Luke xxi. 28. -- To lift up the heel against , to treat with insolence or unkindness. John xiii.18. -- To lift up the voice , to cry aloud; to call out. Gen. xxi. 16.

Lift (lĭft) intransitive verb
1. To try to raise something; to exert the strength for raising or bearing.

Strained by lifting at a weight too heavy.
Locke.

2. To rise; to become or appear raised or elevated; as, the fog lifts ; the land lifts to a ship approaching it.

3. [ See Lift , transitive verb , 5.] To live by theft. Spenser.

Lift noun
1. Act of lifting; also, that which is lifted.

2. The space or distance through which anything is lifted; as, a long lift . Bacon.

3. Help; assistance, as by lifting; as, to give one a lift in a wagon. [ Colloq.]

The goat gives the fox a lift .
L'Estrange.

4. That by means of which a person or thing lifts or is lifted ; as: (a) A hoisting machine; an elevator; a dumb waiter. (b) A handle. (c) An exercising machine.

5. A rise; a degree of elevation; as, the lift of a lock in canals.

6. A lift gate. See Lift gate , below. [ Prov. Eng.]

7. (Nautical) A rope leading from the masthead to the extremity of a yard below; -- used for raising or supporting the end of the yard.

8. (Machinery) One of the steps of a cone pulley.

9. (Shoemaking) A layer of leather in the heel.

10. (Horology) That portion of the vibration of a balance during which the impulse is given. Saunier.

Dead lift . See under Dead . Swift. -- Lift bridge , a kind of drawbridge, the movable part of which is lifted, instead of being drawn aside. -- Lift gate , a gate that is opened by lifting. -- Lift hammer . See Tilt hammer . -- Lift lock , a canal lock. -- Lift pump , a lifting pump. - - Lift tenter (Windmills) , a governor for regulating the speed by adjusting the sails, or for adjusting the action of grinding machinery according to the speed. -- Lift wall (Canal Lock) , the cross wall at the head of the lock.

Liftable (-ȧ*b'l) adjective Such as can be lifted.

Lifter (-ẽr) noun
1. One who, or that which, lifts.

2. (Founding) A tool for lifting loose sand from the mold; also, a contrivance attached to a cope, to hold the sand together when the cope is lifted.

Lifting adjective Used in, or for, or by, lifting.

Lifting bridge , a lift bridge. -- Lifting jack . See 2d Jack , 5. -- Lifting machine . See Health lift , under Health . -- Lifting pump . (Machinery) (a) A kind of pump having a bucket, or valved piston, instead of a solid piston, for drawing water and lifting it to a high level . (b) A pump which lifts the water only to the top of the pump, or delivers it through a spout; a lift pump. -- Lifting rod , a vertical rod lifted by a rock shaft, and imparting motion to a puppet valve; -- used in the engines of river steamboats. -- Lifting sail (Nautical) , one which tends to lift a vessel's bow out of water, as jibs and square foresails.

Lig (lĭg) intransitive verb [ See Lie to be prostrate.] To recline; to lie still. [ Obsolete or Scot.] Chaucer. Spenser.

Ligament (lĭg"ȧ*m e nt) noun [ Latin ligamentum , from ligare to bind: confer French ligament . Confer Lien , noun , Ligature .]


1. Anything that ties or unites one thing or part to another; a bandage; a bond. Hawthorne.

Interwoven is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts.
Washington.

2. (Anat.) (a) A tough band or plate of dense, fibrous, connective tissue or fibrocartilage serving to unite bones or form joints. (b) A band of connective tissue, or a membranous fold, which supports or retains an organ in place; as, the gastrophrenic ligament , connecting the diaphragm and stomach.

Ligamental (-mĕn"t a l), Lig`a*men"tous (-tŭs) adjective [ Confer French ligamenteux .] Composing a ligament; of the nature of a ligament; binding; as, a strong ligamentous membrane.

Ligan (lī"g a n) noun [ Confer Latin ligare to bind, to tie, ligamen band, bandage, English ligament , or ligsam .] (Law) Goods sunk in the sea, with a buoy attached in order that they may be found again. See Jetsam and Flotsam . [ Written also lagan .] Blackstone.

Ligate (lī"gāt) transitive verb [ Latin ligatus , past participle of ligare .] To tie with a ligature; to bind around; to bandage.

Ligation (li*gā"shŭn) noun [ Latin ligatio , from ligare to bind. Confer Liaison .]
1. The act of binding, or the state of being bound.

2. That which binds; bond; connection.

Tied with tape, and sealed at each fold and ligation .
Sir W. Scott.

Ligator (-tŏr) noun [ See Ligate .] (Surg.) An instrument for ligating, or for placing and fastening a ligature.