Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Bear (bâr) transitive verb [ imperfect Bore (bōr) (formerly Bare (bâr)); past participle Born (bôrn), Borne (bōr); present participle & verbal noun Bearing .] [ Middle English beren , Anglo-Saxon beran , beoran , to bear, carry, produce; akin to Dutch baren to bring forth, German gebären , Goth. baíran to bear or carry, Icelandic bera , Swedish bära , Danish bære , Old High German beran , peran , Latin ferre to bear, carry, produce, Greek fe`rein , OSlav. brati to take, carry, OIr. berim I bear, Sanskrit bhr to bear. √92. Confer Fertile .]
1. To support or sustain; to hold up.

2. To support and remove or carry; to convey.

I 'll bear your logs the while.
Shak.

3. To conduct; to bring; -- said of persons. [ Obsolete]

Bear them to my house.
Shak.

4. To possess and use, as power; to exercise.

Every man should bear rule in his own house.
Esther i. 22.

5. To sustain; to have on (written or inscribed, or as a mark), as, the tablet bears this inscription.

6. To possess or carry, as a mark of authority or distinction; to wear; as, to bear a sword, badge, or name.

7. To possess mentally; to carry or hold in the mind; to entertain; to harbor Dryden.

The ancient grudge I bear him.
Shak.

8. To endure; to tolerate; to undergo; to suffer.

Should such a man, too fond to rule alone,
Bear , like the Turk, no brother near the throne.
Pope.

I cannot bear
The murmur of this lake to hear.
Shelley.

My punishment is greater than I can bear .
Gen. iv. 13.

9. To gain or win. [ Obsolete]

Some think to bear it by speaking a great word.
Bacon.

She was . . . found not guilty, through bearing of friends and bribing of the judge.
Latimer.

10. To sustain, or be answerable for, as blame, expense, responsibility, etc.

He shall bear their iniquities.
Is. liii. 11.

Somewhat that will bear your charges.
Dryden.

11. To render or give; to bring forward. "Your testimony bear " Dryden.

12. To carry on, or maintain; to have. "The credit of bearing a part in the conversation." Locke.

13. To admit or be capable of; that is, to suffer or sustain without violence, injury, or change.

In all criminal cases the most favorable interpretation should be put on words that they can possibly bear .
Swift.

14. To manage, wield, or direct. "Thus must thou thy body bear ." Shak. Hence: To behave; to conduct.

Hath he borne himself penitently in prison?
Shak.

15. To afford; to be to; to supply with.

His faithful dog shall bear him company.
Pope.

16. To bring forth or produce; to yield; as, to bear apples; to bear children; to bear interest.

Here dwelt the man divine whom Samos bore .
Dryden.

» In the passive form of this verb, the best modern usage restricts the past participle born to the sense of brought forth , while borne is used in the other senses of the word. In the active form, borne alone is used as the past participle.

To bear down . (a) To force into a lower place; to carry down; to depress or sink. "His nose, . . . large as were the others, bore them down into insignificance." Marryat. (b) To overthrow or crush by force; as, to bear down an enemy. -- To bear a hand . (a) To help; to give assistance. (b) (Nautical) To make haste; to be quick. -- To bear in hand , to keep (one) up in expectation, usually by promises never to be realized; to amuse by false pretenses; to delude. [ Obsolete] "How you were borne in hand , how crossed." Shak. -- To bear in mind , to remember. -- To bear off . (a) To restrain; to keep from approach. (b) (Nautical) To remove to a distance; to keep clear from rubbing against anything; as, to bear off a blow; to bear off a boat. (c) To gain; to carry off, as a prize. -- To bear one hard , to owe one a grudge. [ Obsolete] "Cæsar doth bear me hard ." Shak. -- To bear out . (a) To maintain and support to the end; to defend to the last. "Company only can bear a man out in an ill thing." South. (b) To corroborate; to confirm. -- To bear up , to support; to keep from falling or sinking. "Religious hope bears up the mind under sufferings." Addison.

Syn. -- To uphold; sustain; maintain; support; undergo; suffer; endure; tolerate; carry; convey; transport; waft.

Bear intransitive verb
1. To produce, as fruit; to be fruitful, in opposition to barrenness.

This age to blossom, and the next to bear .
Dryden.

2. To suffer, as in carrying a burden.

But man is born to bear .
Pope.

3. To endure with patience; to be patient.

I can not, can not bear .
Dryden.

4. To press; -- with on or upon , or against .

These men bear hard on the suspected party.
Addison.

5. To take effect; to have influence or force; as, to bring matters to bear .

6. To relate or refer; -- with on or upon ; as, how does this bear on the question?

7. To have a certain meaning, intent, or effect.

Her sentence bore that she should stand a certain time upon the platform.
Hawthorne.

8. To be situated, as to the point of compass, with respect to something else; as, the land bears N. by E.

To bear against , to approach for attack or seizure; as, a lion bears against his prey. [ Obsolete] -- To bear away (Nautical) , to change the course of a ship, and make her run before the wind. -- To bear back , to retreat. " Bearing back from the blows of their sable antagonist." Sir W. Scott. -- To bear down upon (Nautical) , to approach from the windward side; as, the fleet bore down upon the enemy. -- To bear in with (Nautical) , to run or tend toward; as, a ship bears in with the land. -- To bear off (Nautical) , to steer away, as from land. -- To bear up . (a) To be supported; to have fortitude; to be firm; not to sink; as, to bear up under afflictions. (b) (Nautical) To put the helm up (or to windward) and so put the ship before the wind; to bear away. Hamersly. - - To bear upon (Mil.) , to be pointed or situated so as to affect; to be pointed directly against, or so as to hit (the object); as, to bring or plant guns so as to bear upon a fort or a ship; the artillery bore upon the center. -- To bear up to , to tend or move toward; as, to bear up to one another. -- To bear with , to endure; to be indulgent to; to forbear to resent, oppose, or punish.

Bear (bēr) noun A bier. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Bear (bâr) noun [ Middle English bere , Anglo-Saxon bera ; akin to Dutch beer , Old High German bero , pero , German bär , Icelandic & Swedish björn , and possibly to Latin fera wild beast, Greek fh`r beast, Sanskrit bhalla bear.]


1. (Zoology) Any species of the genus Ursus , and of the closely allied genera. Bears are plantigrade Carnivora, but they live largely on fruit and insects.

The European brown bear ( U. arctos ), the white polar bear ( U. maritimus ), the grizzly bear ( U. horribilis ), the American black bear, and its variety the cinnamon bear ( U. Americanus ), the Syrian bear ( Ursus Syriacus ), and the sloth bear, are among the notable species.

2. (Zoology) An animal which has some resemblance to a bear in form or habits, but no real affinity; as, the woolly bear ; ant bear ; water bear ; sea bear.

3. (Astron.) One of two constellations in the northern hemisphere, called respectively the Great Bear and the Lesser Bear , or Ursa Major and Ursa Minor .

4. Metaphorically: A brutal, coarse, or morose person.

5. (Stock Exchange) A person who sells stocks or securities for future delivery in expectation of a fall in the market.

» The bears and bulls of the Stock Exchange, whose interest it is, the one to depress, and the other to raise, stocks, are said to be so called in allusion to the bear's habit of pulling down, and the bull's of tossing up.

6. (Machinery) A portable punching machine.

7. (Nautical) A block covered with coarse matting; -- used to scour the deck.

Australian bear . (Zoology) See Koala . -- Bear baiting , the sport of baiting bears with dogs. -- Bear caterpillar (Zoology) , the hairy larva of a moth, esp. of the genus Euprepia . -- Bear garden . (a) A place where bears are kept for diversion or fighting. (b) Any place where riotous conduct is common or permitted. M. Arnold. -- Bear leader , one who leads about a performing bear for money; hence, a facetious term for one who takes charge of a young man on his travels.

Bear transitive verb (Stock Exchange) To endeavor to depress the price of, or prices in; as, to bear a railroad stock; to bear the market.

Bear State Arkansas; -- a nickname, from the many bears once inhabiting its forests.

Bear-trap dam (Engineering) A kind of movable dam, in one form consisting of two leaves resting against each other at the top when raised and folding down one over the other when lowered, for deepening shallow parts in a river.

Bear, Bere noun [ Anglo-Saxon bere . See Barley .] (Botany) Barley; the six-rowed barley or the four-rowed barley, commonly the former ( Hordeum hexastichon or H. vulgare ). [ Obsolete except in North of Eng. and Scot.]

Bear's-breech noun (Botany) (a) See Acanthus , noun , 1. (b) The English cow parsnip ( Heracleum sphondylium ) Dr. Prior.

Bear's-ear (bârz"ēr`) noun (Botany) A kind of primrose ( Primula auricula ), so called from the shape of the leaf.

Bear's-foot (-fot`) noun (Botany) A species of hellebore ( Helleborus fœtidus ), with digitate leaves. It has an offensive smell and acrid taste, and is a powerful emetic, cathartic, and anthelmintic.

Bear's-paw noun (Zoology) A large bivalve shell of the East Indies ( Hippopus maculatus ), often used as an ornament.

Bearable adjective Capable of being borne or endured; tolerable. -- Bear"a*bly , adverb

Bearberry noun (Botany) A trailing plant of the heath family ( Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ), having leaves which are tonic and astringent, and glossy red berries of which bears are said to be fond.

Bearbind noun (Botany) The bindweed ( Convolvulus arvensis ).

Beard (bērd) noun [ Middle English berd , Anglo-Saxon beard ; akin to Fries. berd , Dutch baard , German bart , Lithuanian barzda , OSlav. brada , Pol. broda , Russian boroda , Latin barba , W. barf . Confer 1st Barb .]


1. The hair that grows on the chin, lips, and adjacent parts of the human face, chiefly of male adults.

2. (Zoology) (a) The long hairs about the face in animals, as in the goat. (b) The cluster of small feathers at the base of the beak in some birds (c) The appendages to the jaw in some Cetacea, and to the mouth or jaws of some fishes. (d) The byssus of certain shellfish, as the muscle. (e) The gills of some bivalves, as the oyster. (f) In insects, the hairs of the labial palpi of moths and butterflies.

3. (Botany) Long or stiff hairs on a plant; the awn; as, the beard of grain.

4. A barb or sharp point of an arrow or other instrument, projecting backward to prevent the head from being easily drawn out.

5. That part of the under side of a horse's lower jaw which is above the chin, and bears the curb of a bridle.

6. (Print.) That part of a type which is between the shoulder of the shank and the face.

7. An imposition; a trick. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Beard grass (Botany) , a coarse, perennial grass of different species of the genus Andropogon . -- To one's beard , to one's face; in open defiance.

Beard (bērd) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bearded ; present participle & verbal noun Bearding .]
1. To take by the beard; to seize, pluck, or pull the beard of (a man), in anger or contempt.

2. To oppose to the face; to set at defiance.

No admiral, bearded by these corrupt and dissolute minions of the palace, dared to do more than mutter something about a court martial.
Macaulay.

3. To deprive of the gills; -- used only of oysters and similar shellfish.

Bearded adjective Having a beard. " Bearded fellow." Shak. " Bearded grain." Dryden.

Bearded vulture , Bearded eagle . (Zoology) See Lammergeir . -- Bearded tortoise . (Zoology) See Matamata .

Beardie (bērd"ȳ) noun [ From Beard , noun ] (Zoology) The bearded loach ( Nemachilus barbatus ) of Europe. [ Scot.]

Beardless adjective
1. Without a beard. Hence: Not having arrived at puberty or manhood; youthful.

2. Destitute of an awn; as, beardless wheat.

Beardlessness noun The state or quality of being destitute of beard.

Bearer (bâr"ẽr) noun
1. One who, or that which, bears, sustains, or carries. " Bearers of burdens." 2 Chron. ii. 18. "The bearer of unhappy news." Dryden.

2. Specifically: One who assists in carrying a body to the grave; a pallbearer. Milton.

3. A palanquin carrier; also, a house servant. [ India]

4. A tree or plant yielding fruit; as, a good bearer .

5. (Com.) One who holds a check, note, draft, or other order for the payment of money; as, pay to bearer .

6. (Print.) A strip of reglet or other furniture to bear off the impression from a blank page; also, a type or type-high piece of metal interspersed in blank parts to support the plate when it is shaved.

Bearherd noun A man who tends a bear.

Bearhound noun A hound for baiting or hunting bears. Carlyle.

Bearing (bâr"ĭng) noun
1. The manner in which one bears or conducts one's self; mien; behavior; carriage.

I know him by his bearing .
Shak.

2. Patient endurance; suffering without complaint.

3. The situation of one object, with respect to another, such situation being supposed to have a connection with the object, or influence upon it, or to be influenced by it; hence, relation; connection.

But of this frame, the bearings and the ties,
The strong connections, nice dependencies.
Pope.

4. Purport; meaning; intended significance; aspect.

5. The act, power, or time of producing or giving birth; as, a tree in full bearing ; a tree past bearing .

[ His mother] in travail of his bearing .
R. of Gloucester.

6. (Architecture) (a) That part of any member of a building which rests upon its supports; as, a lintel or beam may have four inches of bearing upon the wall. (b) The portion of a support on which anything rests. (c) Improperly, the unsupported span; as, the beam has twenty feet of bearing between its supports.

7. (Machinery) (a) The part of an axle or shaft in contact with its support, collar, or boxing; the journal. (b) The part of the support on which a journal rests and rotates.

8. (Her.) Any single emblem or charge in an escutcheon or coat of arms -- commonly in the plural

A carriage covered with armorial bearings .
Thackeray.

9. (Nautical) (a) The situation of a distant object, with regard to a ship's position, as on the bow, on the lee quarter, etc.; the direction or point of the compass in which an object is seen; as, the bearing of the cape was W. N. W. (b) plural The widest part of a vessel below the plank-sheer. (c) plural The line of flotation of a vessel when properly trimmed with cargo or ballast.

Ball bearings . See under Ball . -- To bring one to his bearings , to bring one to his senses. -- To lose one's bearings , to become bewildered. -- To take bearings , to ascertain by the compass the position of an object; to ascertain the relation of one object or place to another; to ascertain one's position by reference to landmarks or to the compass; hence (Fig.), to ascertain the condition of things when one is in trouble or perplexity.

Syn. -- Deportment; gesture; mien; behavior; manner; carriage; demeanor; port; conduct; direction; relation; tendency; influence.

Bearing cloth (klŏth`; 115). A cloth with which a child is covered when carried to be baptized. Shak.

Bearing rein A short rein looped over the check hook or the hames to keep the horse's head up; -- called in the United States a checkrein .

Bearing ring In a balloon, the braced wooden ring attached to the suspension ropes at the bottom, functionally analogous to the keel of a ship.

Bearish adjective Partaking of the qualities of a bear; resembling a bear in temper or manners. Harris.

Bearishness noun Behavior like that of a bear.

Bearn noun See Bairn . [ Obsolete]

Bearskin noun
1. The skin of a bear.

2. A coarse, shaggy, woolen cloth for overcoats.

3. A cap made of bearskin, esp. one worn by soldiers.

Bearward noun [ Bear + ward a keeper.] A keeper of bears. See Bearherd . [ R.] Shak.

Beast (bēst) noun [ Middle English best , beste , Old French beste , French bête , from Latin bestia .]
1. Any living creature; an animal; -- including man, insects, etc. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

2. Any four-footed animal, that may be used for labor, food, or sport; as, a beast of burden.

A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast .
Prov. xii. 10.

3. As opposed to man : Any irrational animal.

4. Fig.: A coarse, brutal, filthy, or degraded fellow.

5. A game at cards similar to loo. [ Obsolete] Wright.

6. A penalty at beast, omber, etc. Hence: To be beasted, to be beaten at beast, omber, etc.

Beast royal , the lion. [ Obsolete] Chaucer.

Syn. -- Beast , Brute . When we use these words in a figurative sense, as applicable to human beings, we think of beasts as mere animals governed by animal appetite; and of brutes as being destitute of reason or moral feeling, and governed by unrestrained passion. Hence we speak of beastly appetites; beastly indulgences, etc.; and of brutal manners; brutal inhumanity; brutal ferocity. So, also, we say of a drunkard, that he first made himself a beast , and then treated his family like a brute .

Beasthood noun State or nature of a beast.

Beastings noun plural See Biestings .

Beastlihead noun [ Beastly + -head state.] Beastliness. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Beastlike adjective Like a beast.

Beastliness noun The state or quality of being beastly.

Beastly (bēst"lȳ) adjective
1. Pertaining to, or having the form, nature, or habits of, a beast.

Beastly divinities and droves of gods.
Prior.

2. Characterizing the nature of a beast; contrary to the nature and dignity of man; brutal; filthy.

The beastly vice of drinking to excess.
Swift.

3. Abominable; as, beastly weather. [ Colloq. Eng.]

Syn. -- Bestial; brutish; irrational; sensual; degrading.

Beat (bēt) transitive verb [ imperfect Beat ; past participle Beat , Beaten ; present participle & verbal noun Beating .] [ Middle English beaten , beten , Anglo-Saxon beátan ; akin to Icelandic bauta , Old High German b...zan . Confer 1st Butt , Button .]
1. To strike repeatedly; to lay repeated blows upon; as, to beat one's breast; to beat iron so as to shape it; to beat grain, in order to force out the seeds; to beat eggs and sugar; to beat a drum.

Thou shalt beat some of it [ spices] very small.
Ex. xxx. 36.

They did beat the gold into thin plates.
Ex. xxxix. 3.

2. To punish by blows; to thrash.

3. To scour or range over in hunting, accompanied with the noise made by striking bushes, etc., for the purpose of rousing game.

To beat the woods, and rouse the bounding prey.
Prior.

4. To dash against, or strike, as with water or wind.

A frozen continent . . . beat with perpetual storms.
Milton.

5. To tread, as a path.

Pass awful gulfs, and beat my painful way.
Blackmore.

6. To overcome in a battle, contest, strife, race, game, etc.; to vanquish or conquer; to surpass.

He beat them in a bloody battle.
Prescott.

For loveliness, it would be hard to beat that.
M. Arnold.

7. To cheat; to chouse; to swindle; to defraud; -- often with out . [ Colloq.]

8. To exercise severely; to perplex; to trouble.

Why should any one . . . beat his head about the Latin grammar who does not intend to be a critic?
Locke.

9. (Mil.) To give the signal for, by beat of drum; to sound by beat of drum; as, to beat an alarm, a charge, a parley, a retreat; to beat the general, the reveille, the tattoo. See Alarm , Charge , Parley , etc.

To beat down , to haggle with (any one) to secure a lower price; to force down. [ Colloq.] -- To beat into , to teach or instill, by repetition. -- To beat off , to repel or drive back. -- To beat out , to extend by hammering. -- To beat out of a thing, to cause to relinquish it, or give it up. "Nor can anything beat their posterity out of it to this day." South. -- To beat the dust . (Man.) (a) To take in too little ground with the fore legs, as a horse. (b) To perform curvets too precipitately or too low. -- To beat the hoof , to walk; to go on foot. -- To beat the wing , to flutter; to move with fluttering agitation. -- To beat time , to measure or regulate time in music by the motion of the hand or foot. -- To beat up , to attack suddenly; to alarm or disturb; as, to beat up an enemy's quarters.

Syn. -- To strike; pound; bang; buffet; maul; drub; thump; baste; thwack; thrash; pommel; cudgel; belabor; conquer; defeat; vanquish; overcome.

Beat intransitive verb
1. To strike repeatedly; to inflict repeated blows; to knock vigorously or loudly.

The men of the city . . . beat at the door.
Judges. xix. 22.

2. To move with pulsation or throbbing.

A thousand hearts beat happily.
Byron.

3. To come or act with violence; to dash or fall with force; to strike anything, as rain, wind, and waves do.

Sees rolling tempests vainly beat below.
Dryden.

They [ winds] beat at the crazy casement.
Longfellow.

The sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself to die.
Jonah iv. 8.

Public envy seemeth to beat chiefly upon ministers.
Bacon.

4. To be in agitation or doubt. [ Poetic]

To still my beating mind.
Shak.

5. (Nautical) To make progress against the wind, by sailing in a zigzag line or traverse.

6. To make a sound when struck; as, the drums beat .

7. (Mil.) To make a succession of strokes on a drum; as, the drummers beat to call soldiers to their quarters.

8. (Acoustics & Mus.) To sound with more or less rapid alternations of greater and less intensity, so as to produce a pulsating effect; -- said of instruments, tones, or vibrations, not perfectly in unison.

A beating wind (Nautical) , a wind which necessitates tacking in order to make progress. -- To beat about , to try to find; to search by various means or ways. Addison. -- To beat about the bush , to approach a subject circuitously. -- To beat up and down (Hunting) , to run first one way and then another; -- said of a stag. -- To beat up for recruits , to go diligently about in order to get helpers or participators in an enterprise.

Beat noun
1. A stroke; a blow.

He, with a careless beat ,
Struck out the mute creation at a heat.
Dryden.

2. A recurring stroke; a throb; a pulsation; as, a beat of the heart; the beat of the pulse.

3. (Mus.) (a) The rise or fall of the hand or foot, marking the divisions of time; a division of the measure so marked. In the rhythm of music the beat is the unit. (b) A transient grace note, struck immediately before the one it is intended to ornament.

4. (Acoustics & Mus.) A sudden swelling or reënforcement of a sound, recurring at regular intervals, and produced by the interference of sound waves of slightly different periods of vibrations; applied also, by analogy, to other kinds of wave motions; the pulsation or throbbing produced by the vibrating together of two tones not quite in unison. See Beat , intransitive verb , 8.

5. A round or course which is frequently gone over; as, a watchman's beat .

6. A place of habitual or frequent resort.

7. A cheat or swindler of the lowest grade; -- often emphasized by dead ; as, a dead beat . [ Low]

Beat of drum (Mil.) , a succession of strokes varied, in different ways, for particular purposes, as to regulate a march, to call soldiers to their arms or quarters, to direct an attack, or retreat, etc. -- Beat of a watch , or clock , the stroke or sound made by the action of the escapement. A clock is in beat or out of beat , according as the stroke is at equal or unequal intervals.

Beat adjective Weary; tired; fatigued; exhausted. [ Colloq.]

Quite beat , and very much vexed and disappointed.
Dickens.

Beaten (bēt"'n; 95) adjective
1. Made smooth by beating or treading; worn by use. "A broad and beaten way." Milton. " Beaten gold." Shak.

2. Vanquished; conquered; baffled.

3. Exhausted; tired out.

4. Become common or trite; as, a beaten phrase. [ Obsolete]

5. Tried; practiced. [ Obsolete] Beau. & Fl.

Beater (bēt"ẽr) noun
1. One who, or that which, beats.

2. A person who beats up game for the hunters. Black.

Beath (bē&thlig;) transitive verb [ Anglo-Saxon beðian to foment.] To bathe; also, to dry or heat, as unseasoned wood. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Beatific, Beatifical adjective [ Confer French béatifique , Latin beatificus . See Beatify .] Having the power to impart or complete blissful enjoyment; blissful. "The beatific vision." South. -- Be`a*tif"ic*al*ly , adverb

Beatificate transitive verb To beatify. [ Obsolete] Fuller.

Beatification noun [ Confer French béatification .] The act of beatifying, or the state of being beatified; esp., in the R. C. Church, the act or process of ascertaining and declaring that a deceased person is one of "the blessed," or has attained the second degree of sanctity, -- usually a stage in the process of canonization. "The beatification of his spirit." Jer. Taylor.

Beatify (be*ăt"ĭ*fī) transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Beatified (-fīd); present participle & verbal noun Beatifying .] [ Latin beatificare ; beatus happy (fr. beare to bless, akin to bonus good) + facere to make: confer French béatifier . See Bounty .]
1. To pronounce or regard as happy, or supremely blessed, or as conferring happiness.

The common conceits and phrases that beatify wealth.
Barrow.

2. To make happy; to bless with the completion of celestial enjoyment. " Beatified spirits." Dryden.

3. (R. C. Ch.) To ascertain and declare, by a public process and decree, that a deceased person is one of "the blessed," and is to be reverenced as such, though not canonized.