Cithara Cith"a·ra noun [ Latin Confer Cittern , Guitar .] (Mus.) An ancient instrument resembling the harp.
Citharistic Cith`a·ris"tic adjective [ Greek ..., from ... cithara.] Pertaining, or adapted, to the cithara.
Cithern Cith"ern noun See Cittern .
Citicism Cit"i·cism noun [ From cit .] The manners of a cit or citizen.
Citied Cit"ied adjective 1. Belonging to, or resembling, a city. "Smoky, citied towns" [ R.] Drayton. 2. Containing, or covered with, cities. [ R.] "The citied earth." Keats.
Citified Cit"i·fied adjective [ City + -fy .] Aping, or having, the manners of a city.
Citigrade Cit"i·grade adjective [ Confer French citigrade .] (Zoology) Pertaining to the Citigradæ. -- noun One of the Citigradæ.
Citigradæ Cit`i·gra"dæ noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin citus swift (past participle of cire , ciere , to move) + gradi to walk. See Cite .] (Zoology) A suborder of Arachnoidea, including the European tarantula and the wolf spiders ( Lycosidae ) and their allies, which capture their prey by rapidly running and jumping. See Wolf spider .
Citiner Cit"i·ner noun One who is born or bred in a city; a citizen. [ Obsolete] Champan.
Citizen Cit"i·zen noun
[ Middle English citisein
, Old French citeain
, French citoyen
, from cité
city. See City
, and confer Cit
.] 1. One who enjoys the freedom and privileges of a city; a freeman of a city, as distinguished from a foreigner, or one not entitled to its franchises.
That large body of the working men who were not counted as citizens and had not so much as a vote to serve as an anodyne to their stomachs. 2. An inhabitant of a city; a townsman. Shak. 3. A person, native or naturalized, of either sex, who owes allegiance to a government, and is entitled to reciprocal protection from it.
» This protection is . . . national protection, recognition of the individual, in the face of foreign nations, as a member of the state, and assertion of his security and rights abroad as well as at home. Abbot 4. One who is domiciled in a country, and who is a citizen, though neither native nor naturalized, in such a sense that he takes his legal status from such country.
Citizen Cit"i·zen adjective 1. Having the condition or qualities of a citizen, or of citizens; as, a citizen soldiery. 2. Of or pertaining to the inhabitants of a city; characteristic of citizens; effeminate; luxurious.
I am not well,
But not so citizen a wanton as
To seem to die ere sick.
Citizeness Cit"i·zen·ess noun A female citizen. [ R.]
Citizenship Cit"i·zen·ship noun The state of being a citizen; the status of a citizen.
Citole Cit"ole noun [ Old French citole , from Latin cithara . See Cittern .] (Mus.) A musical instrument; a kind of dulcimer. [ Obsolete]
Citraconic Cit`ra·con"ic adjective [ Citric + acon itic.] Pertaining to, derived from, or having certain characteristics of, citric and aconitic acids. Citraconic acid (Chemistry) , a white, crystalline, deliquescent substance, C 3 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2 , obtained by distillation of citric acid. It is a compound of the ethylene series.
Citrange Cit"range noun [ Citr us + or ange .] A citrous fruit produced by a cross between the sweet orange and the trifoliate orange ( Citrus trifoliata ). It is more acid and has a more pronounced aroma than the orange; the tree is hardier. There are several varieties.
Citrate Cit"rate noun [ From Citric .] (Chemistry) A salt of citric acid.
Citric Cit"ric adjective [ Confer French citrique . See Citron .] (Chemistry) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the citron or lemon; as, citric acid. Citric acid (Chemistry) , an organic acid, C 3 H 4 OH.(CO 2 H) 3 , extracted from lemons, currants, gooseberries, etc., as a white crystalline substance, having a pleasant sour taste.
Citrination Cit`ri·na"tion noun [ See Citrine .] The process by which anything becomes of the color of a lemon; esp., in alchemy, the state of perfection in the philosopher's stone indicated by its assuming a deep yellow color. Thynne.
Citrine Cit"rine adjective [ French citrin . See Citron .] Like a citron or lemon; of a lemon color; greenish yellow. Citrine ointment (Medicine) , a yellowish mercurial ointment, the unguentum hydrargyri nitratis .
Citrine Cit"rine noun A yellow, pellucid variety of quartz.
Citron Cit"ron (sĭt"rŭn) noun [ French citron , Late Latin citro , from Latin citrus citron tree (cf. citreum , sc. malum, a citron), from Greek ki`tron citron] 1. (Bot) A fruit resembling a lemon, but larger, and pleasantly aromatic. The thick rind, when candied, is the citron of commerce. 2. A citron tree. 3. A citron melon. Citron melon . (a) A small variety of muskmelon with sugary greenish flesh. (b) A small variety of watermelon, whose solid white flesh is used in making sweetmeats and preserves. -- Citron tree (Botany) , the tree which bears citrons. It was probably a native of northern India, and is now understood to be the typical form of Citrus Medica .
Citrus Cit"rus (sĭt"rŭs) noun [ Latin , a citron tree.] (Botany) A genus of trees including the orange, lemon, citron, etc., originally natives of southern Asia.
Cittern Cit"tern noun [ Latin cithara , Greek kiqa`ra . Confer Cithara , Gittern .] (Mus.) An instrument shaped like a lute, but strung with wire and played with a quill or plectrum. [ Written also cithern .] Shak. » Not to be confounded with zither .
Cittern-head Cit"tern-head` noun Blockhead; dunce; -- so called because the handle of a cittern usually ended with a carved head. Marsion
; plural Cities
(-ĭz). [ Middle English cite
, French cité
, from Latin civitas
citizenship, state, city, from civis
citizen; akin to Goth. heiwa
frauja man of the house), Anglo-Saxon hīwan
, plural, members of a family, servants, hīred
family, G. heirath
marriage, prop., providing a house, English hind
a peasant.] 1. A large town. 2. A corporate town; in the United States, a town or collective body of inhabitants, incorporated and governed by a mayor and aldermen or a city council consisting of a board of aldermen and a common council; in Great Britain, a town corporate, which is or has been the seat of a bishop, or the capital of his see.
A city is a town incorporated; which is, or has been, the see of a bishop; and though the bishopric has been dissolved, as at Westminster, it yet remaineth a city .
When Gorges constituted York a city , he of course meant it to be the seat of a bishop, for the word city has no other meaning in English law. 3. The collective body of citizens, or inhabitants of a city.
"What is the city
but the people?" Shak. Syn.
-- See Village
City Cit"y adjective Of or pertaining to a city. Shak. City council . See under Council . -- City court , The municipal court of a city. [ U. S.] -- City ward , a watchman, or the collective watchmen, of a city. [ Obsolete] Fairfax.
Cive Cive (sīv) noun (Botany) Same as Chive .
Civet Civ"et (sĭv"ĕt) noun [ French civette (cf. Italian zibetto ) civet, civet cat, from LGr. zape`tion , from Arabic zubād , zabād , civet.] 1. A substance, of the consistence of butter or honey, taken from glands in the anal pouch of the civet ( Viverra civetta ). It is of clear yellowish or brownish color, of a strong, musky odor, offensive when undiluted, but agreeable when a small portion is mixed with another substance. It is used as a perfume. 2. (Zoöl) The animal that produces civet ( Viverra civetta ); -- called also civet cat . It is carnivorous, from two to three feet long, and of a brownish gray color, with transverse black bands and spots on the body and tail. It is a native of northern Africa and of Asia. The name is also applied to other species of the subfamily Viverrinae .
Civet Civ"et transitive verb To scent or perfume with civet. Cowper
Civic Civ"ic adjective [ Latin civicus, from civis citizen. See City .] Relating to, or derived from, a city or citizen; relating to man as a member of society, or to civil affairs. Civic crown (Rom. Antiq.) , a crown or garland of oak leaves and acorns, bestowed on a soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in battle.
Civicism Civ"i·cism noun The principle of civil government.
Civics Civ"ics noun The science of civil government.
Civil Civ"il adjective
[ Latin civilis
, from civis
citizen: confer French civil
. See City
.] 1. Pertaining to a city or state, or to a citizen in his relations to his fellow citizens or to the state; within the city or state. 2. Subject to government; reduced to order; civilized; not barbarous; -- said of the community.
England was very rude and barbarous; for it is but even the other day since England grew civil . 3. Performing the duties of a citizen; obedient to government; -- said of an individual.
Civil men come nearer the saints of God than others; they come within a step or two of heaven. 4. Having the manners of one dwelling in a city, as opposed to those of savages or rustics; polite; courteous; complaisant; affable.
» "A civil
man now is one observant of slight external courtesies in the mutual intercourse between man and man; a civil
man once was one who fulfilled all the duties and obligations flowing from his position as a 'civis' and his relations to the other members of that 'civitas.'" Trench 5. Pertaining to civic life and affairs, in distinction from military, ecclesiastical, or official state. 6. Relating to rights and remedies sought by action or suit distinct from criminal proceedings. Civil action
, an action to enforce the rights or redress the wrongs of an individual, not involving a criminal proceeding.
-- Civil architecture
, the architecture which is employed in constructing buildings for the purposes of civil life, in distinction from military and naval architecture, as private houses, palaces, churches, etc.
-- Civil death
. (Law.) See under Death .
- - Civil engineering
. See under Engineering .
-- Civil law
. See under Law .
-- Civil list
. See under List .
-- Civil remedy (Law)
, that given to a person injured, by action, as opposed to a criminal prosecution.
-- Civil service
, all service rendered to and paid for by the state or nation other than that pertaining to naval or military affairs.
-- Civil service reform
, the substitution of business principles and methods for the spoils system in the conduct of the civil service, esp. in the matter of appointments to office.
-- Civil state
, the whole body of the laity or citizens not included under the military, maritime, and ecclesiastical states.
-- Civil suit
. Same as Civil action .
-- Civil war
. See under War .
-- Civil year
. See under Year .
Civil Service Commission Civil Service Commission In the United States, a commission appointed by the President, consisting of three members, not more than two of whom may be adherents of the same party, which has the control, through examinations, of appointments and promotions in the classified civil service. It was created by act of Jan, 16, 1883 (22 Stat. 403).
Civil Service Reform Civil Service Reform The substitution of business principles and methods for political methods in the conduct of the civil service. esp. the merit system instead of the spoils system in making appointments to office.
Civilian Ci·vil"ian noun
[ From Civil
] 1. One skilled in the civil law.
Ancient civilians and writers upon government. 2. A student of the civil law at a university or college. R. Graves. 3. One whose pursuits are those of civil life, not military or clerical.
Civilist Civ"il·ist noun A civilian. [ R.] Warburton.
Civility Ci·vil"i·ty noun
; plural Civilities
. [ Latin civilitas
: confer French civilité
. See Civil
.] 1. The state of society in which the relations and duties of a citizen are recognized and obeyed; a state of civilization.
Monarchies have risen from barbarrism to civility , and fallen again to ruin.
Sir J. Davies.
The gradual depature of all deeper signification from the word civility has obliged the creation of another word -- civilization. 2. A civil office, or a civil process
To serve in a civility . 3. Courtesy; politeness; kind attention; good breeding; a polite act or expression.
The insolent civility of a proud man is, if possible, more shocking than his rudeness could be.
The sweet civilities of life. Syn.
-- Urbanity; affability; complaisance.
Civilizable Civ"i·li`za·ble adjective Capable of being civilized.
Civilization Civ`i·li·za"tion noun
[ Confer French civilisation
.] 1. The act of civilizing, or the state of being civilized; national culture; refinement.
Our manners, our civilization, and all the good things connected with manners, and with civilization , have, in this European world of ours, depended for ages upon two principles -- . . . the spirit of a gentleman, and spirit of religion. 2. (Law) Rendering a criminal process civil.
Civilize Civ"i·lize transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Civilized
; present participle & verbal noun Civilizing
.] [ Confer French civilizer
, from Latin civilis
civil. See Civil
.] 1. To reclaim from a savage state; to instruct in the rules and customs of civilization; to educate; to refine.
Yet blest that fate which did his arms dispose 2. To admit as suitable to a civilized state.
Her land to civilize , as to subdue.
[ Obsolete or R.] " Civilizing
adultery." Milton. Syn.
-- To polish; refine; humanize.
Civilized Civ"i·lized adjective Reclaimed from savage life and manners; instructed in arts, learning, and civil manners; refined; cultivated.
Sale of conscience and duty in open market is not reconcilable with the present state of civilized society.
Civilizer Civ"i·li·zer noun One who, or that which, civilizes or tends to civilize.
Civily Civ"i·ly adverb In a civil manner; as regards civil rights and privileges; politely; courteously; in a well bred manner.
Civism Civ"ism noun [ Confer French civisme , from Latin civis citizen.] State of citizenship. [ R.] Dyer.
Cizar Ciz"ar intransitive verb [ From Cizars .] To clip with scissors. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl. Ciz"ars noun plural Scissors. [ Obsolete] Swift.
Cize Cize noun Bulk; largeness. [ Obsolete] See Size .
Clabber Clab"ber noun [ See Bonnyclabber ] Milk curdled so as to become thick.
Clabber Clab"ber intransitive verb To become clabber; to lopper.
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