Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Civil Service Reform The substitution of business principles and methods for political methods in the conduct of the civil service. esp. the merit system instead of the spoils system in making appointments to office.

Civilian noun [ From Civil ]
1. One skilled in the civil law.

Ancient civilians and writers upon government.

2. A student of the civil law at a university or college. R. Graves.

3. One whose pursuits are those of civil life, not military or clerical.

Civilist noun A civilian. [ R.] Warburton.

Civility noun ; plural Civilities . [ Latin civilitas : confer French civilité . See Civil .]
1. The state of society in which the relations and duties of a citizen are recognized and obeyed; a state of civilization. [ Obsolete]

Monarchies have risen from barbarrism to civility , and fallen again to ruin.
Sir J. Davies.

The gradual depature of all deeper signification from the word civility has obliged the creation of another word -- civilization.

2. A civil office, or a civil process [ Obsolete]

To serve in a civility .

3. Courtesy; politeness; kind attention; good breeding; a polite act or expression.

The insolent civility of a proud man is, if possible, more shocking than his rudeness could be.

The sweet civilities of life.

Syn. -- Urbanity; affability; complaisance.

Civilizable adjective Capable of being civilized.

Civilization noun [ Confer French civilisation .]
1. The act of civilizing, or the state of being civilized; national culture; refinement.

Our manners, our civilization, and all the good things connected with manners, and with civilization , have, in this European world of ours, depended for ages upon two principles -- . . . the spirit of a gentleman, and spirit of religion.

2. (Law) Rendering a criminal process civil. [ Obsolete]

Civilize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Civilized ; present participle & verbal noun Civilizing .] [ Confer French civilizer , from Latin civilis civil. See Civil .]
1. To reclaim from a savage state; to instruct in the rules and customs of civilization; to educate; to refine.

Yet blest that fate which did his arms dispose
Her land to civilize , as to subdue.

2. To admit as suitable to a civilized state. [ Obsolete or R.] " Civilizing adultery." Milton.

Syn. -- To polish; refine; humanize.

Civilized adjective Reclaimed from savage life and manners; instructed in arts, learning, and civil manners; refined; cultivated.

Sale of conscience and duty in open market is not reconcilable with the present state of civilized society.
J. Quincy.

Civilizer noun One who, or that which, civilizes or tends to civilize.

Civily adverb In a civil manner; as regards civil rights and privileges; politely; courteously; in a well bred manner.

Civism noun [ Confer French civisme , from Latin civis citizen.] State of citizenship. [ R.] Dyer.

Cizar intransitive verb [ From Cizars .] To clip with scissors. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.

Ciz"ars noun plural Scissors. [ Obsolete] Swift.

Cize noun Bulk; largeness. [ Obsolete] See Size .

Clabber noun [ See Bonnyclabber ] Milk curdled so as to become thick.

Clabber intransitive verb To become clabber; to lopper.

Clachan noun [ Scot., from Gael.] A small village containing a church. [ Scot.] Sir W. Scott

Sitting at the clachon alehouse .
R. Latin Stevenson.

Clack intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Clacked ; present participle & verbal noun Clacking .] [ Prob. of imitative origin; confer French claquer to clap, crack, Dutch klakken , Middle High German klac crack, Ir. clagaim I make a noise, ring. Confer Clack , noun , Clatter , Click .]
1. To make a sudden, sharp noise, or a succesion of such noises, as by striking an object, or by collision of parts; to rattle; to click.

We heard Mr.Hodson's whip clacking on the ahoulders of the poor little wretches.

2. To utter words rapidly and continually, or with abruptness; to let the tongue run.

Clack transitive verb
1. To cause to make a sudden, sharp noise, or succession of noises; to click.

2. To utter rapidly and inconsiderately. Feltham.

To clack wool , to cut off the sheep's mark, in order to make the wool weigh less and thus yield less duty . [ Eng.]

Clack noun [ Confer French claque a slap or smack, Middle High German klac crack, W. clec crack, gossip. See Clack , transitive verb ]
1. A sharp, abrupt noise, or succession of noises, made by striking an object.

2. Anything that causes a clacking noise, as the clapper of a mill, or a clack valve.

3. Continual or importunate talk; prattle; prating.

Whose chief intent is to vaunt his spiritual clack .

Clack box (Machinery) , the box or chamber in which a clack valve works. -- Clack dish , a dish with a movable lid, formerly carried by beggars, who clacked the lid to attract notice. Shak.

Clack door (Mining) , removable cover of the opening through which access is had to a pump valve. -- Clack valve (Machinery) , a valve; esp. one hinged at one edge, which, when raised from its seat, falls with a clacking sound.

Clacker noun
1. One who clacks; that which clacks; especially, the clapper of a mill.

2. A claqueur. See Claqueur .

Clad transitive verb To clothe. [ Obsolete] Holland.

Clad imperfect & past participle of Clothe .

Cladocera noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek ... a sprout + ... a horn.] (Zoology) An order of the Entomostraca.

» They have a bivalve shell, covering the body but not the head, and from four to six pairs of legs and two pairs of antenæ, for use in swimming. They mostly inhabit fresh water.

Cladophyll noun [ Greek ... a sprout + ... a leaf.] (Botany) A special branch, resembling a leaf, as in the apparent foliage of the broom ( Ruscus ) and of the common cultivated smilax ( Myrsiphillum ).

Claggy adjective [ Confer Clog .] Adhesive; -- said of a roof in a mine to which coal clings.

Claik noun See Clake .

Claim (klām) v..... [ imperfect & past participle Claimed (klāmd); present participle & verbal noun Claiming .] [ Middle English clamen , claimen , Old French clamer , from Latin clamare to cry out, call; akin to calare to proclaim, Greek ... to call, Sanskrit kal to sound, German holen to fetch, English hale haul.]
1. To ask for, or seek to obtain, by virtue of authority, right, or supposed right; to challenge as a right; to demand as due.

2. To proclaim. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

3. To call or name. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

4. To assert; to maintain. [ Colloq.]

Claim intransitive verb To be entitled to anything; to deduce a right or title; to have a claim.

We must know how the first ruler, from whom any one claims , came by his authority.

Claim noun [ Of. claim cry, complaint, from clamer . See Claim , transitive verb ]
1. A demand of a right or supposed right; a calling on another for something due or supposed to be due; an assertion of a right or fact.

2. A right to claim or demand something; a title to any debt, privilege, or other thing in possession of another; also, a title to anything which another should give or concede to, or confer on, the claimant. "A bar to all claims upon land." Hallam.

3. The thing claimed or demanded; that (as land) to which any one intends to establish a right; as a settler's claim ; a miner's claim . [ U.S. & Australia]

4. A loud call. [ Obsolete] Spenser

To lay claim to , to demand as a right. "Doth he lay claim to thine inheritance?" Shak.

Claimable adjective Capable of being claimed.

Claimant noun [ Confer Old French clamant , present participle of clamer . Confer Clamant .] One who claims; one who asserts a right or title; a claimer.

Claimer noun One who claims; a claimant.

Claimless adjective Having no claim.

Clair-obscur noun [ French See Clare-obscure .] See Chiaroscuro .

Clairaudience noun [ French clair clear + F. & English audience a hearing. See Clear .] Act of hearing, or the ability to hear, sounds not normally audible; -- usually claimed as a special faculty of spiritualistic mediums, or the like.

Clairaudient adjective Pertaining to, or characterized by, clairaudience.

Clairaudient noun One alleged to have the power of clairaudience.

Claire noun [ French] A small inclosed pond used for gathering and greening oysters.

Clairvoyance noun [ French] A power, attributed to some persons while in a mesmeric state, of discering objects not perceptible by the senses in their normal condition.

Clairvoyant adjective [ French, from clair clear + voyant , present participle of voir to see. See Clear , and Vision .] Pertaining to clairvoyance; discerning objects while in a mesmeric state which are not present to the senses.

Clairvoyant noun One who is able, when in a mesmeric state, to discern objects not present to the senses.

Clake, Claik noun (Zoology) The bernicle goose; -- called also clack goose .

Clam noun [ Confer Clamp , Clam , transitive verb , Clammy .]
1. (Zoology) A bivalve mollusk of many kinds, especially those that are edible; as, the long clam ( Mya arenaria ), the quahog or round clam ( Venus mercenaria ), the sea clam or hen clam ( Spisula solidissima ), and other species of the United States. The name is said to have been given originally to the Tridacna gigas , a huge East Indian bivalve.

You shall scarce find any bay or shallow shore, or cove of sand, where you may not take many clampes , or lobsters, or both, at your pleasure.
Capt. John Smith (1616).

Clams , or clamps , is a shellfish not much unlike a cockle; it lieth under the sand.
Wood (1634).

2. (Ship Carp.) Strong pinchers or forceps.

3. plural (Mech.) A kind of vise, usually of wood.

Blood clam . See under Blood .

Clam (clăm) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Clammed (klămd); present participle & verbal noun Clamming .] [ Confer Anglo-Saxon clæman to clam, smear; akin to Icelandic kleima to smear, Old High German kleimjan , chleimen , to defile, or English clammy .] To clog, as with glutinous or viscous matter.

A swarm of wasps got into a honey pot, and there they cloyed and clammed Themselves till there was no getting out again.

Clam intransitive verb To be moist or glutinous; to stick; to adhere. [ R.] Dryden

Clam noun Claminess; moisture. [ R.] "The clam of death." Carlyle.

Clam noun [ Abbrev. from clamor .] A crash or clangor made by ringing all the bells of a chime at once. Nares.

Clam transitive verb & i. To produce, in bell ringing, a clam or clangor; to cause to clang. Nares.

Clamant adjective [ Latin clamans , present participle of clamare to call. Confer Claimant .] Crying earnestly, beseeching clamorously. " Clamant children." Thomson.

Clamation noun [ Late Latin clamatio , from Latin clamare to call.] The act of crying out. Sir T. Browne.