Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Circumgyratory adjective Moving in a circle; turning round. Hawthorne.

Circumgyre intransitive verb To circumgyrate. [ Obsolete]

Circumincession noun [ Prefix circum- + Latin incedere , incessum , to walk.] (Theol.) The reciprocal existence in each other of the three persons of the Trinity.

Circumjacence noun Condition of being circumjacent, or of bordering on every side.

Circumjacent adjective [ Latin circumjacens , present participle of circumjacere ; circum + jacēre to lie.] Lying round; bordering on every side. T. Fuller.

Circumjovial noun [ Prefix circum- + Latin Jupiter , gen. Jovis , Jove.] One of the moons or satellites of the planet Jupiter. [ Obsolete] Derham.

Circumlittoral adjective [ Prefix circum- + Latin littus , littoris , shore; preferable form, litus , litoris .] Adjointing the shore.

Circumlocution noun [ Latin circumlocutio , from circumloqui , -locutus , to make use of circumlocution; circum + loqui to speak. See Loquacious .] The use of many words to express an idea that might be expressed by few; indirect or roundabout language; a periphrase.

the plain Billingsgate way of calling names . . . would save abundance of time lost by circumlocution .
Swift.

Circumlocution office , a term of ridicule for a governmental office where business is delayed by passing through the hands of different officials.

Circumlocutional adjective Relating to, or consisting of, circumlocutions; periphrastic; circuitous.

Circumlocutory adjective Characterised by circumlocution; periphrastic. Shenstone.

The officials set to work in regular circumlocutory order.
Chambers's Journal.

Circummeridian adjective [ Prefix circum- + meridian .] About, or near, the meridian.

Circummure transitive verb [ Prefix circum- + mure , transitive verb ] To encompass with a wall. Shak.

Circumnavigable adjective Capable of being sailed round. Ray.

Circumnavigate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumnavigated ; present participle & verbal noun Circumnavigating .] [ Latin circumnavigatus , past participle of circumnavigare to sail round; circum + navigare to navigate.] To sail completely round.

Having circumnavigated the whole earth.
T. Fuller.

Circumnavigation noun The act of circumnavigating, or sailing round. Arbuthnot.

Circumnavigator noun One who sails round. W. Guthrie.

Circumnutate intransitive verb [ Prefix circum- + nutate .] To pass through the stages of circumnutation.

Circumnutation noun (Botany) The successive bowing or bending in different directions of the growing tip of the stems of many plants, especially seen in climbing plants.

Circumpolar adjective [ Prefix circum- + polar .] About the pole; -- applied to stars that revolve around the pole without setting; as, circumpolar stars.

Circumposition noun [ Latin circumpositio , from circumponere , - positium , to place around.] The act of placing in a circle, or round about, or the state of being so placed. Evelyn.

Circumrotary, Circumrotatory adjective [ Prefix circum- + rotary , rotatory .] turning, rolling, or whirling round.

Circumrotate transitive verb & i. [ Latin circumrotare ; circum + rotare to turn round.] To rotate about. [ R.]

Circumrotation noun The act of rolling or revolving round, as a wheel; circumvolution; the state of being whirled round. J. Gregory.

Circumscissile adjective [ Prefix circum- + scissle .] (Botany) Dehiscing or opening by a transverse fissure extending around (a capsule or pod). See Illust. of Pyxidium .

Circumscribable adjective Capable of being circumscribed.

Circumscribe transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumscribed ; present participle & verbal noun Circumscribing .] [ Latin circumscribere , -scriptum ; circum + scribere to write, draw. See Soribe .]


1. to write or engrave around. [ R.]

Thereon is circumscribed this epitaph.
Ashmole.

2. To inclose within a certain limit; to hem in; to surround; to bound; to confine; to restrain.

To circumscribe royal power.
Bancroft.

3. (Geom.) To draw a line around so as to touch at certain points without cutting. See Inscribe , 5.

Syn. -- To bound; limit; restrict; confine; abridge; restrain; environ; encircle; inclose; encompass.

Circumscriber noun One who, or that which, circumscribes.

Circumscriptible adjective Capable of being circumscribed or limited by bounds.

Circumscription noun [ Latin circumscriptio . See Circumscribe .]
1. An inscription written around anything. [ R.] Ashmole.

2. The exterior line which determines the form or magnitude of a body; outline; periphery. Ray.

3. The act of limiting, or the state of being limited, by conditions or restraints; bound; confinement; limit.

The circumscriptions of terrestrial nature.
Johnson.

I would not my unhoused, free condition
Put into circumscription and confine.
Shak.

Circumscriptive adjective Circumscribing or tending to circumscribe; marcing the limits or form of.

Circumscriptively adverb In a limited manner.

Circumscriptly adverb In a literal, limited, or narrow manner. [ R.] Milton.

Circumspect adjective [ Latin circumspectus , past participle of circumspicere to look about one's self, to observe; circum + spicere , specere , to look. See Spy .] Attentive to all the circumstances of a case or the probable consequences of an action; cautious; prudent; wary.

Syn. -- See Cautious .

Circumspection noun [ Latin circumspectio .] Attention to all the facts and circumstances of a case; caution; watchfulness.

With silent circumspection , unespied.
Milton.

Syn. -- Caution; prudence; watchfulness; deliberation; thoughtfulness; wariness; forecast.

Circumspective (sẽr`kŭm*spĕk"tĭv) adjective Looking around every way; cautious; careful of consequences; watchful of danger. " Circumspective eyes." Pope.

Circumspectively adverb Circumspectly.

Circumspectly (-spĕkt"l> ycr/) adverb In a circumspect manner; cautiously; warily.

Circumspectness noun Vigilance in guarding against evil from every quarter; caution.

[ Travel] forces circumspectness on those abroad, who at home are nursed in security.
Sir H. Wotton.

Circumstance noun [ Latin circumstantia , from circumstans , -antis , present participle of circumstare to stand around; circum + stare to stand. See Stand .]
1. That which attends, or relates to, or in some way affects, a fact or event; an attendant thing or state of things.

The circumstances are well known in the country where they happened.
W. Irving.

2. An event; a fact; a particular incident.

The sculptor had in his thoughts the conqueror weeping for new worlds, or the like circumstances in history.
Addison.

3. Circumlocution; detail. [ Obsolete]

So without more circumstance at all
I hold it fit that we shake hands and part.
Shak.

4. plural Condition in regard to worldly estate; state of property; situation; surroundings.

When men are easy in their circumstances , they are naturally enemies to innovations.
Addison.

Not a circumstance , of no account. [ Colloq.] -- Under the circumstances , taking all things into consideration.

Syn. -- Event; occurrence; incident; situation; condition; position; fact; detail; item. See Event .

Circumstance transitive verb To place in a particular situation; to supply relative incidents.

The poet took the matters of fact as they came down to him and circumstanced them, after his own manner.
Addison.

Circumstanced p. adjective
1. Placed in a particular position or condition; situated.

The proposition is, that two bodies so circumstanced will balance each other.
Whewell.

2. Governed by events or circumstances. [ Poetic & R.] "I must be circumstanced ." Shak.

Circumstant adjective [ Latin circumstans . See Circumstance .] Standing or placed around; surrounding. [ R.] " Circumstant bodies." Sir K. Digby.

Circumstantiable adjective Capable of being circumstantiated. [ Obsolete] Jer Taylor.

Circumstantial adjective [ Confer French circonstanciel .]


1. Consisting in, or pertaining to, circumstances or particular incidents.

The usual character of human testimony is substantial truth under circumstantial variety.
Paley.

2. Incidental; relating to, but not essential.

We must therefore distinguish between the essentials in religious worship . . . and what is merely circumstantial .
Sharp.

3. Abounding with circumstances; detailing or exhibiting all the circumstances; minute; particular.

Tedious and circumstantial recitals.
Prior.

Circumstantial evidence (Law) , evidence obtained from circumstances, which necessarily or usually attend facts of a particular nature, from which arises presumption. According to some authorities circumstantial is distinguished from positive evidence in that the latter is the testimony of eyewitnesses to a fact or the admission of a party; but the prevalent opinion now is that all such testimony is dependent on circumstances for its support. All testimony is more or less circumstantial . Wharton .

Syn. -- See Minute .

Circumstantial noun Something incidental to the main subject, but of less importance; opposed to an essential ; -- generally in the plural; as, the circumstantials of religion. Addison.

Circumstantiality noun The state, characteristic, or quality of being circumstantial; particularity or minuteness of detail. "I will endeavor to describe with sufficient circumstantiality ." De Quincey.

Circumstantially adverb
1. In respect to circumstances; not essentially; accidentally.

Of the fancy and intellect, the powers are only circumstantially different.
Glanvill.

2. In every circumstance or particular; minutely.

To set down somewhat circumstantially , not only the events, but the manner of my trials.
Boyle.

Circumstantiate transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumstantiated ; present participle & verbal noun Circumstantiating .] [ See Circumstantiating ]


1. To place in particular circumstances; to invest with particular accidents or adjuncts. [ R.]

If the act were otherwise circumstantiated , it might will that freely which now it wills reluctantly.
Bramhall.

2. To prove or confirm by circumstances; to enter into details concerning.

Neither will time permint to circumstantiate these particulars, which I have only touched in the general.
State Trials (1661).

Circumterraneous adjective [ Prefix circum- + Latin terra earth.] Being or dwelling around the earth. " Circumterraneous demouns." H. Hallywell.

Circumundulate v. t. [ Prefix circum- + undulate .] To flow round, as waves. [ R.]