Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Circumvallate transitive verb [ Latin circumvallatus , past participle of circumvallare to surround with a wall; circum + vallare to wall, from vallum rampart.] To surround with a rampart or wall. Johnson.

Circumvallate adjective
1. Surrounded with a wall; inclosed with a rampart.

2. (Anat.) Surrounded by a ridge or elevation; as, the circumvallate papillæ, near the base of the tongue.

Circumvallation noun (Mil.) (a) The act of surrounding with a wall or rampart. (b) A line of field works made around a besieged place and the besieging army, to protect the camp of the besiegers against the attack of an enemy from without.

Circumvection noun [ Latin circumvectio ; circum + vehere to carry.] The act of carrying anything around, or the state of being so carried.

Circumvent transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumvented ; present participle verbal noun Circumventing .] [ Latin circumventis , past participle of circumvenire , to come around, encompass, deceive; circum + venire to come, akin to English come. ] To gain advantage over by arts, stratagem, or deception; to deceive; to delude; to get around.

I circumvented whom I could not gain.
Dryden.

Circumvention noun [ Latin circumventio .] The act of prevailing over another by arts, address, or fraud; deception; fraud; imposture; delusion.

A school in which he learns sly circumvention .
Cowper.

Circumventive adjective Tending to circumvent; deceiving by artifices; deluding.

Circumventor noun [ Latin ] One who circumvents; one who gains his purpose by cunning.

Circumvest transitive verb [ Latin circumvestire ; circum + vestire to clothe.] To cover round, as with a garment; to invest. [ Obsolete]

Circumvested with much prejudice.
Sir H. Wotton.

Circumvolant adjective [ Latin circumvolans , present participle See Circumvolation .] Flying around.

The circumvolant troubles of humanity.
G. Macdonald.

Circumvolation noun [ Latin circumvolate . -volatum , to fly around; circum + volare to fly.] The act of flying round. [ R.]

Circumvolution noun [ See Circumvolve .]


1. The act of rolling round; the state of being rolled.

2. A thing rolled round another. Arbuthnot.

3. A roundabout procedure; a circumlocution.

He had neither time nor temper for sentimental circumvolutions .
Beaconsfield.

Circumvolve transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumvolved ; present participle verbal noun Circumvolving .] [ Latin circumvolvere , -volutum ; circum + volvere to roll.] To roll round; to cause to revolve; to put into a circular motion. Herrick.

Circumvolve intransitive verb To roll round; to revolve.

Circus noun ; plural Circuses . [ Latin circus circle, ring, circus (in sense 1). See Circle , and confer Cirque .]


1. (Roman Antiq.) A level oblong space surrounded on three sides by seats of wood, earth, or stone, rising in tiers one above another, and divided lengthwise through the middle by a barrier around which the track or course was laid out. It was used for chariot races, games, and public shows.

» The Circus Maximus at Rome could contain more than 100,000 spectators. Harpers' Latin Dict.

2. A circular inclosure for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship, acrobatic displays, etc. Also, the company of performers, with their equipage.

3. Circuit; space; inclosure. [ R.]

The narrow circus of my dungeon wall.
Byron.

Cirl bunting [ Confer Italian cirlo .] (Zoology) A European bunting ( Emberiza cirlus ).

Cirque noun [ French, from Latin circus .]


1. A circle; a circus; a circular erection or arrangement of objects.

A dismal cirque
Of Druid stones upon a forlorn moor.
Keats.

2. A kind of circular valley in the side of a mountain, walled around by precipices of great height.

Cirrate adjective [ Latin cirratus having ringlets, from cirrus a curl.] (Zoology) Having cirri along the margin of a part or organ.

Cirrhiferous adjective See Cirriferous .

Cirrhose adjective Same as Cirrose .

Cirrhosis noun [ New Latin , from Greek ... orange-colored: confer French cirrhose . So called from the yellowish appearance which the diseased liver often presents when cut.] (Medicine) A disease of the liver in which it usually becomes smaller in size and more dense and fibrous in consistence; hence sometimes applied to similar changes in other organs, caused by increase in the fibrous framework and decrease in the proper substance of the organ.

Cirrhotic adjective Pertaining to, caused by, or affected with, cirrhosis; as, cirrhotic degeneration; a cirrhotic liver.

Cirrhous adjective See Cirrose .

Cirrhus noun Same as Cirrus .

Cirri noun plural See Cirrus .

Cirriferous adjective [ Cirrus + -ferous .] Bearing cirri, as many plants and animals.

Cirriform adjective [ Cirrus + -form .] (Biol.) Formed like a cirrus or tendril; -- said of appendages of both animals and plants.

Cirrigerous adjective [ Cirrus + -gerous .] (Biol.) Having curled locks of hair; supporting cirri, or hairlike appendages.

Cirrigrade adjective [ Cirrus + Latin gradi to walk.] (Biol.) Moving or moved by cirri, or hairlike appendages.

Cirriped noun (Zoology) One of the Cirripedia.

Cirripedia noun plural [ New Latin , from Latin cirrus curl + pes , pedis , foot.] (Zoology) An order of Crustacea including the barnacles. When adult, they have a calcareous shell composed of several pieces. From the opening of the shell the animal throws out a group of curved legs, looking like a delicate curl, whence the name of the group. See Anatifa .

Cirro-cumulus noun [ Cirrus + cumulus .] (Meteor.) See under Cloud .

Cirro-stratus noun [ Cirrus + stratus .] (Meteor.) See under Cloud .

Cirrobranchiata noun plural [ New Latin , from English cirrus + Latin branchiae gills.] (Zoology) A division of Mollusca having slender, cirriform appendages near the mouth; the Scaphopoda.

Cirrose adjective [ See Cirrus .] (Botany) (a) Bearing a tendril or tendrils; as, a cirrose leaf. (b) Resembling a tendril or cirrus. [ Spelt also cirrhose .]

Cirrostomi noun plural [ New Latin , from English cirrus + Greek ... mouth.] (Zoology) The lowest group of vertebrates; -- so called from the cirri around the mouth; the Leptocardia. See Amphioxus .

Cirrous adjective
1. (Botany) Cirrose.

2. (Zoology) Tufted; -- said of certain feathers of birds.

Cirrus noun ; plural Cirri . [ Latin , lock, curl, ringlet.] [ Also written cirrhus .]


1. (Botany) A tendril or clasper.

2. (Zoology) (a) A soft tactile appendage of the mantle of many Mollusca, and of the parapodia of Annelida. Those near the head of annelids are Tentacular cirri ; those of the last segment are caudal cirri . (b) The jointed, leglike organs of Cirripedia. See Annelida , and Polychæta .

» In some of the inferior animals the cirri aid in locomotion; in others they are used in feeding; in the Annelida they are mostly organs of touch. Some cirri are branchial in function.

3. (Zoology) The external male organ of trematodes and some other worms, and of certain Mollusca.

4. (Meteor.) See under Cloud .

Cirsocele noun [ Greek ... a dilated vein + ... tumor.] (Medicine) The varicose dilatation of the spermatic vein.

Cirsoid adjective [ Greek ... a dilated vein + -oid .] (Medicine) Varicose.

Cirsoid aneurism , a disease of an artery in which it becomes dilated and elongated, like a varicose vein.

Cirsotomy noun [ Greek ... a dilated vein + ... to cut.] (Surg.) Any operation for the removal of varices by incision. Dunglison.

Cis- A Latin preposition, sometimes used as a prefix in English words, and signifying on this side .

Cisalpine adjective [ Latin Cisalpinus ; cis on this side + Alpinus Alpine.] On the hither side of the Alps with reference to Rome, that is, on the south side of the Alps; -- opposed to transalpine .

Cisatlantic adjective [ Prefix cis- + Atlantic .] On this side of the Atlantic Ocean; -- used of the eastern or the western side, according to the standpoint of the writer. Story.

Cisco noun (Zoology) The Lake herring ( Coregonus Artedi ), valuable food fish of the Great Lakes of North America. The name is also applied to C. Hoyi , a related species of Lake Michigan.

Ciselure noun [ French] The process of chasing on metals; also, the work thus chased. Weale.

Cisleithan adjective [ Prefix cis- + Leitha .] On the Austrian side of the river Leitha; Austrian.

Cismontane adjective [ Prefix cis- + Latin mons mountain.] On this side of the mountains. See under Ultramontane .

Cispadane adjective [ Prefix cis- + Latin Padanus , pert. to the Padus or Po.] On the hither side of the river Po with reference to Rome; that is, on the south side.

Cissoid noun [ Greek ... like ivy; ... ivy + ... form.] (Geom.) A curve invented by Diocles, for the purpose of solving two celebrated problems of the higher geometry; viz., to trisect a plane angle, and to construct two geometrical means between two given straight lines.