Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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De bene esse [ Latin ] (Law) Of well being; of formal sufficiency for the time; conditionally; provisionally. Abbott.

De facto [ Latin ] Actually; in fact; in reality; as, a king de facto , -- distinguished from a king de jure , or by right.

De jure [ Latin ] By right; of right; by law; -- often opposed to de facto .

De rigueur [ French See 2d Rigor .] According to strictness (of etiquette, rule, or the like); obligatory; strictly required.

Deacon (dē"k'n) noun [ Middle English diakne , deakne , deken , Anglo-Saxon diacon , deacon , Latin diaconus , from Greek ... a servant or minister, a minister of the church; of uncertain origin. In sense 2 probably confused with dean .]
1. (Eccl.) An officer in Christian churches appointed to perform certain subordinate duties varying in different communions. In the Roman Catholic and Episcopal churches, a person admitted to the lowest order in the ministry, subordinate to the bishops and priests. In Presbyterian churches, he is subordinate to the minister and elders, and has charge of certain duties connected with the communion service and the care of the poor. In Congregational churches, he is subordinate to the pastor, and has duties as in the Presbyterian church.

2. The chairman of an incorporated company. [ Scot.]

Deacon transitive verb To read aloud each line of (a psalm or hymn) before singing it, -- usually with off . [ Colloq. New. Eng.] See Line , transitive verb

» The expression is derived from a former custom in the Congregational churches of New England. It was part of the office of a deacon to read aloud the psalm given out, one line at a time, the congregation singing each line as soon as read; -- called, also, lining out the psalm .

Deacon transitive verb With humorous reference to hypocritical posing: To pack (fruit or vegetables) with the finest specimens on top; to alter slyly the boundaries of (land); to adulterate or doctor (an article to be sold), etc. [ Colloq., U. S.]

Deaconess noun (Eccl.) A female deacon ; as: (a) (Primitive Ch.) One of an order of women whose duties resembled those of deacons. (b) (Ch. of Eng. and Prot. Epis. Ch.) A woman set apart for church work by a bishop. (c) A woman chosen as a helper in church work, as among the Congregationalists.

Deaconhood noun The state of being a deacon; office of a deacon; deaconship.

Deaconry noun See Deaconship .

Deaconship noun The office or ministry of a deacon or deaconess.

Dead (dĕd) adjective [ Middle English ded , dead , deed , Anglo-Saxon deád ; akin to Old Saxon dōd , Dutch dood , German todt , tot , Icelandic dauðr , Swedish & Danish död , Goth. daubs ; propast participle p. of an old verb meaning to die . See Die , and confer Death .]
1. Deprived of life; -- opposed to alive and living ; reduced to that state of a being in which the organs of motion and life have irrevocably ceased to perform their functions; as, a dead tree; a dead man. "The queen, my lord, is dead ." Shak.

The crew, all except himself, were dead of hunger.
Arbuthnot.

Seek him with candle, bring him dead or living.
Shak.

2. Destitute of life; inanimate; as, dead matter.

3. Resembling death in appearance or quality; without show of life; deathlike; as, a dead sleep.

4. Still as death; motionless; inactive; useless; as, dead calm; a dead load or weight.

5. So constructed as not to transmit sound; soundless; as, a dead floor.

6. Unproductive; bringing no gain; unprofitable; as, dead capital; dead stock in trade.

7. Lacking spirit; dull; lusterless; cheerless; as, dead eye; dead fire; dead color, etc.

8. Monotonous or unvaried; as, a dead level or pain; a dead wall. "The ground is a dead flat." C. Reade.

9. Sure as death; unerring; fixed; complete; as, a dead shot; a dead certainty.

I had them a dead bargain.
Goldsmith. 10. Bringing death; deadly. Shak. 11. Wanting in religious spirit and vitality; as, dead faith; dead works. " Dead in trespasses." Eph. ii. 1. 12. (Paint.) (a) Flat; without gloss; -- said of painting which has been applied purposely to have this effect. (b) Not brilliant; not rich; thus, brown is a dead color, as compared with crimson. 13. (Law) Cut off from the rights of a citizen; deprived of the power of enjoying the rights of property; as, one banished or becoming a monk is civilly dead . 14. (Machinery) Not imparting motion or power; as, the dead spindle of a lathe, etc. See Spindle .

Dead ahead (Nautical) , directly ahead; - - said of a ship or any object, esp. of the wind when blowing from that point toward which a vessel would go. -- Dead angle (Mil.) , an angle or space which can not be seen or defended from behind the parapet. -- Dead block , either of two wooden or iron blocks intended to serve instead of buffers at the end of a freight car. -- Dead calm (Nautical) , no wind at all. -- Dead center , or Dead point (Machinery) , either of two points in the orbit of a crank, at which the crank and connecting rod lie a straight line. It corresponds to the end of a stroke; as, A and B are dead centers of the crank mechanism in which the crank C drives, or is driven by, the lever L . -- Dead color (Paint.) , a color which has no gloss upon it. -- Dead coloring (Oil paint.) , the layer of colors, the preparation for what is to follow. In modern painting this is usually in monochrome. -- Dead door (Shipbuilding) , a storm shutter fitted to the outside of the quarter-gallery door. -- Dead flat (Nautical) , the widest or midship frame. -- Dead freight (Mar. Law) , a sum of money paid by a person who charters a whole vessel but fails to make out a full cargo. The payment is made for the unoccupied capacity. Abbott. -- Dead ground (Mining) , the portion of a vein in which there is no ore. -- Dead hand , a hand that can not alienate, as of a person civilly dead. "Serfs held in dead hand ." Morley. See Mortmain . -- Dead head (Nautical) , a rough block of wood used as an anchor buoy. -- Dead heat , a heat or course between two or more race horses, boats, etc., in which they come out exactly equal, so that neither wins. -- Dead horse , an expression applied to a debt for wages paid in advance. [ Law] -- Dead language , a language which is no longer spoken or in common use by a people, and is known only in writings, as the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. -- Dead letter . (a) A letter which, after lying for a certain fixed time uncalled for at the post office to which it was directed, is then sent to the general post office to be opened. (b) That which has lost its force or authority; as, the law has become a dead letter . -- Dead-letter office , a department of the general post office where dead letters are examined and disposed of. -- Dead level , a term applied to a flat country. -- Dead lift , a direct lift, without assistance from mechanical advantage, as from levers, pulleys, etc.; hence, an extreme emergency. "(As we say) at a dead lift ." Robynson (More's Utopia). -- Dead line (Mil.) , a line drawn within or around a military prison, to cross which involves for a prisoner the penalty of being instantly shot. -- Dead load (Civil Engin.) , a constant, motionless load, as the weight of a structure, in distinction from a moving load, as a train of cars, or a variable pressure, as of wind. -- Dead march (Mus.) , a piece of solemn music intended to be played as an accompaniment to a funeral procession. -- Dead nettle (Botany) , a harmless plant with leaves like a nettle ( Lamium album ). -- Dead oil (Chemistry) , the heavy oil obtained in the distillation of coal tar, and containing phenol, naphthalus, etc. -- Dead plate (Machinery) , a solid covering over a part of a fire grate, to prevent the entrance of air through that part. -- Dead pledge , a mortgage. See Mortgage . -- Dead point . (Machinery) See Dead center . -- Dead reckoning (Nautical) , the method of determining the place of a ship from a record kept of the courses sailed as given by compass, and the distance made on each course as found by log, with allowance for leeway, etc., without the aid of celestial observations. -- Dead rise , the transverse upward curvature of a vessel's floor. -- Dead rising , an elliptical line drawn on the sheer plan to determine the sweep of the floorheads throughout the ship's length. -- Dead-Sea apple . See under Apple . -- Dead set . See under Set . -- Dead shot . (a) An unerring marksman. (b) A shot certain to be made. -- Dead smooth , the finest cut made; -- said of files. -- Dead wall (Architecture) , a blank wall unbroken by windows or other openings. -- Dead water (Nautical) , the eddy water closing in under a ship's stern when sailing. -- Dead weight . (a) A heavy or oppressive burden. Dryden. (b) (Shipping) A ship's lading, when it consists of heavy goods; or, the heaviest part of a ship's cargo. (c) (Railroad) The weight of rolling stock, the live weight being the load. Knight. -- Dead wind (Nautical) , a wind directly ahead, or opposed to the ship's course. -- To be dead , to die. [ Obsolete]

I deme thee, thou must algate be dead .
Chaucer.

Syn. -- Inanimate; deceased; extinct. See Lifeless .

Dead adverb To a degree resembling death; to the last degree; completely; wholly. [ Colloq.]

I was tired of reading, and dead sleepy.
Dickens.

Dead drunk , so drunk as to be unconscious.

Dead (dĕd) noun
1. The most quiet or deathlike time; the period of profoundest repose, inertness, or gloom; as, the dead of winter.

When the drum beat at dead of night.
Campbell.

2. One who is dead; -- commonly used collectively.

And Abraham stood up from before his dead .
Gen. xxiii. 3.

Dead transitive verb To make dead; to deaden; to deprive of life, force, or vigor. [ Obsolete]

Heaven's stern decree,
With many an ill, hath numbed and deaded me.
Chapman.

Dead intransitive verb To die; to lose life or force. [ Obsolete]

So iron, as soon as it is out of the fire, deadeth straightway.
Bacon.

Dead adjective
1. (Electricity) Carrying no current, or producing no useful effect; -- said of a conductor in a dynamo or motor, also of a telegraph wire which has no instrument attached and, therefore, is not in use.

2. Out of play; regarded as out of the game; -- said of a ball, a piece, or a player under certain conditions in cricket, baseball, checkers, and some other games.

[ In golf], a ball is said to lie dead when it lies so near the hole that the player is certain to hole it in the next stroke.
Encyc. of Sport.

Dead beat See Beat , noun , 7. [ Low, U.S.]

Dead-eye (dĕd"ī`) noun (Nautical) A round, flattish, wooden block, encircled by a rope, or an iron band, and pierced with three holes to receive the lanyard; -- used to extend the shrouds and stays, and for other purposes. Called also deadman's eye . Totten.

Dead-hearted adjective Having a dull, faint heart; spiritless; listless. -- Dead"- heart`ed*ness , noun Bp. Hall.

Dead-pay noun Pay drawn for soldiers, or others, really dead, whose names are kept on the rolls.

O you commanders,
That, like me, have no dead-pays .
Massinger.

Dead-reckoning noun (Nautical) See under Dead , adjective

Dead-stroke adjective (Mech.) Making a stroke without recoil; deadbeat.

Dead-stroke hammer (Machinery) , a power hammer having a spring interposed between the driving mechanism and the hammer head, or helve, to lessen the recoil of the hammer and reduce the shock upon the mechanism.

Deadbeat adjective (Physics) Making a beat without recoil; giving indications by a single beat or excursion; -- said of galvanometers and other instruments in which the needle or index moves to the extent of its deflection and stops with little or no further oscillation.

Deadbeat escapement . See under Escapement .

Deadborn adjective Stillborn. Pope.

Deaden (dĕd"'n) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Deadened (-'nd); present participle & verbal noun Deadening .] [ From Dead ; confer Anglo-Saxon d...dan to kill, put to death. See Dead , adjective ]
1. To make as dead; to impair in vigor, force, activity, or sensation; to lessen the force or acuteness of; to blunt; as, to deaden the natural powers or feelings; to deaden a sound.

As harper lays his open palm
Upon his harp, to deaden its vibrations.
Longfellow.

2. To lessen the velocity or momentum of; to retard; as, to deaden a ship's headway.

3. To make vapid or spiritless; as, to deaden wine.

4. To deprive of gloss or brilliancy; to obscure; as, to deaden gilding by a coat of size.

Deaden transitive verb To render impervious to sound, as a wall or floor; to deafen.

Deadener (dĕd"'n*ẽr) noun One who, or that which, deadens or checks.

Deadhead noun
1. One who receives free tickets for theaters, public conveyances, etc. [ Colloq. U. S.]

2. (Nautical) A buoy. See under Dead , adjective

Deadhouse noun A morgue; a place for the temporary reception and exposure of dead bodies.

Deadish adjective Somewhat dead, dull, or lifeless; deathlike.

The lips put on a deadish paleness.
A. Stafford.

Deadlatch noun A kind of latch whose bolt may be so locked by a detent that it can not be opened from the inside by the handle, or from the outside by the latch key. Knight.

Deadlight noun (Nautical) A strong shutter, made to fit open ports and keep out water in a storm.

Deadlihood noun State of the dead. [ Obsolete]

Deadliness noun The quality of being deadly.

Deadlock noun
1. A lock which is not self-latching, but requires a key to throw the bolt forward.

2. A counteraction of things, which produces an entire stoppage; a complete obstruction of action.

Things are at a deadlock .
London Times.

The Board is much more likely to be at a deadlock of two to two.
The Century.

Deadly adjective
1. Capable of causing death; mortal; fatal; destructive; certain or likely to cause death; as, a deadly blow or wound.

2. Aiming or willing to destroy; implacable; desperately hostile; flagitious; as, deadly enemies.

Thy assailant is quick, skillful, and deadly .
Shak.

3. Subject to death; mortal. [ Obsolete]

The image of a deadly man.
Wyclif (Rom. i. 23).

Deadly nightshade (Botany) , a poisonous plant; belladonna. See under Nightshade .

Deadly adverb
1. In a manner resembling, or as if produced by, death. " Deadly pale." Shak.

2. In a manner to occasion death; mortally.

The groanings of a deadly wounded man.
Ezek. xxx. 24.

3. In an implacable manner; destructively.

4. Extremely. [ Obsolete] " Deadly weary." Orrery. "So deadly cunning a man." Arbuthnot.

Deadness noun The state of being destitute of life, vigor, spirit, activity, etc.; dullness; inertness; languor; coldness; vapidness; indifference; as, the deadness of a limb, a body, or a tree; the deadness of an eye; deadness of the affections; the deadness of beer or cider; deadness to the world, and the like.

Deads noun plural (Mining) The substances which inclose the ore on every side.

Deadwood noun
1. (Nautical) A mass of timbers built into the bow and stern of a vessel to give solidity.

2. Dead trees or branches; useless material.

Deadworks noun plural (Nautical) The parts of a ship above the water when she is laden.

Deaf adjective [ Middle English def , deaf , deef , Anglo-Saxon deáf ; akin to Dutch doof , German taub , Icelandic daufr , Danish döv , Swedish döf , Goth. daubs , and probably to English dumb (the original sense being, dull as applied to one of the senses), and perhaps to Greek ... (for ...) blind, ... smoke, vapor, folly, and to German toben to rage. Confer Dum b.]
1. Wanting the sense of hearing, either wholly or in part; unable to perceive sounds; hard of hearing; as, a deaf man.

Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf .
Shak.

2. Unwilling to hear or listen; determinedly inattentive; regardless; not to be persuaded as to facts, argument, or exhortation; -- with to ; as, deaf to reason.

O, that men's ears should be
To counsel deaf , but not to flattery!
Shak.

3. Deprived of the power of hearing; deafened.

Deaf with the noise, I took my hasty flight.
Dryden.

4. Obscurely heard; stifled; deadened. [ R.]

A deaf murmur through the squadron went.
Dryden.

5. Decayed; tasteless; dead; as, a deaf nut; deaf corn. [ Obsolete or Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

If the season be unkindly and intemperate, they [ peppers] will catch a blast; and then the seeds will be deaf , void, light, and naught.
Holland.

Deaf and dumb , without the sense of hearing or the faculty of speech. See Deaf-mute .

Deaf transitive verb To deafen. [ Obsolete] Dryden.

Deaf-mute noun A person who is deaf and dumb; one who, through deprivation or defect of hearing, has either failed the acquire the power of speech, or has lost it. [ See Illust. of Dactylology .]

Deaf-mutes are still so called, even when, by artificial methods, they have been taught to speak imperfectly.

Deaf-mutism noun The condition of being a deaf-mute.

Deafen transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Deafened ; present participle & verbal noun Deafening .] [ From Deaf .]
1. To make deaf; to deprive of the power of hearing; to render incapable of perceiving sounds distinctly.

Deafened and stunned with their promiscuous cries.
Addison.

2. (Architecture) To render impervious to sound, as a partition or floor, by filling the space within with mortar, by lining with paper, etc.

Deafening noun The act or process of rendering impervious to sound, as a floor or wall; also, the material with which the spaces are filled in this process; pugging.

Deafly adverb Without sense of sounds; obscurely.

Deafly adjective Lonely; solitary. [ Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.