Carambola Ca`ram·bo"la noun (Botany) An East Indian tree ( Averrhoa Carambola ), and its acid, juicy fruit; called also Coromandel gooseberry .
Caramel Car"a·mel noun [ French caramel (cf. Spanish caramelo ), Late Latin canna mellis , cannamella , canamella , calamellus mellitus , sugar cane, from or confused with Latin canna reed + mel , mellis , honey. See Cane .] 1. (Chemistry) Burnt sugar; a brown or black porous substance obtained by heating sugar. It is soluble in water, and is used for coloring spirits, gravies, etc. 2. A kind of confectionery, usually a small cube or square of tenacious paste, or candy, of varying composition and flavor.
Carangoid Ca·ran"goid adjective [ Caranx + -oid .] (Zoology) Belonging to the Carangidæ , a family of fishes allied to the mackerels, and including the caranx, American bluefish, and the pilot fish.
Caranx Ca"ranx (kā"rănks) noun (Zoology) A genus of fishes, common on the Atlantic coast, including the yellow or golden mackerel.
Carapace Car"a·pace (kăr"ȧ*pās) noun [ French] (Zoology) The thick shell or shield which covers the back of the tortoise, or turtle, the crab, and other crustaceous animals.
Carapato Ca`ra·pa"to (kä`rȧ*pä"to) noun [ Portuguese carrapato .] (Zoology) A south American tick of the genus Amblyomma . There are several species, very troublesome to man and beast.
Carapax Car"a·pax noun (Zoology) See Carapace .
Carat Car"at (kăr"ăt) noun [ French carat (cf. Italian carato , OPg. quirate , Portuguese & Spanish quilate ), Arabic qīrāt bean or pea shell, a weight of four grains, a carat, from Greek kera`tion a little horn, the fruit of the carob tree, a weight, a carat. See Horn .] 1. The weight by which precious stones and pearls are weighed. » The carat equals three and one fifth grains Troy, and is divided into four grains, sometimes called carat grains . Diamonds and other precious stones are estimated by carats and fractions of carats, and pearls, usually, by carat grains. Tiffany. 2. A twenty-fourth part; -- a term used in estimating the proportionate fineness of gold. » A mass of metal is said to be so many carats fine, according to the number of twenty-fourths of pure gold which it contains; as, 22 carats fine (goldsmith's standard) = 22 parts of gold, 1 of copper, and 1 of silver.
Caravan Car"a·van (kăr"ȧ*văn or kăr*ȧ*văn"; 277) noun [ French caravane (cf. Spanish caravana ), from Persian karwān a caravan (in sense 1). Confer Van a wagon.] 1. A company of travelers, pilgrims, or merchants, organized and equipped for a long journey, or marching or traveling together, esp. through deserts and countries infested by robbers or hostile tribes, as in Asia or Africa. 2. A large, covered wagon, or a train of such wagons, for conveying wild beasts, etc., for exhibition; an itinerant show, as of wild beasts. 3. A covered vehicle for carrying passengers or for moving furniture, etc.; -- sometimes shorted into van .
Caravaneer Car`a·van·eer" noun [ Confer French caravanier .] The leader or driver of the camels in caravan.
Caravansary Car`a·van"sa·ry noun
; plural Caravansaries
. [ French caravansérai
, from Persian karwānsarāï
caravan + -sarāï
palace, large house, inn.] A kind of inn, in the East, where caravans rest at night, being a large, rude, unfurnished building, surrounding a court.
[ Written also caravanserai
Caravel Car"a·vel (kăr"ȧ*vĕl) noun [ French caravelle (cf. Italian caravella , Spanish carabela ), from Spanish caraba a kind of vessel, from Latin carabus a kind of light boat, from Greek ka`rabos a kind of light ship, NGr. kara`bi ship, vessel.] [ written also carvel and caravelle .] (Nautical) A name given to several kinds of vessels. (a) The caravel of the 16th century was a small vessel with broad bows, high, narrow poop, four masts, and lateen sails. Columbus commanded three caravels on his great voyage. (b) A Portuguese vessel of 100 or 150 tons burden. (c) A small fishing boat used on the French coast. (d) A Turkish man-of- war.
[ French carvi
(cf. Spanish carvi
, Portuguese al-caravia
) from Arabic karawīā
from Greek ka`ron
; confer Latin careum
.] 1. (Botany) A biennial plant of the Parsley family ( Carum Carui ). The seeds have an aromatic smell, and a warm, pungent taste. They are used in cookery and confectionery, and also in medicine as a carminative. 2. A cake or sweetmeat containing caraway seeds.
Caraways , or biscuits, or some other [ comfits].
Carbamic Car·bam"ic (kär*băm"ĭk) adjective [ Carb on + am ido.] (Chemistry) Pertaining to an acid so called. Carbamic acid (Chemistry) , an amido acid, NH 2 .CO 2 H, not existing in the free state, but occurring as a salt of ammonium in commercial ammonium carbonate; -- called also amido formic acid .
Carbamide Car·bam"ide (kär*băm"ĭd or -īd) noun [ Carb onyl + amide .] (Chemistry) The technical name for urea.
Carbamine Car·bam"ine (kär*băm"ĭn or -ēd) noun (Chemistry) An isocyanide of a hydrocarbon radical. The carbamines are liquids, usually colorless, and of unendurable odor.
Carbanil Car"ba·nil noun [ Carb onyl + anil ine.] (Chemistry) A mobile liquid, CO.N.C 6 H 5 , of pungent odor. It is the phenyl salt of isocyanic acid.
Carbazol Car"ba·zol noun [ Carb on + azo + -ol .] (Chemistry) A white crystallized substance, C 12 H 8 NH, derived from aniline and other amines.
Carbazotate Car·baz"o·tate noun (Chemistry) A salt of carbazotic or picric acid; a picrate.
Carbazotic Car`ba·zot"ic adjective [ Carb on + azole.] Containing, or derived from, carbon and nitrogen. Carbazotic acid (Chemistry) , picric acid. See under Picric .
Carbide Car"bide noun [ Carb on + -ide .] (Chemistry) A binary compound of carbon with some other element or radical, in which the carbon plays the part of a negative; -- formerly termed carburet .
Carbimide Car"bi·mide noun [ Carbon + imide ] (Chemistry) The technical name for isocyanic acid. See under Isocyanic .
Carbine Car"bine noun [ French carbine , Old French calabrin carabineer (cf. Ot. calabrina a policeman), from OF & Pr. calabre , Old French cable , chable , an engine of war used in besieging, from Late Latin chadabula , cabulus , a kind of projectile machine, from Greek ... a throwing down, from ... to throw; ... down + ... to throw. Confer Parable .] (Mil.) A short, light musket or rifle, esp. one used by mounted soldiers or cavalry.
Carbineer Car`bi·neer" noun [ French carabinier .] (Mil.) A soldier armed with a carbine.
Carbinol Car"bi·nol noun [ Carbin (Kolbe's name for the radical) + -ol .] (Chemistry) Methyl alcohol, CH 3 OH; -- also, by extension, any one in the homologous series of paraffine alcohols of which methyl alcohol is the type.
Carbohydrate Car`bo·hy"drate noun [ Carbon + hydrate .] (Physiol. Chem.) One of a group of compounds including the sugars, starches, and gums, which contain six (or some multiple of six) carbon atoms, united with a variable number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but with the two latter always in proportion as to form water; as dextrose, C 6 H 12 O 6 .
Carbohydride Car`bo·hy"dride noun [ Carbon + hydrogen .] (Chemistry) A hydrocarbon.
Carbolic Car·bol"ic (kär*bŏl"ĭk) adjective [ Latin carbo coal + oleum oil.] (Chemistry) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid derived from coal tar and other sources; as, carbolic acid (called also phenic acid , and phenol ). See Phenol .
Carbolize Car"bo·lize (kär"bo*līz) transitive verb (Medicine) To apply carbolic acid to; to wash or treat with carbolic acid.
[ French carbone
, from Latin carbo
coal; confer Sanskrit çrā
to cook.] (Chemistry) An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible, and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters largely into mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it constitutes the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in monometric crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is graphite, or blacklead, and in this it is soft, and occurs in hexagonal prisms or tables. When united with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide, commonly called carbonic acid, or carbonic oxide, according to the proportions of the oxygen; when united with hydrogen, it forms various compounds called hydrocarbons. Compare Diamond , and Graphite . Carbon compounds
, Compounds of carbon (Chemistry)
, those compounds consisting largely of carbon, commonly produced by animals and plants, and hence called organic compounds , though their synthesis may be effected in many cases in the laboratory.
The formation of the compounds of carbon is not dependent upon the life process.
-- Carbon dioxide
, Carbon monoxide
. (Chemistry) See under Carbonic .
-- Carbon light (Electricity)
, an extremely brilliant electric light produced by passing a galvanic current through two carbon points kept constantly with their apexes neary in contact.
-- Carbon point (Electricity)
, a small cylinder or bit of gas carbon moved forward by clockwork so that, as it is burned away by the electric current, it shall constantly maintain its proper relation to the opposing point.
-- Carbon tissue
, paper coated with gelatine and pigment, used in the autotype process of photography. Abney.
-- Gas carbon
, a compact variety of carbon obtained as an incrustation on the interior of gas retorts, and used for the manufacture of the carbon rods of pencils for the voltaic, arc, and for the plates of voltaic batteries, etc.
Carbon Car"bon noun (Electricity) A carbon rod or pencil used in an arc lamp; also, a plate or piece of carbon used as one of the elements of a voltaic battery.
Carbon process Car"bon process (Photog.) A printing process depending on the effect of light on bichromatized gelatin. Paper coated with a mixture of the gelatin and a pigment is called carbon paper or carbon tissue . This is exposed under a negative and the film is transferred from the paper to some other support and developed by washing (the unexposed portions being dissolved away). If the process stops here it is called single transfer ; if the image is afterward transferred in order to give an unreversed print, the method is called double transfer .
Carbon steel Carbon steel Steel deriving its qualities from carbon chiefly, without the presence of other alloying elements; -- opposed to alloy steel .
Carbon transmitter Carbon transmitter A telephone transmitter in which a carbon contact is used.
Carbonaceous Car"bo·na`ceous adjective Pertaining to, containing, or composed of, carbon.
Carbonade, Carbonado Car"bo·nade, Car`bo·na"do noun [ Confer French carbonnade , Italian carbonata , Spanish carbonada , from Latin carbo coal.] (Cookery) Flesh, fowl, etc., cut across, seasoned, and broiled on coals; a chop. [ Obsolete]
Carbonado Car`bo·na"do noun
; plural Carbonadoes
. [ Portuguese , carbonated.] (Min.) A black variety of diamond, found in Brazil, and used for diamond drills. It occurs in irregular or rounded fragments, rarely distinctly crystallized, with a texture varying from compact to porous.
Carbonado, Carbonade Car`bo·na"do, Car"bo·nade transitive verb
[ imperfect & past participle Carbonadoed
; present participle & verbal noun Carbonadoing
.] 1. To cut (meat) across for frying or broiling; to cut or slice and broil.
A short-legged hen daintily carbonadoed . 2. To cut or hack, as in fighting.
Bean. & Fl.
I'll so carbonado your shanks.
Carbonarism Car`bo·na"rism noun The principles, practices, or organization of the Carbonari.
Carbonaro Car`bo·na"ro noun
; plural Carbonari
. [ Italian , a coal man.] A member of a secret political association in Italy, organized in the early part of the nineteenth centry for the purpose of changing the government into a republic.
» The origin of the Carbonari
is uncertain, but the society is said to have first met, in 1808, among the charcoal burners of the mountains, whose phraseology they adopted.
Carbonatation Car`bon·a·ta"tion noun [ From Carbonate .] (Sugar Making) The saturation of defecated beet juice with carbonic acid gas. Knight.
Carbonate Car"bon·ate noun [ Confer French carbonate .] (Chemistry) A salt or carbonic acid, as in limestone, some forms of lead ore, etc.
Carbonated Car"bon·a`ted adjective Combined or impregnated with carbonic acid.
Carbone Car"bone transitive verb [ See Carbonado .] To broil. [ Obsolete] "We had a calf's head carboned ". Pepys.
Carbonic Car·bon"ic adjective [ Confer French carbonique . See Carbon .] (Chemistry) Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, carbon; as, carbonic oxide. Carbonic acid (Chemistry) , an acid H 2 CO 3 , not existing separately, which, combined with positive or basic atoms or radicals, forms carbonates. In common language the term is very generally applied to a compound of carbon and oxygen, CO 2 , more correctly called carbon dioxide . It is a colorless, heavy, irrespirable gas, extinguishing flame, and when breathed destroys life. It can be reduced to a liquid and solid form by intense pressure. It is produced in the fermentation of liquors, and by the combustion and decomposition of organic substances, or other substances containing carbon. It is formed in the explosion of fire damp in mines, and is hence called after damp ; it is also know as choke damp , and mephitic air . Water will absorb its own volume of it, and more than this under pressure, and in this state becomes the common soda water of the shops, and the carbonated water of natural springs. Combined with lime it constitutes limestone, or common marble and chalk. Plants imbibe it for their nutrition and growth, the carbon being retained and the oxygen given out. -- Carbonic oxide (Chemistry) , a colorless gas, CO, of a light odor, called more correctly carbon monoxide . It is almost the only definitely known compound in which carbon seems to be divalent. It is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon, and is an abundant constituent of water gas. It is fatal to animal life, extinguishes combustion, and burns with a pale blue flame, forming carbon dioxide.
Carbonide Car"bon·ide (kär"bŏn*ĭd or -īd) noun A carbide. [ R.]
Carboniferous Car`bon·if"er·ous (kär`bŏn*ĭf"ẽr*ŭs) adjective [ Carbon + -ferous .] Producing or containing carbon or coal. Carboniferous age (Geol.) , the age immediately following the Devonian , or Age of fishes , and characterized by the vegetation which formed the coal beds. This age embraces three periods, the Subcarboniferous , the Carboniferous , and Permian . See Age of acrogens , under Acrogen . -- Carboniferous formation (Geol.) , the series of rocks (including sandstones, shales, limestones, and conglomerates, with beds of coal) which make up the strata of the Carboniferous age or period . See the Diagram under Geology .
Carbonite Car"bon·ite noun [ Carbon + -ite .] 1. An explosive consisting essentially of nitroglycerin, wood meal, and some nitrate, as that of sodium. 2. An explosive composed of nitrobenzene, saltpeter, sulphur, and kieselguhr.
Carbonization Car`bon·i·za"tion noun [ Confer French carbonisation .] The act or process of carbonizing.
Carbonize Car"bon·ize transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Carbonized ; present participle & verbal noun Carbonizing .] [ Confer French carboniser .] 1. To convert (an animal or vegetable substance) into a residue of carbon by the action of fire or some corrosive agent; to char. 2. To impregnate or combine with carbon, as in making steel by cementation.
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