Webster's Dictionary, 1913
Darkness noun 1. The absence of light; blackness; obscurity; gloom.
And darkness was upon the face of the deep. Gen. i. 2. 2. A state of privacy; secrecy.
What I tell you in darkness , that speak ye in light. Matt. x. 27. 3. A state of ignorance or error, especially on moral or religious subjects; hence, wickedness; impurity.
Men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. John. iii. 19.
Pursue these sons of darkness : drive them out Milton. 4. Want of clearness or perspicuity; obscurity; as, the darkness of a subject, or of a discussion. 5. A state of distress or trouble.
From all heaven's bounds.
A day of clouds and of thick darkness . Joel. ii. 2. Prince of darkness
, the Devil; Satan.
"In the power of the Prince of darkness
." Locke. Syn.
arises from a total, and dimness
from a partial, want of light. A thing is obscure
when so overclouded or covered as not to be easily perceived. As tha shade or obscurity
increases, it deepens into gloom
. What is dark
is hidden from view; what is obscure
is difficult to perceive or penetrate; the eye becomes dim
with age; an impending storm fills the atmosphere with gloom
. When taken figuratively, these words have a like use; as, the darkness
of ignorance; dimness
of discernment; obscurity
of reasoning; gloom
Darksome adjective Dark; gloomy; obscure; shaded; cheerless.
He brought him through a darksome narrow pass Spenser.
To a broad gate, all built of beaten gold.
Darky noun A negro. [ Sleng]
[ Middle English derling
, Anglo-Saxon deórling
dear + -ling
. See Dear
, and -ling
.] One dearly beloved; a favorite.
And can do naught but wail her darling's loss. Shak.
Darling adjective Dearly beloved; regarded with especial kindness and tenderness; favorite. "Some darling science." I. Watts. " Darling sin." Macaulay.
Darlingtonia noun [ New Latin Named after Dr. William Darlington , a botanist of West Chester, Penn.] (Botany) A genus of California pitcher plants consisting of a single species. The long tubular leaves are hooded at the top, and frequently contain many insects drowned in the secretion of the leaves.
(därn) transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Darned
(därnd); present participle & verbal noun Darning
.] [ Middle English derne
, probably of Celtic origin; confer W. darnio
to piece, break in pieces, W. & Arm. to English tear
. Confer Tear
, transitive verb
] To mend as a rent or hole, with interlacing stitches of yarn or thread by means of a needle; to sew together with yarn or thread.
He spent every day ten hours in his closet, in darning his stockings. Swift. Darning last
. See under Last .
-- Darning needle
. (a) A long, strong needle for mending holes or rents, especially in stockings. (b) (Zoology) Any species of dragon fly, having a long, cylindrical body, resembling a needle. These flies are harmless and without stings. [ In this sense, usually written with a hyphen.] Called also devil's darning- needle .
Darn noun A place mended by darning.
Darn transitive verb A colloquial euphemism for Damn .
Darnel noun [ Middle English darnel , dernel , of uncertain origin; confer dial. French darnelle , Swedish dår-repe ; perhaps named from a supposed intoxicating quality of the plant, and akin to Swedish dåra to infatuate, OD. door foolish, German thor fool, and Ee. dizzy .] (Botany) Any grass of the genus Lolium , esp. the Lolium temulentum (bearded darnel), the grains of which have been reputed poisonous. Other species, as Lolium perenne (rye grass or ray grass), and its variety Latin Italicum (Italian rye grass), are highly esteemed for pasture and for making hay. » Under darnel our early herbalists comprehended all kinds of cornfield weeds. Dr. Prior.
Darner noun One who mends by darning.
Darnex, Darnic noun Same as Dornick .
(dȧ*rō") noun (Botany) The Egyptian sycamore ( Ficus Sycamorus ). See Sycamore .
Darr (dăr) noun (Zoology) The European black tern.
, transitive verb
[ Old French deraisnier
to explain, defend, to maintain in legal action by proof and reasonings, Late Latin derationare
to discourse, contend in law, from Latin ratio
reason, in Late Latin , legal cause. Confer Arraign
, and see Reason
.] 1. To make ready to fight; to array.
Darrain your battle, for they are at hand. Shak. 2. To fight out; to contest; to decide by combat.
[ Obsolete] "To darrain
the battle." Chaucer .
Darrein adjective [ Old French darrein , darrain , from an assumed Late Latin deretranus ; Latin de + retro back, backward.] (Law) Last; as, darrein continuance, the last continuance.
[ Old French dart
, of German origin; confer Old High German tart
javelin, dart, Anglo-Saxon dara...
, Swedish dart
dagger, Icelandic darra...r
dart.] 1. A pointed missile weapon, intended to be thrown by the hand; a short lance; a javelin; hence, any sharp-pointed missile weapon, as an arrow.
And he [ Joab] took three darts in his hand, and thrust them through the heart of Absalom. 2 Sa. xviii. 14. 2. Anything resembling a dart; anything that pierces or wounds like a dart.
The artful inquiry, whose venomed dart Hannan More. 3. A spear set as a prize in running.
Scarce wounds the hearing while it stabs the heart.
[ Obsolete] Chaucer. 4. (Zoology) A fish; the dace. See Dace . Dart sac (Zoology)
, a sac connected with the reproductive organs of land snails, which contains a dart, or arrowlike structure.
Dart transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Darted
; present participle & verbal noun Darting
.] 1. To throw with a sudden effort or thrust, as a dart or other missile weapon; to hurl or launch. 2. To throw suddenly or rapidly; to send forth; to emit; to shoot; as, the sun darts forth his beams.
Or what ill eyes malignant glances dart ? Pope.
Dart intransitive verb
1. To fly or pass swiftly, as a dart. 2. To start and run with velocity; to shoot rapidly along; as, the deer darted from the thicket.
Dartars noun [ French dartre eruption, dandruff. √240.] A kind of scab or ulceration on the skin of lambs.
Darter noun 1. One who darts, or who throw darts; that which darts. 2. (Zoology) The snakebird, a water bird of the genus Plotus ; -- so called because it darts out its long, snakelike neck at its prey. See Snakebird . 3. (Zoology) A small fresh-water etheostomoid fish. The group includes numerous genera and species, all of them American. See Etheostomoid .
Dartingly adverb Like a dart; rapidly.
Dartle transitive verb & i. To pierce or shoot through; to dart repeatedly: -- frequentative of dart .
My star that dartles the red and the blue. R. Browning.
Dartoic adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the dartos.
Dartoid adjective [ Dartos + - oid .] (Anat.) Like the dartos; dartoic; as, dartoid tissue.
Dartos noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... flayed.] (Anat.) A thin layer of peculiar contractile tissue directly beneath the skin of the scrotum.
[ French dartreux
. See Dartars
.] (Medicine) Relating to, or partaking of the nature of, the disease called tetter; herpetic. Dartrous diathesis
, A morbid condition of the system predisposing to the development of certain skin diseases, such as eczema, psoriasis, and pityriasis. Also called rheumic diathesis , and herpetism . Piffard.
[ From the name of Charles Darwin
, an English scientist.] Pertaining to Darwin; as, the Darwinian theory, a theory of the manner and cause of the supposed development of living things from certain original forms or elements.
» This theory was put forth by Darwin in 1859 in a work entitled "The Origin of species by Means of Natural Selection." The author argues that, in the struggle for existence, those plants and creatures best fitted to the requirements of the situation in which they are placed are the ones that will live; in other words, that Nature selects those which are to survive. This is the theory of natural selection
or the survival of the fittest
. He also argues that natural selection is capable of modifying and producing organisms fit for their circumstances. See Development theory
, under Development
Darwinian noun An advocate of Darwinism.
Darwinianism noun Darwinism.
Darwinism noun (Biol.) The theory or doctrines put forth by Darwin. See above. Huxley.
(dāz) transitive verb See Daze .
[ Obsolete] Chaucer.
Dasewe intransitive verb [ Middle English dasewen , daswen ; confer Anglo-Saxon dysegian to be foolish.] To become dim-sighted; to become dazed or dazzled. [ Obsolete] Chauscer.
Dash transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Dashed
; present participle & verbal noun Dashing
.] [ Of. Scand. origin; confer Dan daske
to beat, strike, Swedish & Icelandic daska
, Dan. & Swedish dask
blow.] 1. To throw with violence or haste; to cause to strike violently or hastily; -- often used with against .
If you dash a stone against a stone in the botton of the water, it maketh a sound. Bacon. 2. To break, as by throwing or by collision; to shatter; to crust; to frustrate; to ruin.
Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. Ps. ii. 9.
A brave vessel, . . . Shak.
Dashed all to pieces.
To perplex and dash Milton. 3. To put to shame; to confound; to confuse; to abash; to depress. South.
Dash the proud gamester in his gilded car. Pope. 4. To throw in or on in a rapid, careless manner; to mix, reduce, or adulterate, by throwing in something of an inferior quality; to overspread partially; to bespatter; to touch here and there; as, to dash wine with water; to dash paint upon a picture.
I take care to dash the character with such particular circumstance as may prevent ill-natured applications. Addison.
The very source and fount of day Tennyson. 5. To form or sketch rapidly or carelessly; to execute rapidly, or with careless haste; -- with off ; as, to dash off a review or sermon. 6. To erase by a stroke; to strike out; knock out; -- with out ; as, to dash out a word.
Is dashed with wandering isles of night.
Dash intransitive verb To rush with violence; to move impetuously; to strike violently; as, the waves dash upon rocks.
[ He] dashed through thick and thin. Dryden.
On each hand the gushing waters play, Thomson.
And down the rough cascade all dashing fall.
Dash noun 1. Violent striking together of two bodies; collision; crash. 2. A sudden check; abashment; frustration; ruin; as, his hopes received a dash . 3. A slight admixture, infusion, or adulteration; a partial overspreading; as, wine with a dash of water; red with a dash of purple.
Innocence when it has in it a dash of folly. Addison. 4. A rapid movement, esp. one of short duration; a quick stroke or blow; a sudden onset or rush; as, a bold dash at the enemy; a dash of rain.
She takes upon her bravely at first dash . Shak. 5. Energy in style or action; animation; spirit. 6. A vain show; a blustering parade; a flourish; as, to make or cut a great dash .
[ Low] 7. (Punctuation) A mark or line [ --], in writing or printing, denoting a sudden break, stop, or transition in a sentence, or an abrupt change in its construction, a long or significant pause, or an unexpected or epigrammatic turn of sentiment. Dashes are also sometimes used instead of marks or parenthesis. John Wilson. 8. (Mus.) (a) The sign of staccato, a small mark [ ...] denoting that the note over which it is placed is to be performed in a short, distinct manner. (b) The line drawn through a figure in the thorough bass, as a direction to raise the interval a semitone. 9. (Racing) A short, spirited effort or trial of speed upon a race course; -- used in horse racing, when a single trial constitutes the race.
Dashboard (dăsh"bōrd`) noun
1. A board placed on the fore part of a carriage, sleigh, or other vehicle, to intercept water, mud, or snow, thrown up by the heels of the horses; -- in England commonly called splashboard . 2. (Nautical) (a) The float of a paddle wheel. (b) A screen at the bow af a steam launch to keep off the spray; -- called also sprayboard .
Dasheen noun A tropical aroid (of the genus Caladium , syn. Colocasia ) having an edible farinaceous root. It is related to the taro and to the tanier, but is much superior to it in quality and is as easily cooked as the potato. It is a staple food plant of the tropics, being prepared like potatoes, and has been introduced into the Southern United States.
Dasher (dăsh"ẽr) noun
1. That which dashes or agitates; as, the dasher of a churn. 2. A dashboard or splashboard. [ U. S.] 3. One who makes an ostentatious parade. [ Low]
Dashing adjective Bold; spirited; showy.
The dashing and daring spirit is preferable to the listless. T. Campbell.
Dashingly adverb Conspicuously; showily.
A dashingly dressed gentleman. Hawthorne.
(-ĭz'm) noun The character of making ostentatious or blustering parade or show.
[ R. & Colloq.]
He must fight a duel before his claim to . . . dashism can be universally allowed. V. Knox.
Dashpot noun (Machinery) A pneumatic or hydraulic cushion for a falling weight, as in the valve gear of a steam engine, to prevent shock. » It consists of a chamber, containing air or a liquid, in which a piston ( a ), attached to the weight, falls freely until it enters a space (as below the openings, b ) from which the air or liquid can escape but slowly (as through cock c ), when its fall is gradually checked. A cataract of an engine is sometimes called a dashpot .
[ From Dash
.] Calculated to arrest attention; ostentatiously fashionable; showy.
[ Prob. from Icelandic dæstr
exhausted. breathless, past participle of dæsa
to groan, lose one's breath; confer dasask
to become exhausted, and English daze
.] One who meanly shrinks from danger; an arrant coward; a poltroon.
You are all recreants and dashtards , and delight to live in slavery to the nobility. Shak.
Dastard adjective Meanly shrinking from danger; cowardly; dastardly. "Their dastard souls." Addison.
Dastard transitive verb To dastardize. [ R.] Dryden.
Dastardize transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Dastardized
; present participle & verbal noun Dastardizing
.] To make cowardly; to intimidate; to dispirit; as, to dastardize my courage. Dryden.
Dastardliness noun The quality of being dastardly; cowardice; base fear.
Dastardly adjective Meanly timid; cowardly; base; as, a dastardly outrage.