Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Circulation noun [ Latin circulatio : confer French circulation .]
1. The act of moving in a circle, or in a course which brings the moving body to the place where its motion began.

This continual circulation of human things.
Swift.

2. The act of passing from place to place or person to person; free diffusion; transmission.

The true doctrines of astronomy appear to have had some popular circulation .
Whewell.

3. Currency; circulating coin; notes, bills, etc., current for coin.

4. The extent to which anything circulates or is circulated; the measure of diffusion; as, the circulation of a newspaper.

5. (Physiol.) The movement of the blood in the blood-vascular system, by which it is brought into close relations with almost every living elementary constituent. Also, the movement of the sap in the vessels and tissues of plants.

Circulative adjective Promoting circulation; circulating. [ R.] Coleridge.

Circulator noun [ Confer Latin circulator a peddler.] One who, or that which, circulates.

Circulatorious adjective Travelling from house to house or from town to town; itinerant. [ Obsolete] " Circulatorious jugglers." Barrow.

Circulatory adjective [ Latin circulatorius pert. to a mountebank: confer French circulatoire .]


1. Circular; as, a circulatory letter. Johnson.

2. Circulating, or going round. T. Warton.

3. (Anat.) Subserving the purposes of circulation; as, circulatory organs; of or pertaining to the organs of circulation; as, circulatory diseases.

Circulatory noun A chemical vessel consisting of two portions unequally exposed to the heat of the fire, and with connecting pipes or passages, through which the fluid rises from the overheated portion, and descends from the relatively colder, maintaining a circulation.

Circulet noun A circlet. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Circuline adjective Proceeding in a circle; circular. [ Obsolete] "With motion circuline ". Dr. H. More.

Circum- [ Akin to circle , circus .] A Latin preposition, used as a prefix in many English words, and signifying around or about .

Circumagitate transitive verb [ Prefix circum + agitate .] To agitate on all sides. Jer. Taylor.

Circumambage noun [ Prefix circum- + ambage , obsolete sing. of ambages .] A roundabout or indirect course; indirectness. [ Obsolete] S. Richardson.

Circumambiency noun The act of surrounding or encompassing. Sir T. Browne.

Circumambient adjective [ Prefix circum- + ambient .] Surrounding; inclosing or being on all sides; encompassing. "The circumambient heaven ." J. Armstrong.

Circumambulate transitive verb [ Latin circumambulatus , past participle of circumambulare to walk around; circum + ambulare . See Ambulate .] To walk round about. -- Cir`cum*am`bu*la"tion noun

Circumbendibus noun A roundabout or indirect way. [ Jocular] Goldsmith.

Circumcenter noun (Geom.) The center of a circle that circumscribes a triangle.

Circumcise transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumcised ; present participle & verbal noun Circumcising .] [ Latin circumcisus , past participle of circumcidere to cut around, to circumcise; circum + caedere to cut; akin to English cæsura , homi cide , con cise , and probably to shed , transitive verb ]
1. To cut off the prepuce of foreskin of, in the case of males, and the internal labia of, in the case of females.

2. (Script.) To purify spiritually.

Circumciser noun One who performs circumcision. Milton.

Circumcision noun [ Latin circumcisio .]
1. The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin of males, or the internal labia of females.

» The circumcision of males is practiced as a religious rite by the Jews, Mohammedans, etc.

2. (Script.) (a) The Jews, as a circumcised people. (b) Rejection of the sins of the flesh; spiritual purification, and acceptance of the Christian faith.

Circumclusion noun [ Latin circumcludere , -clusum , to inclose.] Act of inclosing on all sides. [ R.]

Circumcursation noun [ Latin circumcursare , -satum , to run round about.] The act of running about; also, rambling language. [ Obsolete] Barrow.

Circumdenudation noun [ Prefix circum- + denudation .] (Geol.) Denudation around or in the neighborhood of an object.

Hills of circumdenudation , hills which have been produced by surface erosion; the elevations which have been left, after denudation of a mass of high ground. Jukes.

Circumduce transitive verb [ See Circumduct .] (Scots Law) To declare elapsed, as the time allowed for introducing evidence. Sir W. Scott.

Circumduct transitive verb [ Latin circumductus , past participle of circumducere to lead around; circum + ducere to lead.]
1. To lead about; to lead astray. [ R.]

2. (Law) To contravene; to nullify; as, to circumduct acts of judicature. [ Obsolete] Ayliffe.

Circumduction noun [ Latin circumductio .]
1. A leading about; circumlocution. [ R.] Hooker.

2. An annulling; cancellation. [ R.] Ayliffe.

3. (Physiol.) The rotation of a limb round an imaginary axis, so as to describe a conical surface.

Circumesophagal adjective [ Prefix circum- + esophagal .] (Anat.) Surrounding the esophagus; -- in Zoology said of the nerve commissures and ganglia of arthropods and mollusks.

Circumesophageal adjective (Anat.) Circumesophagal.

Circumfer transitive verb [ Latin circumferre ; circum- + ferre to bear. See 1st Bear .] To bear or carry round. [ Obsolete] Bacon.

Circumference noun [ Latin circumferentia .]


1. The line that goes round or encompasses a circular figure; a periphery. Millon.

2. A circle; anything circular.

His ponderous shield . . .
Behind him cast. The broad circumference
Hung on his shoulders like the moon.
Milton.

3. The external surface of a sphere, or of any orbicular body.

Circumference transitive verb To include in a circular space; to bound. [ Obsolete] Sir T. Browne.

Circumferential adjective [ Late Latin circumferentialis .] Pertaining to the circumference; encompassing; encircling; circuitous. Parkhurst.

Circumferentially adverb So as to surround or encircle.

Circumferentor noun [ See Circumfer .]


1. A surveying instrument, for taking horizontal angles and bearings; a surveyor's compass. It consists of a compass whose needle plays over a circle graduated to 360°, and of a horizontal brass bar at the ends of which are standards with narrow slits for sighting, supported on a tripod by a ball and socket joint.

2. A graduated wheel for measuring tires; a tire circle.

Circumflant adjective [ Latin circumflans , present participle of circumflare .] Blowing around. [ Obsolete] Evelyn.

Circumflect transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumflected ; present participle & verbal noun Circumflecting .] [ Latin circumflectere . See Circumflex .]
1. To bend around.

2. To mark with the circumflex accent, as a vowel. [ R.]

Circumflection noun See Circumflexion .

Circumflex noun [ Latin circumflexus a bending round, from circumflectere , circumflexum , to bend or turn about; circum + flectere to bend. See Flexible .]


1. A wave of the voice embracing both a rise and fall or a fall and a rise on the same a syllable. Walker.

2. A character, or accent, denoting in Greek a rise and of the voice on the same long syllable, marked thus [ ~ or ...]; and in Latin and some other languages, denoting a long and contracted syllable, marked [ ... or ^]. See Accent , noun , 2.

Circumflex transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Circumflexed ; present participle & verbal noun Circumflexing .] To mark or pronounce with a circumflex. Walker.

Circumflex adjective [ Confer Latin circumflexus , past participle ]


1. Moving or turning round; circuitous. [ R.] Swift.

2. (Anat.) Curved circularly; -- applied to several arteries of the hip and thigh, to arteries, veins, and a nerve of the shoulder, and to other parts.

Circumflexion noun
1. The act of bending, or causing to assume a curved form.

2. A winding about; a turning; a circuity; a fold.

Circumfluence noun A flowing round on all sides; an inclosing with a fluid.

Circumfluent, Circumfluous adjective [ Latin circumfluere , present participle of circumfluere ; circum + fluere to flow; also Latin circumfluus .] Flowing round; surrounding in the manner of a fluid. "The deep, circumfluent waves." Pope.

Circumforanean, Circumforaneous adjective [ Latin circumforaneus found in markets; circum + forum a market place.] Going about or abroad; walking or wandering from house to house. Addison.

Circumfulgent adjective [ Prefix circum- + fulgent .] Shining around or about.

Circumfuse transitive verb [ Latin circumfusus , past participle of circumfundere to pour around; circum + fundere to pour.] To pour round; to spread round.

His army circumfused on either wing.
Milton.

Circumfusile adjective [ Prefix circum- + Latin fusilis fusil, adjective ] Capable of being poured or spread round. " Circumfusile gold." Pope.

Circumfusion noun [ Latin circumfusio .] The act of pouring or spreading round; the state of being spread round. Swift.

Circumgestation noun [ Latin circumgestare to carry around; circum + gestare to carry.] The act or process of carrying about. [ Obsolete]

Circumgestation of the eucharist to be adored.
Jer. Taylor.

Circumgyrate transitive verb & i. [ Prefix circum- + gyrate .] To roll or turn round; to cause to perform a rotary or circular motion. Ray.

Circumgyration noun The act of turning, rolling, or whirling round.

A certain turbulent and irregular circumgyration .
Holland.