Webster's Dictionary, 1913

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Bawl (bal) intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bawled (bald); present participle & verbal noun Bawling .] [ Icelandic baula to low, bellow, as a cow; akin to Swedish böla ; confer AS bellan , German bellen to bark, English bellow , bull .]
1. To cry out with a loud, full sound; to cry with vehemence, as in calling or exultation; to shout; to vociferate.

2. To cry loudly, as a child from pain or vexation.

Bawl transitive verb To proclaim with a loud voice, or by outcry, as a hawker or town-crier does. Swift.

Bawl noun A loud, prolonged cry; an outcry.

Bawler noun One who bawls.

Bawn (ban) noun [ Ir. & Gael. babhun inclosure, bulwark.]
1. An inclosure with mud or stone walls, for keeping cattle; a fortified inclosure. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

2. A large house. [ Obsolete] Swift.

Bawrel noun [ Confer Italian barletta a tree falcon, or hobby.] A kind of hawk. [ Obsolete] Halliwell.

Bawsin, Bawson noun [ Middle English bawson , baucyne , badger (named from its color), Old French bauzan , bauçant , bauchant , spotted with white, pied; confer Italian balzano , French balzan , a white-footed horse, Italian balza border, trimming, from Latin balteus belt, border, edge. Confer Belt .]
1. A badger. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

2. A large, unwieldy person. [ Obsolete] Nares.

Baxter noun [ Middle English bakestre , bakistre , Anglo-Saxon bæcestre , prop. fem. of bæcere baker. See Baker .] A baker; originally, a female baker. [ Old Eng. & Scotch]

Bay adjective [ French bai , from Latin badius brown, chestnut-colored; -- used only of horses.] Reddish brown; of the color of a chestnut; -- applied to the color of horses.

Bay cat (Zoology) , a wild cat of Africa and the East Indies ( Felis aurata ). -- Bay lynx (Zoology) , the common American lynx ( Felis, or Lynx, rufa ).

Bay noun [ French baie , from Late Latin baia . Of uncertain origin: confer Ir. & Gael. badh or bagh bay, harbor, creek; Bisc. baia , baiya , harbor, and French bayer to gape, open the mouth.]
1. (Geology) An inlet of the sea, usually smaller than a gulf, but of the same general character.

» The name is not used with much precision, and is often applied to large tracts of water, around which the land forms a curve; as, Hudson's Bay . The name is not restricted to tracts of water with a narrow entrance, but is used for any recess or inlet between capes or headlands; as, the Bay of Biscay.

2. A small body of water set off from the main body; as a compartment containing water for a wheel; the portion of a canal just outside of the gates of a lock, etc.

3. A recess or indentation shaped like a bay.

4. A principal compartment of the walls, roof, or other part of a building, or of the whole building, as marked off by the buttresses, vaulting, mullions of a window, etc.; one of the main divisions of any structure, as the part of a bridge between two piers.

5. A compartment in a barn, for depositing hay, or grain in the stalks.

6. A kind of mahogany obtained from Campeachy Bay.

Sick bay , in vessels of war, that part of a deck appropriated to the use of the sick. Totten.

Bay noun [ French baie a berry, the fruit of the laurel and other trees, from Latin baca , bacca , a small round fruit, a berry, akin to Lithuanian bapka laurel berry.]
1. A berry, particularly of the laurel. [ Obsolete]

2. The laurel tree ( Laurus nobilis ). Hence, in the plural, an honorary garland or crown bestowed as a prize for victory or excellence, anciently made or consisting of branches of the laurel.

The patriot's honors and the poet's bays .
Trumbull.

3. A tract covered with bay trees. [ Local, U. S.]

Bay leaf , the leaf of the bay tree ( Laurus nobilis ). It has a fragrant odor and an aromatic taste.

Bay intransitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bayed (bād); present participle & verbal noun Baying .] [ Middle English bayen , abayen , Old French abaier , French aboyer , to bark; of uncertain origin.] To bark, as a dog with a deep voice does, at his game.

The hounds at nearer distance hoarsely bayed .
Dryden.

Bay transitive verb To bark at; hence, to follow with barking; to bring or drive to bay; as, to bay the bear. Shak.

Bay noun [ See Bay , intransitive verb ]
1. Deep-toned, prolonged barking. "The bay of curs." Cowper.

2. [ Middle English bay , abay , Old French abai , French aboi barking, plural abois , prop. the extremity to which the stag is reduced when surrounded by the dogs, barking ( aboyant ); aux abois at bay.] A state of being obliged to face an antagonist or a difficulty, when escape has become impossible.

Embolden'd by despair, he stood at bay .
Dryden.

The most terrible evils are just kept at bay by incessant efforts.
I. Taylor

Bay transitive verb [ Confer Middle English bæwen to bathe, and German bähen to foment.] To bathe. [ Obsolete] Spenser.

Bay noun A bank or dam to keep back water.

Bay transitive verb To dam, as water; -- with up or back .

Bay ice See under Ice .

Bay leaf See under 3d Bay .

Bay rum A fragrant liquid, used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes.

» The original bay rum, from the West Indies, is prepared, it is believed, by distillation from the leaves of the bayberry ( Myrcia acris ). The bay rum of the Pharmacopœia (spirit of myrcia) is prepared from oil of myrcia (bayberry), oil of orange peel, oil of pimento, alcohol, and water.

Bay salt Salt which has been obtained from sea water, by evaporation in shallow pits or basins, by the heat of the sun; the large crystalline salt of commerce. Bacon. Ure.

Bay State Massachusetts, which had been called the Colony of Massachusetts Bay; -- a nickname.

Bay tree A species of laurel. ( Laurus nobilis ).

Bay window (Architecture) A window forming a bay or recess in a room, and projecting outward from the wall, either in a rectangular, polygonal, or semicircular form; -- often corruptly called a bow window .

Bay yarn Woolen yarn. [ Prov. Eng.] Wright.

Bay-antler noun [ See Bez- Antler .] (Zoology) The second tine of a stag's horn. See under Antler .

Baya noun [ Native name.] (Zoology) The East Indian weaver bird ( Ploceus Philippinus ).

Bayad, Bayatte noun [ Arabic bayad .] (Zoology) A large, edible, siluroid fish of the Nile, of two species ( Bagrina bayad and B. docmac ).

Bayadere noun [ French, from Portuguese bailadeira a female dancer, bailar to dance.] A female dancer in the East Indies. [ Written also bajadere .]

Bayamo noun (Meteor.) A violent thunder squall occurring on the south coast of Cuba, esp. near Bayamo. The gusts, called bayamo winds , are modified foehn winds.

Bayard noun
1. [ Old French bayard , baiart , bay horse; bai bay + -ard . See Bay , adjective , and -ard .] Properly, a bay horse, but often any horse. Commonly in the phrase blind bayard , an old blind horse.

Blind bayard moves the mill.
Philips.

2. [ Confer French bayeur , from bayer to gape.] A stupid, clownish fellow. [ Obsolete] B. Jonson.

Bayardly adjective Blind; stupid. [ Obsolete] "A formal and bayardly round of duties." Goodman.

Bayberry noun (Botany) (a) The fruit of the bay tree or Laurus nobilis . (b) A tree of the West Indies related to the myrtle ( Pimenta acris ). (c) The fruit of Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle); the shrub itself; -- called also candleberry tree .

Bayberry tallow , a fragrant green wax obtained from the bayberry or wax myrtle; -- called also myrtle wax .

Baybolt noun A bolt with a barbed shank.

Bayed adjective Having a bay or bays. "The large bayed barn." Drayton.

Bayeux tapestry A piece of linen about 1 ft. 8 in. wide by 213 ft. long, covered with embroidery representing the incidents of William the Conqueror's expedition to England, preserved in the town museum of Bayeux in Normandy. It is probably of the 11th century, and is attributed by tradition to Matilda, the Conqueror's wife.

Bayman noun (Nav.) In the United States navy, a sick-bay nurse; -- now officially designated as hospital apprentice .

Bayonet noun [ French bayonnette , baïonnette ; -- so called, it is said, because the first bayonets were made at Bayonne.]


1. (Mil.) A pointed instrument of the dagger kind fitted on the muzzle of a musket or rifle, so as to give the soldier increased means of offense and defense.

» Originally, the bayonet was made with a handle, which required to be fitted into the bore of the musket after the soldier had fired.

2. (Machinery) A pin which plays in and out of holes made to receive it, and which thus serves to engage or disengage parts of the machinery.

Bayonet clutch . See Clutch . -- Bayonet joint , a form of coupling similar to that by which a bayonet is fixed on the barrel of a musket. Knight.

Bayonet transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Bayoneted ; present participle & verbal noun Bayoneting .]
1. To stab with a bayonet.

2. To compel or drive by the bayonet.

To bayonet us into submission.
Burke.

Bayou noun ; plural Bayous [ North Am. Indian bayuk , in F. spelling bayouc , bayouque .] An inlet from the Gulf of Mexico, from a lake, or from a large river, sometimes sluggish, sometimes without perceptible movement except from tide and wind. [ Southern U. S.]

A dark slender thread of a bayou moves loiteringly northeastward into a swamp of huge cypresses.
G. W. Cable.

Bayou State Mississippi; -- a nickname, from its numerous bayous.

Bays, Bayze noun See Baize . [ Obsolete]

Bazaar, Bazar (bȧ*zär") noun [ Persian bāzar market.]
1. In the East, an exchange, marketplace, or assemblage of shops where goods are exposed for sale.

2. A spacious hall or suite of rooms for the sale of goods, as at a fair.

3. A fair for the sale of fancy wares, toys, etc., commonly for a charitable object. Macaulay.

Bdellium noun [ Latin , from Greek bde`llion ; confer Hebrew b'dolakh bdellium (in sense 1).]
1. An unidentified substance mentioned in the Bible ( Gen. ii. 12 , and Num. xi. 7 ), variously taken to be a gum, a precious stone, or pearls, or perhaps a kind of amber found in Arabia.

2. A gum resin of reddish brown color, brought from India, Persia, and Africa.

» Indian bdellium or false myrrh is an exudation from Balsamodendron Roxburghii . Other kinds are known as African , Sicilian , etc.

Bdelloidea noun plural [ New Latin , from Greek bde`lla leech + -oid .] (Zoology) The order of Annulata which includes the leeches. See Hirudinea .

Bdellometer noun [ Greek bde`lla leech + -meter .] (Medicine) A cupping glass to which are attached a scarificator and an exhausting syringe. Dunglison.

Bdellomorpha noun [ New Latin , from Greek bde`lla leech + morfh` form.] (Zoology) An order of Nemertina, including the large leechlike worms ( Malacobdella ) often parasitic in clams.

Be intransitive verb [ imperfect Was ; past participle Been ; present participle & verbal noun Being .] [ Middle English been , beon , Anglo-Saxon beón to be, beóm I am; akin to Old High German bim , pim , German bin , I am, Gael. & Ir. bu was, W. bod to be, Lithuanian bu-ti , O. Slav. by-ti , to be, Latin fu-i I have been, fu-turus about to be, fo-re to be about to be, and perhaps to fieri to become, Greek fynai to be born, to be, Sanskrit bhū to be. This verb is defective, and the parts lacking are supplied by verbs from other roots, is , was , which have no radical connection with be . The various forms, am , are , is , was , were , etc., are considered grammatically as parts of the verb "to be", which, with its conjugational forms, is often called the substantive verb . √97. Confer Future , Physic .]
1. To exist actually, or in the world of fact; to have existence.

To be contents his natural desire.
Pope.

To be , or not to be : that is the question.
Shak.

2. To exist in a certain manner or relation, -- whether as a reality or as a product of thought; to exist as the subject of a certain predicate, that is, as having a certain attribute, or as belonging to a certain sort, or as identical with what is specified, -- a word or words for the predicate being annexed; as, to be happy; to be here; to be large, or strong; to be an animal; to be a hero; to be a nonentity; three and two are five; annihilation is the cessation of existence; that is the man.

3. To take place; to happen; as, the meeting was on Thursday.

4. To signify; to represent or symbolize; to answer to.

The field is the world.
Matt. xiii. 38.

The seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.
Reintransitive verb 20.

» The verb to be (including the forms is , was , etc.) is used in forming the passive voice of other verbs; as, John has been struck by James. It is also used with the past participle of many intransitive verbs to express a state of the subject. But have is now more commonly used as the auxiliary, though expressing a different sense; as, "Ye have come too late -- but ye are come . " "The minstrel boy to the war is gone ." The present and imperfect tenses form, with the infinitive, a particular future tense, which expresses necessity, duty, or purpose; as, government is to be supported; we are to pay our just debts; the deed is to be signed to- morrow.

Have or had been , followed by to , implies movement. "I have been to Paris." Sydney Smith. " Have you been to Franchard ?" R. Latin Stevenson.

» Been , or ben , was anciently the plural of the indicative present. "Ye ben light of the world." Wyclif, Matt. v. 14. Afterwards be was used, as in our Bible: "They that be with us are more than they that be with them." 2 Kings vi. 16. Ben was also the old infinitive: "To ben of such power." R. of Gloucester. Be is used as a form of the present subjunctive: "But if it be a question of words and names." Acts xviii. 15. But the indicative forms, is and are , with if , are more commonly used.

Be it so , a phrase of supposition, equivalent to suppose it to be so; or of permission, signifying let it be so. Shak. -- If so be , in case. -- To be from , to have come from; as, from what place are you? I am from Chicago. -- To let be , to omit, or leave untouched; to let alone. " Let be , therefore, my vengeance to dissuade." Spenser.

Syn. -- To be , Exist . The verb to be , except in a few rare cases, like that of Shakespeare's "To be , or not to be ", is used simply as a copula , to connect a subject with its predicate; as, man is mortal; the soul is immortal. The verb to exist is never properly used as a mere copula, but points to things that stand forth , or have a substantive being; as, when the soul is freed from all corporeal alliance, then it truly exists . It is not, therefore, properly synonymous with to be when used as a copula, though occasionally made so by some writers for the sake of variety; as in the phrase "there exists [ is ] no reason for laying new taxes." We may, indeed, say, "a friendship has long existed between them," instead of saying, "there has long been a friendship between them;" but in this case, exist is not a mere copula. It is used in its appropriate sense to mark the friendship as having been long in existence .

Be- [ Anglo-Saxon be , and in accented form , akin to Old Saxon be and , Old High German bi , pi , and , Middle High German be and , German be and bei , Goth. bi , and perhaps Greek 'amfi` about (cf. Anglo-Saxon be seón to look about). √203. Confer By , Amb- .] A prefix, originally the same word as by ; joined with verbs, it serves: (a) To intensify the meaning; as, be spatter, be stir. (b) To render an intransitive verb transitive; as, be fall (to fall upon); be speak (to speak for). (c) To make the action of a verb particular or definite; as, be get (to get as offspring); be set (to set around).

It is joined with certain substantives, and a few adjectives, to form verbs; as, be dew, be friend, be night, be sot; be late (to make late); be little (to make little). It also occurs in certain nouns, adverbs, and prepositions, often with something of the force of the preposition by , or about ; as, be lief (believe), be half, be quest (bequeath); be cause, be fore, be neath, be side, be tween.
In some words the original force of be is obscured or lost; as, in be come, be gin, be have, be hoove, be long.

Beach (bēch) noun ; plural Beaches (-ĕz). [ Confer Swedish backe hill, Danish bakke , Icelandic bakki hill, bank. Confer Bank .]
1. Pebbles, collectively; shingle.

2. The shore of the sea, or of a lake, which is washed by the waves; especially, a sandy or pebbly shore; the strand.

Beach flea (Zoology) , the common name of many species of amphipod Crustacea, of the family Orchestidæ , living on the sea beaches, and leaping like fleas. -- Beach grass (Botany) , a coarse grass ( Ammophila arundinacea ), growing on the sandy shores of lakes and seas, which, by its interlaced running rootstocks, binds the sand together, and resists the encroachment of the waves. -- Beach wagon , a light open wagon with two or more seats. -- Raised beach , an accumulation of water-worn stones, gravel, sand, and other shore deposits, above the present level of wave action, whether actually raised by elevation of the coast, as in Norway, or left by the receding waters, as in many lake and river regions.

Beach transitive verb [ imperfect & past participle Beached (bēcht); present participle & verbal noun Beaching .] To run or drive (as a vessel or a boat) upon a beach; to strand; as, to beach a ship.